Chapter 4: Planning and Guidance

Table of Contents

  1. Key Points
  2. Introduction
  3. Types of Contingencies and Emergency Acquisitions
  4. Types of Contract Support
  5. Strategic Planning
  6. CCO Planning
  7. Plugging in Downrange
  8. Exhaustion of Logistics Supply and Required Sources of Supply
  9. NATO Tasking
  10. Additional Planning Considerations
  11. Civil Augmentation Programs
  12. External Contracts
  13. General Deployment Procedures
  14. OCS across the Phases of an Operation
  15. Contract Support Organizations and Capabilities
  16. Additional References

Table of Visuals

  1. Table 4-1: Supply Classes

Key Points

  • Planning and preparation are critical to effective contracting support.
  • Contracting is an integral part of counterinsurgency (COIN) operations and planning.
  • Contingency contracting officers (CCOs) can influence tactical and operational outcomes.
  • CCOs must be familiar with the five operational phases  and how contracting support is applied throughout the life of an operation.
  • CCOs must always be prepared to forward-deploy if the mission changes.
  • CCOs must get as much information as possible about the country or domestic disaster area before deployment.
  • Part of a CCO’s job is to locate sources and become familiar with local conditions, security, and force protection matters.
  • The CCO should submit an after action report (AAR) in accordance with agency redeployment procedures, especially during initial contingency operations and bare base build-ups.
  • CCOs should coordinate with their contingency operational planners, the applicable contracting activity, and the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) about redeployments and the drawdown of equipment, personnel, and services.
  • CCOs must be familiar with the statutes, directives, treaties, and agreements that affect contracting operations when they are deployed.
  • CCOs should seek guidance from the host nation support (HNS) team, command logistics (J4), and U.S. embassy.
  • CCOs should familiarize themselves with in-place HN agreements and acquisition cross-servicing agreements (ACSAs), if applicable, before deployment.
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Introduction

Joint force commanders (JFCs) use the joint operation planning process (JOPP) in developing plans for the employment of military power to shape events, meet contingencies, and respond to unforeseen crises. The JOPP is an adaptive, collaborative process that gives actionable direction to commanders and their staffs across multiple echelons of command. The JOPP includes all activities that must be accomplished to plan for an anticipated operation, including mobilization, deployment, employment, and sustainment of forces. These activities are critical to the success of operational contract support (OCS) in contingency environments.

OCS, as defined in Department of Defense Instruction (DoDI) 3020.41, Operational Contract Support, is the ability to orchestrate and synchronize the provision of integrated contract support and management of contractor personnel supporting the joint force in a designated operational area. OCS planners determine where contract support can assist mission strategy and objectives. Contract support plans should include the capabilities CCOs can deliver as part of an advanced echelon (ADVON) team and during build-up and sustained operations. ADVON teams should have experienced CCOs who can locate sources and become familiar with local conditions before the arrival of additional forces. Planning also should consider adequate security, given the need for disbursing officer support during initial operations.

The JOPP helps commanders, their staffs, and the CCO organize and prioritize their planning activities, share a common understanding of the mission and the commander’s intent, and develop effective plans, orders, and contracts. Additional information on the JOPP and OCS planning is available in Joint Publication (JP) 4-10, Operational Contract Support, and JP 5-0, Joint Operation Planning.

This chapter discusses types of contingencies, predeployment planning, and contracting support in support of the operational phases. It also addresses how to plug in downrange and offers relevant information from doctrine regarding support phases, types of support, contract organizations, and capabilities and support agencies.

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Types of Contingencies and Emergency Acquisitions

Contingency contracting provides supplies, services, and construction to support mission objectives during contingency operations and other emergency operations as determined by the President or the Congress. Emergency acquisitions support several different types of operations:

  • Contingency operations as defined in Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 2.101
  • Humanitarian or peacekeeping operations (includes foreign disaster assistance), as defined in FAR 2.101
  • Defense or recovery from certain attacks, as described in FAR 18.202 and Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) 218.202
  • Emergency declarations or major disaster declarations, as described in FAR 18.203 and DFARS 218.203.

When supporting operations in response to one of these scenarios, CCOs must be familiar with the emergency acquisition flexibilities in FAR part 18 and DFARS part 218. These flexibilities are specific techniques or procedures that may be used to streamline the standard acquisition process(1).

No two contingencies are alike, but the main elements the CCO might face in the overall contingency contracting environment include the urgency of requirements, possible austere or limited business infrastructure, and probable cultural or ethical differences.

