Celebrating 60 Years
The DSB in its 6th Decade


Protecting the Homeland: Against non-state actors; against enemy states in time of war; against weapons of mass destruction and cyber

Since 9/11, the US can no longer be considered a sanctuary. The highest priority for the DoD is protection of the homeland. The DSB has undertaken a series of studies to help clarify the DoD’s roles and to assess its posture for both defending the homeland and protecting it from new forms of threats that have evolved since the Cold War. The DoD’s dependence on critical infrastructure, the supporting capabilities it will need to provide to civil authorities, and shortcomings in the interagency have been highlighted.

With respect to the threat to the homeland, the DSB has produced over 20 years of studies characterizing how the threat has evolved since the end of the Cold War. Actors have proliferated beyond nation states, and so too have their tools. Missiles with range or delivery mechanisms to threaten the US homeland are in the hands of more nations. The cyber threat is growing exponentially in its presence and can be promulgated with serious harm by individuals. Advances in technology can place even weapons of mass destruction – nuclear, chemical, and biological – in the hands of any state or non-state actor that desires them. What to do about these threats, both defensively and offensively, at home and abroad, has been a subject of routine DSB investigation.

Preventing large scale war: Nuclear deterrence

Despite the “peace dividend” at the end of the Cold War, the DSB has been uncertain that downplaying the nation’s nuclear deterrent would lead other nations to do the same, even as advances in our non-nuclear warfighting capabilities proved their effectiveness. In fact, US conventional dominance demonstrated in Bosnia, Iraq, and Afghanistan appears to have catalyzed a greater interest in nuclear weapons by others who do not have the resources to overmatch us otherwise.

The Board has maintained steady attention for two decades on the health of the US nuclear enterprise, the advances and modernization efforts being undertaken by Russia and China, nuclear weapons proliferation to other nation states, and advances in technology that could both detect and hide proliferation. With the relatively recent recognition by DoD leadership of threatening nuclear capabilities and doctrine by many unfriendly to the US, a renewed commitment to the nation’s nuclear deterrent is being made. The DSB’s history in this area is helping the Department to re-teach a largely atrophied knowledge base to support both modernization of our forces and operational readiness to deter nuclear aggression.

Preparing for the new kind of war: War short of all-out war is becoming the norm

As nations have realized that they cannot match the US with conventional military might, they have adopted strategies and tactics designed to stay below the threshold of a major international armed response; witness Russia in the Crimea, China’s island-building in the South China Sea, and North Korean provocations. Their tools and techniques include information operations, using both disinformation and strategic communication aimed at their populace, neighbors, and the world at large; ambiguity of forces (‘little green men’, proxies, and naval forces labeled ‘coast guard’); and coercion involving economics, energy, and political corruption. The DSB has undertaken studies to identify the options for DoD in addressing this “new normal” category of threats and to highlight the role of other parts of the government critical to successfully countering such strategies.

Preparing for a new dimension of war: What the information infrastructure is enabling—for adversaries and for us

Information has become a decisive and discriminating enabler of modern warfare, and information superiority a potent deterrent. The DSB has undertaken a series of studies highlighting how DoD can achieve and maintain information superiority, focusing on intelligence collection and analysis, the use of unclassified ‘big data’, and the rapidly advancing technologies of information and communication infrastructures.

The criticality of information – its assured availability and integrity, and the vulnerabilities in providing it – has been realized by both us and our adversaries. The Board has advised on both offense and defense in this domain, including the growing threats and opportunities in electronic warfare and in cyber. As an example, the Board’s cyber efforts have addressed: matching our defenses to the sophistication of the threats and criticality of the target; managing cyber defense so as to make optimal use of funding and of scarce technical human resources; identifying the challenges and opportunities of cyber relative to new technologies, such as cloud computing; identifying strategies to mitigate cyber corruption of the supply chain, especially foreign supplied microelectronics; and how to deter cyber attacks when defenses are inadequate.

