Throughout the acquisition process, systems engineering provides the technical foundation for acquisition programs. Particularly in the early stages of an acquisition, systems engineering analysis and products are vital to the early program offices ability to assess appropriately the feasibility of addressing user needs, technology drivers and risks of potential solutions, and robust estimates of cost schedule and risk, all leading to predictable, disciplined acquisition reviews.
The direction from Congress in the 2009 Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act (WSARA) recognized that beginning technical analysis once the acquisition process has begun (during Materiel Solution Analysis (MSA)) may itself be too late. Technical planning for development needs to begin before acquisition is formally considered to provide the basis for making the initial Materiel Development Decision (MDD). Directive-Type Memorandum (DTM) 10-017, Development Planning to Inform Materiel Development Decision (MDD) Reviews and Support Analyses of Alternatives (AoA) was developed to establish a set of Development Planning principles.
The current working definition states: "Development Planning encompasses the engineering analysis and technical planning activities that provide the foundation for informed investment decisions on the fundamental path a materiel development will follow to effectively and affordably meet operational needs. Development Planning is initiated prior to the Materiel Development Decision, continues throughout the Materiel Solution Analysis phase, and eventually transitions to the program environment."
Data from Government Accountability Office reports and other Government and independent studies consistently point to early program planning as a focus area for regaining control of defense program spending and results (see below). These studies have found that scoping and requirement decisions made early in a systems acquisition cycle, even before program initiation, can have a tremendous impact on subsequent development success and production costs. Directive-Type Memorandum (DTM) 10-017, Development Planning to Inform Materiel Development Decision (MDD) Reviews and Support Analyses of Alternatives (AoA) provides current policy in this area. It is currently being integrated into an upcoming DoDI 5000.02 update. The DTM states in part, "…the DoD Components shall provide evidence at the MDD Review that will facilitate the MDA's determination that:
- The candidate materiel solution approaches have the potential to effectively address the capability gap(s), desired operational attributes, and associated dependencies.
- There exists a range of technically feasible solutions generated from across the entire solution space, as demonstrated through early prototypes, models, or data.
- Consideration has been given to near-term opportunities to provide a more rapid interim response to the capability need.
- The plan to staff and fund analytic, engineering, and programmatic activities supports the proposed milestone entry requirements as identified in DoD Instruction 5000.02, Operation of the Defense Acquisition System, December 8, 2008.
In addition, it states that the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering will "serve as a standing participant and technical advisor in the development of AoA Study Guidance and on the AoA Study Advisory Group to facilitate the consideration of technology and engineering risks for the alternatives under consideration."
To assist with MDD preparations, the ODASD(SE) has developed a set of sample Development Planning templates. These templates are an example of how to evaluate the necessary evidence needed by the MDA, as stated previously.
- Government Accountability Office, DOD WEAPON SYSTEMS: Missed Trade-off Opportunities During Requirements Reviews, GAO-11-502, June 2011
- Government Accountability Office, DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs, GAO-11-233SP, March 2011
- National Research Council, Evaluation of U.S. Air Force Preacquisition Technology Development, Washington, DC, (National Academies Press, 2011)
- Government Accountability Office, DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs, GAO-10-388SP, March 2010
- Government Accountability Office, DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS: Many Analyses of Alternatives Have Not Provided a Robust Assessment of Weapon System Options, GAO-09-665, September 2009
- Government Accountability Office, DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS: Charting a Course for Lasting Reform, GAO-09-663T, April 2009
- Government Accountability Office, DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS: Assessments of Selected Major Weapon Programs, GAO-05-301, March 2005
- National Research Council, Pre-Milestone A and Early-Phase Systems Engineering: A Retrospective Review and Benefits for Future Air Force Acquisition, Washington, DC, (National Academies Press, 2008)
For additional information about the Development Planning Initiative, contact the ODASD(SE) Deputy Director for Development Planning.