Declared contingency. The formal declaration of a contingency operation is very significant for the CCO (see Chapter 5, Figure 5-1), triggering an increase in the micro-purchase threshold and SAT, as designated in FAR 2.101. Also, the threshold limits authorized for use of the test program may be increased for acquisitions to support a contingency operation (FAR 13.500(e) and subpart 18.2.) In accordance with 10 United States Code (U.S.C.) 101(a)(13) and FAR 2.101, a declared Department of Defense (DoD) contingency operation meets the following requirements:

(A) is designated by the Secretary of Defense as an operation in which members of the armed forces are or may become involved in military actions, operations, or hostilities against an enemy of the United States or against an opposing military force; or

(B) results in the call or order to, or retention on, active duty of members of the uniformed services under section 688, 12301(a), 12302, 12304, 12304a, 12305, or 12406 of this title, chapter 15 of this title, section 712 of Title 14, or any other provision of law during a war or during a national emergency declared by the President or Congress.

Types of operational designations. CCOs might support several types of military operations, including major operations, smaller-scale contingencies, noncombat contingency operations, domestic disasters or other emergency relief operations. CCOs also might support military training exercises, routine installation and base operations, and CONUS or OCONUS systems or inventory control point contracting. JP 3-0, Joint Operations, details types of operations.

Major operations and campaigns. In some conflicts, hostilities are ongoing, imminent, or likely, and there is a substantial commitment of U.S. military forces. Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom are examples of major operations and campaigns(2). During such operations, contracting usually supplements robust combat support and combat service support infrastructures.

Smaller-scale contingency operations. Some conflicts involve ongoing, imminent, or likely hostilities with the U.S. military, but smaller-scale contingencies involve fewer places and usually a more restricted time schedule (Operation Just Cause in Panama, for example). Contracting often supplements combat support and combat service support capabilities that are limited by the location, strategic lift, or staffing ceilings.

Humanitarian or peacekeeping operations. Contingency contracting may support humanitarian or peacekeeping operations, defined as a military operation in support of the provision of humanitarian or foreign disaster assistance or in support of a peacekeeping operation under Chapter VI or VII of the Charter of the United Nations. The term does not include routine training, force rotation, or stationing(3). When a humanitarian or peacekeeping operation is declared, the simplified acquisition threshold is raised to the amount specified in DFARS 202.101 for DoD purchases that are awarded and performed, or purchases that are made, outside the United States in support of that operation.

Domestic disaster and emergency relief. According to JP 3-28, Defense Support of Civil Authorities, domestic disaster and emergency relief operations can range from domestic natural and human-made disasters to civil disturbances or terrorist incidents in the United States. DoD disaster relief missions include efforts to mitigate the results of natural or human-made disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, oil spills, riots, and air, rail, or highway accidents. CCOs should be aware that exercises and training environments do not receive the same flexibilities and consideration as the actual declared emergency. DoD supported domestic disaster and emergency relief efforts for Hurricanes Isabel, Hugo, Katrina, and Sandy(4). Chapter 9 contains additional information on domestic disaster and emergency relief operations.

Domestic disaster and emergency relief operations should not be misconstrued with a declared contingency operation and the increases in thresholds contingency and humanitarian or peacekeeping operations receive. Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration do, however, receive acquisition flexibilities:

  • Limited use of full and open competition (FAR 6.2 and 26.2)
  • Local firm or area evaluation preference (FAR 26.202-2).
  • Temporary waiver of Cargo Preference Act requirements (FAR 47.502(c)).

See Chapter 2 for information on contract support authorities and structure, which differ on the basis of the size, duration, and complexity of the respective operation.

Military exercises. Routine military exercises can be anything but routine for the CCO supporting them. Anyone who participated in Foal Eagle, Cobra Gold, Joint Dawn, Key Resolve, National Training Center rotation, OCS Joint Exercise (OCSJX), or similar types of exercises will attest to the associated sense of urgency, pressure, or risk to life or national interest. CCOs must be familiar with the type of operation being simulated in the exercise and whether or not acquisition flexibilities outline in FAR Part 18 and DFARS Part 218 apply.

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Types of Contract Support

CCOs need to understand the types of contracts commonly used to support contingencies. Support contracts fall into three categories: theater, systems, and external. These three categories are key to adequately describing the numerous contracting and contract administration authorities that support the operational area and to setting the limits on the JFC’s ability to control or influence the different types of contracted support (see Chapters 5 and 8).