Anticipating new ways to wage war: Numbers and disaggregation; range; autonomy; danger on and above the surface is driving us under the sea

The unmatched capabilities of our joint forces depend on relatively small numbers of extremely capable, high value assets; e.g., the world’s most potent aircraft carriers. Predictably those unique assets have become lucrative targets of adversary states, calling into question some of our foundational operational tenets such as air dominance. The DSB’s work in this area has advocated ways to operate at greater range from the adversary to increase safety; use of large numbers of inexpensive assets to augment small numbers of costly assets (“quantity has a quality all its own”); and use of carefully managed autonomous systems to keep Service personnel out of harm’s way. In addition, capitalizing on our undersea dominance, the DSB has identified ways to maintain that superiority for some time to come through the use of large numbers of inexpensive unmanned undersea vehicles to conduct operations that would otherwise have to be undertaken with greater risk from the air, sea or land.

Supporting stabilization, reconstruction, peace keeping, and nation building

Taking lessons from history, the DSB has highlighted the importance of comprehensive planning and preparation before, through and after conflict in order to secure both short and longer term stability once hostilities cease. Issues the Board has addressed include: identification of the information and intelligence required to successfully conduct stabilization and reconstruction operations; best use of the National Guard and Reserves with their civilian sector skills; language and cultural training; and campaign planning and exercising for stabilization and reconstruction missions on par with what we do for combat missions.

Preparing for surprise: To us and by us

The world is an unpredictable place, and the galloping advance of technology is making it more so. No matter how well DoD plans and prepares, there will be surprises – and there is the ever present value of inflicting surprise on our adversaries. The DSB has provided studies advising DoD on how the Department can be better poised to swiftly respond to surprise with agility, adaptability and resilience (e.g., having a technology infrastructure which can be swiftly and inexpensively revectored to meet changing needs and threats; using more red teaming and free play in training and exercises). The Board has also identified potential technological surprises and advised on hedging strategies should those occasions arise.

Members of the Defense Science Board

Mr. Norman R. Augustine
Dr. Solomon J. Buchsbaum
Dr. Robert R. Everett
Dr. Craig I Fields
Dr. John S. Foster, Jr.

Mr. Charles A. Fowler
Dr. Eugene G. Fubini
Dr. Clifford C. Furnas
Hon. Paul G. Kaminski
Dr. Howard P. Robertson

Dr. William Schneider, Jr.
Dr. Frederick Seitz
Dr. Robert L. Sproull
Dr. Gerald F. Tape

Dr. John Baldeschweiler
Dr. Joseph V. Charyk
Dr. John M. Deutch
Dr. Elmer Engstrom
Dr. Eric D. Evans
Mr. Charles A. Fowler

Dr. Eugene G. Fubini
Hon. Jacques S. Gansler
Mr. Patrick E. Haggerty
Mr. David R. Heebner
Dr. George H. Heilmeier
General Lester Lyles, U.S. Air Force (RET)

Dr. James McRea
Mr. Philip A. Odeen
Mr. Thomas L. Phillips
Dr. Allen E. Puckett
Dr. Frederick Seitz
Mr. Vincent Vitto

Dr. Leon Green, Jr.
Dr. Paul J. Berenson
Mr. Robert E. Donohue, Jr.
Mr. John V. Ello
Colonel Robert A. Freeland, U.S. Marine Corps

Dr. William W. Hammerschmidt
Mr. Brian D. Hughes
Mr. David Jakubek
Mr. Lawson M. McKenzie

