Pacific Beacon, located at Naval Base San Diego, formerly called the 32nd Street Naval Station, consists of three 18-story towers with 941 furnished apartments.
Anti-Terrorism Standards for Buildings
- In 1996, the attack on U.S. forces housed in Khobar Towers changed attitudes on the protection of U.S. personnel from terrorist attack.
- As a result of the Downing Commission Report, the Secretary of Defense accepted responsibility for anti-terrorism/force protection (AT/FP) efforts within DoD, and designated the Chafiman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), as the focal point for all of DoD.
- The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), a combat support agency was tasked to provide integrated expertise as a catalyst to effect a change in AT/FP posture within DoD.
- DTRA supports the Department's assessment of force protection risks and vulnerabilities.
- DTRA conducts Joint Staff Integrated Vulnerability Assessments (JSIVA) at 80 to 100 DoD installations/sites annually.
- The Joint Staff analyzes vulnerability trends, AT lessons learned, and best practices.
- The installation commander is ultimately responsible for AT/FP at his or her base.
- Vulnerability Assessment (VA) teams determine how well the designers integrate AT standards for key facilities into the overall facility and how well the facility design reduces the risk of mass casualties from terrorist attack.
- VA teams are not to verify compliance with the minimum standards, but to determine if adequate protection exists for each installation.
- VA team findings may serve as justification to achieve higher levels of protection for key facilities that go beyond the minimum AT requirements.
- Training/instruction is available.
- The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC), Security Engineering Division offers a 3-day course entitled "Systematic Approach for Reviewing Projects for Protection Against Terrorism".
The primary purpose is to familiarize students with ATFP requirements.
- The Army's Security Engineering Training course is a 5-day course presented to an interdisciplinary group including engineering planners and designers and provost marshal and security and law enforcement personnel.
- Emphasizes cooperation between the security and engineer communities,
- Instructs attendees on the joint development of design criteria and protective measures to mitigate criminal and terrorist threats to assets,
- Prepares provost marshal/security and law enforcement personnel to more effectively implement new force protection/anti-terrorism directives and regulations.
- Course Registration
Development of Standards
- Service Engineers met in December 1998 and created the Security Engineering Working Group (SEWG) to address AT issues for DoD building decisions.
- The Joint Staff, Deputy Directorate for Antiterrorism and Force Protection (formerly J-34) and the US Army Corps of Engineers are co-chairs.
- The SEWG developed "Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings" which are being incorporated into military construction projects.
- Interim AT/FP standards were published in Dec 1999 and were used for the design of the FY02 and FY03 Military Construction program. The Interim Standards were rescinded September 20, 2002 and replaced with UFC 4-010-01.
- Final standards have been developed by the DoD Security Engineer Working Group.
- Published as a Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC 4-010-01) under Mil-Std-3007.
- Philosophy is to build resistance to terrorist attack into all inhabited buildings.
- Required for FY04 and later for all facilities construction projects.
- Any building (including leased facilities) occupied by DoD personnel, regardless of funding source, must meet the AT requirements.
- A more comprehensive and detailed AT manual is under development.
- These standards are not based on a specific threat.
- They are intended to provide the easiest and most economical methods to minimize injuries and fatalities in the event of a terrorist attack.
- The strategy is to:
- maximize standoff distance
- avoid progressive collapse
- reduce flying debris hazards
- provide effective building layout
- limit airborne contamination
- provide mass notification.
- Requirements for AT standards in DoD construction are included in construction programming documents (DD Form 1391, Military Construction Project Data) in accordance with DoD guidance (Defense Financial Management Regulation).
- A separate line item in the project description identifies the estimated additional costs for anti-terrorism requirements.
- Incorporating AT standards into new buildings where required standoff distances are available, increases construction cost by three to five percent
- Costs vary considerably where sufficient standoff is not available or when upgrading existing buildings.
- Site and interior building layout are low/no cost means to meet requirements.
- Cost increases are generally based on upgraded windows, structural detailing for the prevention of progressive collapse, and modifications of the building interior to minimize hazardous flying debris.