Theater support contracts. These contracts are awarded by contracting officers in the operational area, serving under the direct contracting authority of the service component, SOF command, or designated joint HCA for the specific contingency operation. During a contingency, theater support contracts are normally executed under expedited contracting authority and provide supplies, services, and construction from commercial sources that, in general, are in the operational area. Also important from the contractor management perspective are the local national personnel who make up the bulk of the theater support contract employees.

Theater support contracting can be used to acquire support from commercial sources, similar to external support contract services. In addition, theater support contracting can be used to acquire commercially available supply items from local and global sources.

Systems support contracts. These contracts are awarded by a military department acquisition PMO that provides technical support, maintenance, and (in some cases) repair parts for selected military weapon and support systems. Systems support contracts are routinely put in place to support newly fielded weapons systems, including aircraft, land combat vehicles, and automated command and control systems. Systems support contracting, contract management, and program management authority reside with the military department systems materiel acquisition program offices. Systems support contractor employees, mostly U.S. citizens, provide support in garrison and often deploy with the force in both training and contingency operations. Much of a service component’s equipment is maintained partially or fully through contracted logistics support.

External support contracts. These contracts are awarded by contracting organizations with a contracting authority not derived directly from theater support contracting HCAs or from systems support contracting authorities. External support contracts provide a variety of logistics and other noncombat-related services and supply support. External support contracts are illustrated by the services’ CAP contracts (discussed in the Civil Augmentation Programs section of this chapter), including the Army LOGCAP, Air Force AFCAP, Navy GCCC and GCSC, DLA prime vendor contracts, and Navy fleet husbanding contracts. External support contracts normally include a mix of U.S. citizens, third-country nationals, and local national contractor employees.

These contracts are often used to provide significant logistics support and selected nonlogistics support to the joint forces. The type and scope of this support vary among operations but can be very extensive depending on a variety of operational factors. In addition, in some operations, DLA may use existing contracts or award new prime vendor contracts to furnish selected supply support (primarily subsistence and bulk fuels) during contingency operations. Other examples of external support contracts include fuel contracts awarded by the Defense Energy Support Center, construction contracts awarded by USACE, contracts awarded by the Air Force Civil Engineer Center, and translator contracts awarded by the Army Intelligence and Security Command.

Similar to the authority for systems support contracts, external support contracting authority does not directly result from the contingency operation. In general, these contracts are issued during peacetime for use during contingencies. CAP and other external support contracts remain under the control of the service components and do not normally fall under the authority of the GCC operational contract support.

Although logistics planners must make allowances for CAP contracts early in the contingency, every effort should be made to transition individual CAP task orders to theater support contracts as soon as practical. Of course, operation-specific factors such as security considerations, availability of local sources of support, and on-hand theater support contracting management capabilities are the actual drivers of the number of these CAP task orders that can be transferred to theater support contracts and how rapidly that transfer occurs. JP 4-10, Operational Contract Support, Appendix B, “Services’ External Support Contract Overview,” details the service CAP organizations and capabilities.

Coordination of theater support and external support contracting effort. The J4 staff must ensure the Annex W (Operational Contract Support) synchronizes the theater support, service CAP, and any DLA contracting efforts to avoid undue competition for the same locally available supplies, equipment, and subcontractor employees. Without proper coordination, the competition between CAP and theater support contracts inevitably drives up the prices of local goods and services and could create shortages.

CCOs should understand the value and capabilities of external support contracts. When providing external contract support, contracting officers must be familiar with unique theater-specific guidance that may exist, such as local provisions and clauses and ensure contracts are in compliance with local guidance as appropriate. The following are examples of common external support contracts that may be placed to support operations from outside theater:

  • Logistics external support contracts
    • Base operating support (such as billeting, food service, laundry, and bath)
    • Transportation port, terminal warehousing, and other supply support operations
    • Facilities construction and facilities management
    • Prime powerMateriel maintenance
  • Non-logistics external support contracts
    • Communications services
    • Linguist/translation services
    • Commercial computers and information management
    • Signal support
    • Physical security (limited in accordance with DoD policy)
    • Staff augmentation (various functions)
    • Intelligence support services.

An established theater business clearance (TBC) policy and process can help ensure visibility and control over external support contracts in designated areas of operations.

Interagency support. Similar to multinational support, U.S. forces may be required to provide common user logistics support for governmental actors, as well as international bodies such as the United Nations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the International Red Cross. Contracting officers must be aware of NGOs operating in the area, their status with both the HN and the U.S. military, and the parameters restricting support to and from the NGO before entering into any contractual arrangement where the NGO is either the supplier or customer.