Dr. George P. Millburn
Mr. Robert Ramsey
Ms. Karen Saunders
Dr. Thomas J. Welch

Dr. Edward Allen Adler
Dr. Harold M. Agnew
Mr. Edward C. Aldridge, Jr.
Dr. Daniel Alpert
Dr. Amy E. Alving
Dr. Michael R. Anastasio
Dr. Betsy Ancker-Johnson
Mr. William A. Anders
Dr. Allen V. Astin
Mr. Norman R. Augustine
Dr. Wanda M. Austin
Admiral Lee Baggett, Jr., U.S. Navy (RET)
Ms. Maureen A. Baginski
Dr. John Baldeschweiler
Dr. William F. Ballhaus, Jr.
Dr. Alexander Bavelas
Hon. Michael J. Bayer, J.D.
Hon. P. Jackson Bell
Dr. Mason Benedict
Dr. Ivan L. Bennett, Jr.
Mr. Norman E. Betaque, Jr.
Dr. Arthur T. Biehl
Mr. Edwin L. Biggers
Mr. David Bing
Dr. Raymond L. Bisplinghoff
Dr. Davis B. Bobrow
Mr. Oliver C. Boileau, Jr.
Mrs. Elaine R. Bond
Mr. Denis A. Bovin
Dr. H. Kent Bowen
Dr. Norris E. Bradbury
Dr. Joseph V. Braddock
Dr. Lewis M. Branscomb
Dr. Walter H. Brattain
Dr. Detlev W. Bronk
Dr. Frederick P. Brooks, Jr.
Dr. Harvey Brooks
Mr. William P. Brown
Dr. Solomon J. Buchsbaum
Mr. J. Fred Bucy, Jr.
Mr. George E. Burks
Dr. James R. Burnett
Dr. Stanley W. Burriss
Dr. Robert W. Cairns
Mr. Frank J. Cappuccio
Mr. James F. Carlini
General Michael P.C. Carns, U.S. Air Force (RET)
Dr. Ashton B. Carter
Mr. Robert L. Cattoi
Dr. Thomas E. Caywood
Dr. Arup K. Chakraborty
General Leonard F. Chapman, Jr., U.S. Marine Corps (RET)
Dr. Joseph V. Charyk
Hon. David S. C. Chu
Dr. Don P. Clausing
Mr. William P. Clements
Mr. Gary Dean Clubb
Rear Admiral William A. Cockell, U.S. Navy (RET)
Ms. Deborah Coleman
Dr. Victoria Coleman
Mr. Franklin R. Collbohm
Mr. Vincent N. Cook
Dr. Leon N. Cooper
Dr. Robert S. Cooper
Dr. John M. Cornwall
Dr. Dale R. Corson
Dr. Bryce Low Crawford, Jr.
Dr. Edward C. Creutz
Dr. Stephen E. Cross
Dr. Anthony R. Curreri
Dr. Malcolm R. Currie
Mr. Edward P. Czapor
Dr. Edward E. David, Jr.
Dr. Ruth A. David
Mr. Christopher W. Day
Mr. William P. Delaney
Dr. Richard D. DeLauer
General William E. DePuy, U.S. Army (RET)
Dr. John M. Deutch
Dr. Gerald P. Dinneen
Dr. James H. Doolittle
General Russell E. Dougherty, U.S. Air Force (RET)
Hon. John W. Douglass
Dr. Hugh L. Dryden
Mr. Robert A. Duffy
Dr. Allan E. Dugan
Ms. Lynn A. Dugle
Mr. Edsel D. Dunford
Dr. Elvera Ehrenfeld
Mr. D. Travis Engen
Mr. Gordon R. England
Dr. Elmer W. Engstrom
Dr. Delores M. Etter
Mr. Bob O. Evans
Dr. Eric D. Evans
Mr. James W. Evatt
Dr. Robert R. Everett
Admiral William J. Fallon, U.S. Navy (RET)
Mr. Bran Ferren
Dr. Craig I Fields
Mr. Daniel J. Fink
Dr. Paul M. Fitts
Mr. Duane Fitzgerald
Dr. Alexander H. Flax
Dr. James C. Fletcher
Dr. Kenneth Ford
Hon. John S. Foster, Jr.
Mr. Charles A. Fowler
Dr. Michael S. Frankel
Dr. Norman E. Friedman
Dr. Edward A. Frieman
Dr. Eugene G. Fubini
Mr. Robert A. Fuhrman
Dr. Clifford C. Furnas
Dr. Kaigham “Ken” Gabriel
Mr. Christopher B. Galvin
Hon. Jacques S. Gansler