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Strategic Planning

OCS Planning and Integration. The integration of contracor support into military operations is very important. Although OCS planning and integration are primarily the responsibility of the GCC and OCS planners, the Contracting Officer should assist in planning and take part in OCS-related boards such as the Joint Requirements Review Board (JRRB), which is explained in more detail in Chapter 3.

Money as a weapon system. Contracting and money are critically important weapon systems in any combatant command (CCMD) and must be treated as such. Unit leaders who use proactive management controls to provide timely and accurate funding to warfighters are paramount to success or failure on the counterinsurgency (COIN) battlefield anywhere in the world. Contracting and money defeat COIN targets, without creating collateral damage, by motivating antigovernment forces to cease lethal and nonlethal operations, creating and providing jobs along with other forms of financial assistance to the indigenous populations, and restoring or creating vital infrastructure. With regard to contracting as a weapon system and MAAWS, the CCO should keep the following points in mind and communicate to contingency planners to support mission planning:

  • Money is a valuable weapon system.
  • Money and contracting in a COIN environment are vital elements of combat power.
  • Leaders must understand, consider, and leverage MAAWS and contracting in mission planning and operations.
  • Financial management administrative requirements in a combat environment can be extremely burdensome but are necessary for good stewardship.
  • Without proactive leadership involvement, the potential for extensive fraud, waste, and abuse of funds exists in any environment and degrade the COIN objectives.
  • Warfighters with timely access to the right types of contracting support can influence the outcome of operations.
  • Contracting actions can have significant economic and political implications. CCOs should be aware of potential implications and the need to validate and coordinate contract requirements appropriately to ensure they meet mission needs.
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CCO Planning

Personnel and administrative preparations. CCOs should prepare for deployment to the maximum extent practicable. This includes learning about the deployment area, understanding any country clearance requirements, and listing items that may be needed for contract support to meet mission needs. CCOs can contact the intelligence directorate (J2) and nearest embassy to determine cultural specifics and obtain country-specific requirements.

The following generic list of documents and equipment that a CCO might need to deploy in support of a contingency is useful to both deploying CCOs and also the requesting unit, which should refer to the need for such information in the line remarks of individual deployment tasking letters (or tasking orders) and may modify the list to meet deployment location mission support requirements:

  • An official passport and 6 to 10 extra photographs for visas, which might be required to move from country to country. Official passports might be required for each CCO designated to support no-notice deployments that demand immediate departure to countries requiring a passport for entry. Each unit determines whether the CCO needs to obtain an official passport when initially designated as a CCO.
  • Travel orders prepared through the Defense Travel Service (DTS).
  • Standard Form (SF) 1402, “Certificate of Appointment as a Contracting Officer,” with authority equal to potential responsibilities.
  • A prepacked kit of regulatory guidance, forms—such as SF 1449, SF 30, Defense Department (DD) 1155, and SF 44—books, templates, prepopulated sample documents (such as statements of work, requests for proposals, and justification and approval documents) supplies, and equipment.
  • International driver’s license.
  • Civilian clothes. In some instances, military uniforms are not advisable. The regional contracting center (RCC) chief provides instructions regarding the wearing of uniforms.
  • Government-wide commercial purchase card (GCPC) that is bulk-funded to the level possible, enabling immediate expenditure upon arrival.
  • A list of unit-assigned procurement instrument identification numbers (PIINs), in accordance with DFARS 204.7003 and the uniform PIIN issued by the senior contracting official (SCO).
  • Where possible, advance registration for any applicable systems, such as the Contracting Officer’s Representative Tracking (CORT) Tool, Joint Contingency & Expeditionary Services (JCXS)(5), Contingency Acquisition Support Model (cASM), 3in1 Tool, Federal Procurement Data System–Next Generation (FPDS-NG), Contractor Performance Assessment Reporting System (CPARS), and Electronic Data Access (EDA) system. The Department of Defense Contingency Business Environment Guidebook (CBE Guidebook) contains additional information on registering for e-business tools and getting them up and running in theater.
  • DD Form 1833, “Isolated Personnel Report (ISOPREP).” The ISOPREP contains data elements that have personal data, photographs, and other information to help in the recovery of U.S. military, civilian, or DoD contractor personnel who are isolated, missing, detained, or captured. The ISOPREP and the evasion plan of action are the most important tools for executing timely rescue and recovery. Once DD Form 1833 is completed, it becomes classified confidential and therefore should be submitted electronically, not carried in person. Army Graphic Training Aid (GTA) 80-01-001 contains additional information on personnel recovery. More information on isolated personnel reports can be found in the ISOPREP section of this chapter.

Mature and immature contracting environments. CCOs must consider the maturity factor when planning for contingency operations because the contracting tools used are based on the maturity of the environment and the contingency phase, as follows:

  • Mature. A mature contracting environment is characterized by a sophisticated distribution system that can rapidly respond to changing requirements and priorities; sufficient vendors, with government contracting experience, that can comply with FAR requirements to meet contingency contracting demands; an infrastructure capable of housing e-business tools; and, in the best case, an in-place DoD contracting office or structure. Examples of mature OCONUS contracting environments include Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Korea, and Western Europe.
  • Immature. An immature contracting environment is an area with little or no built-up infrastructure and few vendors. The available vendors are likely to have limited to no experience contracting with the U.S. government. An example of an immature contracting environment is the Horn of Africa (HoA) and the initial stages of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. CCOs in immature contingency contracting areas should meet with the Department of State General Service Officer (GSO), who may be able to provide critical information on the local vendor base. Also, the local chamber of commerce (if any) can serve as a wealth of information on responsible vendors.

Contracting during hostilities. Hostilities can break out during any phase of a contingency operation. The more rapidly the CCO matures the contracting operation, the better support the CCO can provide if hostilities occur. However, unavoidable problems may include the following:

  • Contractor employees who don’t report for work, abandon the job site, or refuse to drive vehicles in certain areas
  • Vendors and shops that close during hours of darkness or cease operations
  • Increased enemy threats to the CCO when traveling in the local area.
  • Increased risk to vendors doing business with the U.S. government, making locating sources of supply difficult.

As a CCO, you are likely to have the opportunity to observe the local community. Seek help from the supporting intelligence unit (J2) to identify existing and potential threats and to report suspicious activity. If you cannot perform the CCO contracting mission, you must advise the SCO and head of the contracting activity (HCA), as well as the units you’re supporting, so military personnel can be redirected and used instead of contractors. Similarly, if a contractor refuses to perform, you need to find another contractor (and prevent lapses in service), seek alternate arrangements (in-house support, HN agreements, etc.), or do without the service. CCOs must keep customers informed about contracting activities so they can plan accordingly.

Research is the key. Before deployment, get as much advance information as possible about the country or domestic disaster area. Work with the CCO you will replace (if applicable) to get an understanding of local conditions and existing contract support requirements. CCOs must review site surveys that other ADVON teams have performed and use the information to develop a site survey checklist. (See the Critical Checklists appendix for a sample Site Survey Checklist.) CCOs should read relevant acquisition guidance—such as acquisition instructions (AIs) and standard operating procedures (SOPs)—for the area of responsibility (AOR) to be supported.  The respective Combatant Command (CCMD) Operational Contract Support Integration Cell (OCSIC) (as described in Chapter 2) can provide specific contract support information for the AOR of use to the CCO and support personnel. Also, AIs established in other CCMDs may contain best practices of use to the CCO, even though the environments may differ. CCOs should become familiar with the currency, conversion rate, and local business customs. In addition, cultural and social differences, such as language or literacy barriers, can compound the difficulties the CCO must include in planning (as described in Chapter 8). Good sources for investigating a country, and preparing for deployment, include the following:

  • AARs (unclassified reports available at https://acc.dau.mil/aar)(6).
  • The Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook.
  • Websites of U.S. embassies, consulates, and diplomatic missions, available at http://www.usembassy.gov/
  • The Department of State website.
  • The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) website, which is an excellent source of country-specific information. One of the USAID missions is support for economic growth and trade (such as the USAID Trade for African Development and Enterprise and the USAID economic opportunity projects in Jordan), making it an excellent source for locating vendors and contractors. USAID typically has offices in each U.S. embassy.
  • U.S. Navy husbanding contracts to support fleet port visits, which might be able to support an initial response for humanitarian assistance or disaster response, helping the CCO at the very beginning of an event. One of the following regional fleet logistics centers (FLCs) can help determine whether a contracting vehicle is in place to support critical needs for an emergency response, but orders must be placed by the applicable FLC contracting officer: FLC Yokosuka, U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM) AOR; FLC Sigonella, U.S. European Command (EUCOM), CENTCOM, and U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) AOR; and FLC Norfolk, U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) and U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) AORs. The Naval Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP) website provides more information on Naval husbanding contracts.
  • Geographic combatant command (GCC) websites for OCS material that supports respective AORs. See the GCC AOR link for a consolidated list of GCC websites.