Dr. Richard L. Garwin
Admiral Noel Gayler, U.S. Navy (RET)
Mr. Bruce Gissing
Mr. Richard G. Godfrey
Mr. Richard P. Godwin
Dr. Theodore “Ted” S. Gold
Dr. Leo Goldberg
Dr. Marvin L. Goldberger
Mr. James R. Gosler
Dr. William R. Graham
Mr. Alfred Grasso
General Alfred M Gray, U.S. Marine Corps (RET)
Dr. David T. Griggs
Mrs. Joan E. Habermann
Dr. Norman Hackerman
Dr. Lawrence R. Hafstad
General Michael W. Hagee, U.S. Marine Corps (RET)
Mr. Patrick E. Haggerty
Mr. Timothy W. Hannemann
General William W. Hartzog, U.S. Army (RET)
Mr. Richard L. Haver
Dr. Leland J. Haworth
Dr. David C. Hazen
Mr. David R. Heebner
Dr. Hubert Heffner
Dr. George H. Heilmeier
Mr. Edward H. Heinemann
Dr. Robert E. Henderson
Dr. Robert J. Hermann
Dr. Charles M. Herzfeld
Dr. Donald A. Hicks
Hon. Paul J. Hoeper
Mr. Edward E. Hood, Jr.
Dr. Dennis Horn
Dr. Frank L. Horsfall, Jr.
Mr. Richard R. Hough
Dr. Frederick L. Hovde
Dr. William G. Howard, Jr.
Admiral Bobby R. Inman, U.S. Navy (RET)
Dr. Zay Jefferies
Dr. Miriam “Mim” E. John
Mr. Arthur E. Johnson
Dr. Warren C. Johnson
Hon. Anita K. Jones
Hon. Paul G. Kaminski
Dr. Ronald L. Kerber
General Paul J. Kern, U.S. Army (RET)
Dr. Richard A. Kern
Hon. Donald M. Kerr
Admiral Isaac C. Kidd, Jr., U.S. Navy (RET)
Dr. James R. Killian, Jr.
Mr. C.G. King
Dr. A.B. Kinzel
Dr. George B. Kistiakowsky
Dr. Steven E. Koonin
Mr. James L. Koontz
Mr. Kent Kresa
Dr. Wayne E. Kuhn
Dr. Lyle H. Lanier
Dr. William LaPlante
Dr. Finn J. Larsen
Mr. Donald C. Latham
Dr. Albert L. Latter
Dr. Richard Latter
Dr. Taylor W. Lawrence
Dr. Joshua Lederberg
Dr. Reuven Leopold
Dr. Harold W. Lewis
Dr. W. Deming Lewis
Mr. William Littlewood
Dr. Alexander C. Livanos
Dr. Norma Maine Loeser
Dr. Franklin A. Long
Hon. R. Noel Longuemare
Dr. Robert G. Loewy
Mr. Sol Love
Dr. Robert W. Lucky
General Lester L. Lyles, U.S. Air Force (RET)
Mr. V. Larry Lynn
Dr. Gordon J.F. MacDonald
Dr. John L. Manferdelli
Mr. Francis S. Marchilena
Mr. Peter A. Marino
Hon. Hans M. Mark
Dr. Joseph Markowitz
Dr. Michael M. May
Dr. Mark T. Maybury
General James P. McCarthy, U.S. Air Force (RET)
Major General James McCormack, U.S. Air Force (RET)
Dr. Gerald M. McDonnel
Dr. William D. McElroy
Dr. John L. McLucas
Dr. William G. McMillan
Dr. James W. McRea
Dr. Vincent V. McRea
Mr. Richard C. Messinger
Hon. James N. Miller
Hon. Judith A. Miller
Mr. Mark K. Miller
Dr. Clark B. Millikan
Mr. Arthur L. Money
Mr. Walter E. Morrow, Jr.
Mr. Richard S. Morse
Mr. Alden V. Munson, Jr.
Dr. Robin R. Murphy
Mr. Thomas J. Murrin
Dr. Albert Narath
Mr. Robert F. Nesbit
Dr. Homer E. Newell
Major General Paul D. Nielsen, U.S. Air Force (RET)
Dr. William A. Nierenberg
Dr. Robert N. Noyce
Dr. Morrough P. O’Brien
Mr. Philip A. Odeen
Mr. J. Tracy O’Rourke