After-Action Reports. AARs are a great way for CCOs to capture best practices and assist fellow CCOs who may be taking over contract support responsibilities. AARs should be forwarded through the responsible SCO within 30 days after redeployment to home station in accordance with agency procedures. AARs should include follow-on plans for contracts issued in support of the contingency mission. CCOs should start writing the AAR as soon as they arrive and should leave a copy of the AAR in the continuity book before leaving. To access sample AARs, take the following steps:

  1. Join the Acquisition Community Connection. After you receive membership notification, you must request access to AARs.
  2. Send a message to msc@dau.mil noting the reason for access. When your access is approved, you will receive a confirmation message. AAR lessons learned are available at the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) Acquisition Community Connection website.

CCO continuity book. When the CCO arrives at the deployed location, one of the first requirements is reviewing information in the CCO continuity book. The CCO should maintain and continually update the CCO continuity book to assist follow-on CCOs. When a deployment is terminated, the last CCO should forward the continuity book to the J4 supporting the AOR. The book should include at least the following:

  • A current vendor or contractor source list, including vendor names, addresses, telephone numbers, points of contact (POCs), and type of supplies or services provided
  • A current list of vendors and contractors willing to provide emergency support 24 hours a day
  • Copies of all headquarters (HQ) policy letters, acquisition instructions, standard operating procedures, and guidance messages received to date
  • Minutes of all meetings attended by CCO personnel, including open action items impacting the contracting function
  • A list of all ratification actions to date
  • Contractor delivery and gate security information
  • Copies of all customer education handouts developed to date
  • Key POCs at the deployed site, including names, grades, duty title units, telephone numbers, and after-hours POCs, if available
  • Lessons learned during the deployment to date
  • Copies of weekly reports of actions and dollars spent to date
  • Reconciliation reports
  • Bulk-funding logs showing remaining balance
  • A list of local contractors and vendors that are debarred or are unapproved pursuant to local vendor vetting policy and procedures
  • An AAR, submitted electronically within 30 days after redeployment by each CCO to the parent command, which in turn forwards the report to the theater command supporting the AOR, with select AARs forwarded to DAU for inclusion in the contingency contracting community of practice
  • A current list of enduring contract vehicles with contingency clauses.

Advance echelon teams. Within the first 30 days after a contingency declaration, a CCO normally deploys with the ADVON team. At a minimum, the team should consist of an experienced CCO, engineering representative, finance representative, logistics personnel, security personnel, comptroller representative or funds certifier, and legal representative. The size and number of teams depends on the size, anticipated duration and complexity of contingency, humanitarian or peacekeeping operational requirements, and overall mission requirements, as determined by the HCA and SCO. The priority of the ADVON CCO is to locate sources; become familiar with local conditions and the marketplace; and, before arrival of unit personnel, consult with the Army Criminal Investigation Division (CID), Air Force Office of Special Investigations (OSI), and Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) concerning security and force protection and personnel recovery matters. In addition, the CCO should consult with the embassy regional security officer to identify any existing interfaces with interagency or HN recovery procedures. Plans should provide for adequate security arrangements and disbursing officer support during advanced deployments. Bulk funds (and a means to replenish them) also should be provided. CCOs or field ordering officers (FOOs) should carry an approved GCPC to facilitate the procurement process when and where possible.

Site surveys. In general, the ADVON team conducts the site survey, which should include sources of supplies and services, business customs, maps, interpreter sources, and other important information. (See the Critical Checklists appendix for a sample Site Survey Checklist.) The CCO should take a camera on the site survey, if able, and document everything on film. Pictures of runways, water pumps, generators, control towers, and perimeter fencing greatly aid engineering, operations, and security forces personnel who were not part of the site survey. Photographs also refresh the CCO’s memory for subsequent requirements and can even be used to solicit quotes from contractors as appropriate (check with security regarding pictures of installations). Also, the CCO must check with the U.S. Embassy or HN to confirm whether taking pictures is allowable.

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Plugging in Downrange

Once downrange, the CCO must learn how to plug into the new environment. The CCO must find the support structure (J4) and meet with the on-site commander to accomplish the following:

  • Obtain a prioritization of initial requirements based on mission needs
  • Discuss purchase request (PR) control procedures, including funds accountability, PR validation and approval, inspection, acceptance, quality assurance procedures, and disposition of purchased assets
  • Inform the on-site commander that additional duties might impede contracting responsibilities or create a conflict of interest and create the potential for undue influence
  • Advise the on-site commander that only the CCO is authorized to obligate the U.S. government for local purchases, and offer to present a briefing on this topic at the first commander’s call
  • Have the on-site commander create a policy that no one should place undue pressure or command influence on CCOs to purchase any goods and services that violate laws or regulations.