General Glenn K. Otis, U.S. Army (RET)
Dr. Carl F.J. Overhage
Mr. Hilliard W. Paige
Mr. Robert N. Parker
Mr. Fred A. Payne
Dr. Irene C. Peden
Mr. Thomas E. Peoples
Dr. Courtland D. Perkins
Hon. William J. Perry
Hon. F. Whitten Peters
Mr. Thomas L. Phillips
Dr. Percy A. Pierre
Admiral Donald L. Pilling, U.S. Navy (RET)
Dr. Emanuel R. Piore
Dr. Kenneth S. Pitzer
Dr. Ithiel de Sola Pool
Dr. George Poste
Mr. Perry W. Pratt
Dr. William H. Press
Dr. Allen E. Puckett
Dr. Calvin F. Quate
General Bernard P. Randolph, U.S. Air Force (RET)
Dr. Norman C. Rasmussen
Dr. Clifford F. Rassweiler
Dr. Dixie Lee Ray
Mr. Thomas C. Reed
Mr. E. Duer Reeves
Mr. Herm M. Reininga
Dr. Donald B. Rice
Mr. Michael D. Rich
Mr. John H. Richardson
Mr. John D. Rittenhouse
Dr. Harry V. Roberts
Dr. Walter Orr Roberts
Dr. Howard P. Robertson
Dr. L. Eugene Root
Dr. Harold Rosenbaum
Dr. Henry S. Rowen
Mr. Mark Russell
Mr. Howard D. Samuel
Dr. Maxine L. Savitz
Dr. Thomas C. Schelling
Dr. Fred B. Schneider
Hon. William Schneider, Jr.
Dr. George R. Schneiter
Dr. Wilbur Schramm
Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr.
Dr. George S. Sebestyen
Dr. Frederick Seitz
Dr. Ralph D. Semmel
Dr. Joseph F. Shea
Dr. Leonard S. Sheingold
Mr. James D. Shields
Lieutenant General Philip D. Shutler, U.S. Marine Corps (RET)
Major General L.E. Simon, U.S. Army (RET)
Dr. Anna Marie Skalka
Mr. Albert E. Smith
Dr. Lloyd P. Smith
Dr. Fred N. Spiess
Dr. Robert L. Sproull
Mr. James Stanley
General Donn A. Starry, U.S. Army (RET)
Dr. Edwin Stear
Mr. Robert M. Stein
Dr. Donald H. Steininger
Hon. John P Stenbit
Dr. Sayre Stevens
Dr. H. Guyford Stever
Mr. John M. Stewart
Vice Admiral Edward M. Straw, U.S. Navy (RET)
Admiral William O. Studeman, U.S. Navy (RET)
Mr. Francis J. Sullivan
Mr. Leonard Sullivan, Jr.
Dr. Ivan E. Sutherland
Dr. Andrew D. Suttle, Jr.
Dr. William J. Sweeney
Dr. James A. Tegnelia
Dr. Gerald F. Tape
Dr. C. Bruce Tarter
Dr. John M. Teem
Mr. Samuel M. Tennant
Dr. Lydia W. Thomas
Dr. L.T.E. Thompson
Mr. Patrick A. Toole
Dr. Charles H. Townes
Vice Admiral Jerry O. Tuttle, U.S. Navy (RET)
Mr. David M. Van Buren
Mr. Howard G. Vesper
General John W. Vessey, Jr., U.S. Army (RET)
Dr. Oswald G. Villard, Jr.
Mr. Vincent Vitto
Mr. Lewis Von Thaer
Dr. James P. Wade, Jr.
Dr. Eric A. Walker
Dr. Alan T. Waterman
Dr. Kenneth M. Watson
Dr. Ernst Weber
General Larry D. Welch, U.S. Air Force (RET)
Mr. Edward C. Wells
Mr. Harold A. Wheeler
Dr. Albert D. Wheelon
Dr. David A. Whelan
Dr. George M. Whitesides
Dr. Jerome B. Wiesner
General Michael J. Williams, U.S. Marine Corps (RET)
Dr. Oliver E. Williamson
Mr. Harry A. Winne
Dr. Robert L. Wisnieff
Ms. Roberta Wohlstetter
Mr. David G. Wolfe
Dr. Dael Wolfle
Dr. Susan Wood
LTG John W. Woodmansee, Jr., U.S. Army (RET)
Dr. Henry T.Y. Yang
Dr. Herbert F. York