Simultaneously, the CCO must promptly locate customers, obtain finance support, and identify POCs at the local embassy. If an embassy is not available, the CCO may check nearby country embassies. Two embassy contacts are of major importance from a contingency contracting perspective—the government services officer (GSO) and executive coordinating agency (ECA). The GSO is essentially a contracting officer in the embassy who would likely know the support agreements in place. If an embassy is asked to assist with contracting actions, it may charge an international cooperative and administrative support service fee. If the country hosting the deployment has an HN support agreement or an ACSA in place, it could provide U.S. forces with logistics support, supplies, or services, thereby not needing contract support.

The CCO, through coordination with the J4 counterpart, should check the ACSA Global Automated Tracking and Reporting System (AGATRS) or Department of State website with the command to identify in-place agreements that may meet requiring activity needs. The JCXS website and CBE Guidebook contain information on registration for AGATRS. Food, water, fuel, transportation, and facilities might be available, eliminating potential problems such as having to procure such services at startup from unknown vendors and time delays. Embassies have important country-specific knowledge, too, and can guide the CCO in dos and don’ts and serve as a prime resource for locating and vetting vendors. The CCO should also know whether the Surface Deployment and Distribution Command or the Navy has port contracts. Some embassies have an ECA, which might offer greater support than the GSO. Like other organizations, embassies differ in how much and how well they can support a CCO, depending on their location and the attitude of their staff members. A list of U.S. embassies is available at the USEmbassy.gov website.

Acquisition and cross-servicing agreements. ACSAs are reimbursable, bilateral support agreements that allow the exchange of logistics, supplies, and services between the United States and military forces of eligible countries and international organizations of which the United States is a member. Per Department of Defense Directive (DoDD) 2010.9, ACSAs are legal instruments entered into under the authority of 10 U.S.C. 2341. CCOs should work with their J4 counterpart to determine whether ACSAs exist in the CCO-supported operational area. For example, U.S.–Canada bilateral agreements govern the status of contractors and employees, criminal jurisdiction, and taxation for work performed in Canada. U.S. Forces, component policy, and U.S.–Canada bilateral agreements govern logistics support and base privileges of contractor employees.

Key aspects of an ACSA include the following:

  • Transactions may be cash reimbursements, equal-value exchanges, or replacement-in-kind of logistic support, supplies, and services.
  • The kinds of logistics support that may be exchanged are food; billeting; transportation; petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL); communications services; nonaccredited training; ammunition; emergency medical services; and base operations.
  • Categories of support that may never be exchanged are guided missiles and kits, major end items, chemical or nuclear munitions, formal accredited course training, official uniforms, and major construction projects.

Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement Global Automated Tracking and Reporting System. AGATRS is an automated tool that tracks and provides visibility into worldwide ACSAs, including those available that may satisfy requirements through support from the HN or other nations supporting the contingency. CCOs, through interaction and correspondence with their J4 counterpart, must check this tool to see available resources to support agency needs. ACSAs may provide the supplies or services needed without having to enter into the contract support process. See the CBE Guidebook for information on registering for AGATRS and how to use AGATRS in theater.

Host Nation Support. The CCO must establish a link with the HNS teams and obtain cooperation from HNS authorities and personnel to enhance the CCO’s ability to fulfill contingency contracting needs. The CCO needs to know the support that can be obtained through the host nation (HN). Make contact with local U.S. authorities and higher-level HQ officials to determine whether HNS is available. Before deployment, coordinate with legal assistance, civil affairs units, intelligence, and the U.S. embassy to identify information on contractors in the area. A liaison officer should know the HNS laws, regulations, and military command structures and should be able to coordinate with the HN to initiate site surveys. Reconnaissance visits to proposed contingency, humanitarian assistance, or peacekeeping operation sites will help identify the support that the HN can render.

Status of forces agreement (SOFA). A SOFA clarifies the terms under which the foreign military is allowed to operate. Typically, purely military issues, such as the location of bases and access to facilities, are covered by separate agreements. SOFAs are more concerned with the legal issues associated with military individuals operating in country and property, including entry into and exit from the country, tax liabilities, postal services, and employment terms for host-country nationals, but the most contentious issues are civil and criminal jurisdiction over the bases. For civil matters, SOFAs cover procedures for the determination and payment of civil damages caused by the forces. Your local legal counsel can help with SOFAs and their impact on contract support.