Dr. Duane A. Adams
Dr. Frank H. Akers
Mr. John H. Bachkosky
Dr. William F. Ballhaus, Jr.
Hon. Michael J. Bayer
Dr. James Bellingham
Dr. Carl O. Bostrom
Dr. Joseph Braddock
Dr. Harold Brown
Dr. James E. Colvard
Dr. Eugene E. Covert
Mrs. Natalie W. Crawford
Dr. Werner Dahm
Mr. Gilbert F. Decker
Dr. Nancy W. Dickey
Dr. Delores M. Etter
Hon. Tillie K. Fowler
Dr. Michael S. Frankel
Dr. Theodore “Ted” S. Gold
Dr. William R. Graham

Mr. John Hamre
Prof. Dan Hastings
Ms. Katherine C. Hegmann
Mr. James Jacobs
Dr. Walter B. LaBerge
Mr. Mark Lister
Dr. Robert W. Lucky
Rear Admiral Wayne E. Meyer, U.S. Navy (RET)
Dr. Gene H. McCall
Dr. Richard A. Montgomery
Mr. Richard S. Morse
Mr. Garrison Norton
Dr. Morrough P. O’Brien
Mr. Lawrence H. O’Neill
Dr. Anthony G. Oettinger
Mr. William Pagonis
Mr. Richard N. Perle
Dr. Irene C. Peden
Dr. Courtland D. Perkins
Lieutenant General Donald L. Putt, U.S. Air Force (RET)

Dr. Bruce A. Reese
Dr. Henry S. Rowen
Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft, U.S. Air Force (RET)
Dr. Frederick Seitz
Dr. Robert Selden Ms. Heidi Shyu
Dr. Harold W. Sorenson
Dr. H. Guyford Stever
Dr. C. Guy Suits
Dr. Wilson K. Talley
Dr. James A. Tegnelia
Dr. F.E. Terman
Dr. Richard L. Wagner
Dr. Michael A. Wartell
Dr. Seymour Weiss
Mr. William F. Weldon
Dr. J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr.
Mr. Earle C. Williams
Dr. Patrick H. Winston

Dr. Amy E. Alving
Dr. Michael R. Anastasio
Dr. Wanda M. Austin
Hon. Michael J. Bayer
Mr. Frank J. Cappuccio
Mr. James F. Carlini
General Michael P.C. Carns, U.S. Air Force (RET)
Dr. Arup K. Chakraborty
Hon. David S.C. Chu
Dr. Victoria Coleman
Dr. Ruth A. David
Mr. Christopher W. Day
Mr. William P. Delaney
Ms. Lynn A. Dugle
Dr. Eric D. Evans, Vice Chair
Admiral William J. Fallon, U.S. Navy (RET)
Dr. Craig I Fields, Chair
Dr. Kaigham “Ken” Gabriel

Mr. James R. Gosler
Mr. Alfred Grasso
Hon. Paul J. Hoeper
Dr. Miriam E. “Mim” John
Hon. Anita K. Jones
Hon. Paul G. Kaminski
Dr. Ronald L. Kerber
General Paul J. Kern, U.S. Army (RET)
Dr. William LaPlante
Dr. John L. Manferdelli
Dr. Joseph Markowitz
Dr. Mark T. Maybury
Hon. James N. Miller
Hon. Judith A. Miller
Mr. Robert F. Nesbit
Major General Paul D. Nielsen, U.S. Air Force (RET)
Mr. Michael D. Rich

Mr. Mark Russell
Hon. William Schneider, Jr.
Dr. Ralph D. Semmel
Mr. James D. Shields Mr. Robert M. Stein
Vice Admiral Edward M. Straw, U.S. Navy (RET)
Dr. James Tegnelia
Mr. David M. Van Buren
Mr. Vincent Vitto
Mr. Lewis Von Thaer
Dr. David A. Whelan
Dr. Robert L. Wisnieff

DSB Staff
Ms. Karen Saunders
CAPT Jeff Nowak
Lieutenant Colonel Victor Osweiler
Ms. Debra Rose


Timeline of the Defense Science Board