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Exhaustion of Logistics Supply and Required Sources of Supply

Many supplies and services for any contingency operation can be obtained through the logistics supply pipeline established for the operation. Table 4-1 lists the basic supply classes.

Supply Classes

Table 4-1. Supply Classes

Before initiating any local acquisition for supplies and services, the CCO must ensure that requiring officials have exhausted the established logistics supply pipeline and that it cannot provide the required supplies or services to meet mission needs in a timely manner.

In any contingency operation, quality acquisition support for the commander is critical to mission accomplishment. As stated, virtually all requested services, supplies, and construction are urgent and high priority. Local procurement actions should be initiated only when the following have been exhausted:

  • Basic deployment kits and prepositioned items. CCOs should check with the J4 network to determine whether basic deployment kits and prepositioned items are readily available before making a local purchase. For example, Harvest Eagle and Harvest Falcon are two examples of deployment kits that, combined, are known as the Air Force Basic Expeditionary Airfield Resources (BEAR) program. The BEAR program is designed and sized to support simultaneous major theater wars. The equipment provided in these two kits gives theater warfighters the capability to support a total of 68,200 combat troops and 822 aircraft at austere locations, working from the ground up to build complete bases.
  • Other required government sources.CCOs must comply with FAR part 8 and DFARS part 208, which establish required sources for supplies and services throughout the government, DoD, General Services Administration (via federal supply schedules), and other agencies. Legal advisors to an operation also must become familiar with FAR part 8 and DFARS part 208 to ensure contracting officials in any operation are fully using these sources.
  • HN and allied forces supply sources. CCOs also must become familiar with the supplies and services the HN has agreed to supply under any applicable HNS agreements for the operation.
  • Interservice support agreements. These agreements cover actions by one military service or element to provide logistics or administrative support to another military service or element. Such actions can be recurring or nonrecurring on an installation, in an area, or even worldwide.
  • Contingency (coalition) partners. Allied forces that are contingency partners might have agreed to provide supplies or services pursuant to an implementing arrangement to an ACSA. A memorandum of agreement (MOA) or protocol to the implementing arrangement might have been executed for the contingency.
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NATO Tasking

A CCO may be deployed for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in two situations: (1) a national tasking (U.S. troop contribution), where the FAR and a normal warrant are used, and (2) a NATO tasking against a crisis establishment staffing document, normally supporting a NATO HQ, where NATO rules apply. For example, CCOs stationed at Camp Bondsteel in Kosovo use U.S. rules, while CCOs stationed at KFOR HQ in Pristina use NATO rules. The application of rules comes down to funding: if U.S. funds are used, U.S. rules and U.S. warrants apply; if NATO funds are used, NATO rules and NATO warrants apply. If tasked to support a NATO operation, CCOs should be aware that the contracting rules differ vastly from U.S. rules. You will not be required to comply with the FAR, but rather must comply with Bi-Strategic Command (Bi-SC) Directive 60-70.

The HQ chief of the purchasing and contracting branch nominates contracting officers, gains financial controller (FC) endorsement, and seeks a formal certificate of appointment by the NATO commander or the chief of staff/financial controller. The contracting officer authority, in the form of a written warrant, is valid only for contracts issued on behalf of NATO HQ or the agencies to which the CCO is assigned or designated to support. No other warrant is considered valid authority for Bi-SC contracting officers.

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Additional Planning Considerations

CCOs should consider a number of additional planning elements. For example, the agreements and operation plans can affect how work is performed under the contract:

  • Applicability of any international agreements, such as SOFAs, to the acquisition. Check with the relevant command, or see the Department of State website (under Treaties in Force) for a list of these agreements
  • Security requirements that apply to the AOR
  • All contractor personnel authorized to be armed, who must be fully briefed on U.S. laws, HN laws, SOFAs, and JFC policies regarding the circumstances in which they may use force
  • Standards of conduct for the prospective contractor and its employees and any consequences for their violation
  • Requirements for use of foreign currencies, including the applicability of U.S. holdings of excess foreign currencies
  • Availability of government-furnished logistical support for contractor employees, such as lodging, meals, medical, and office supplies
  • Physical inventory of all government-furnished property, which the contractor performs periodically in accordance with FAR Clause 52.245.1
  • Information on taxes and duties and possible government exemption from them, including information available from the local embassy.
  • Applicability of ACSAs(7).

SOFAs and other international agreements and treaties also can affect contract work:

  • For work performed in Japan, U.S.–Japan bilateral agreements govern the status of contractors and employees, criminal jurisdiction, and taxation. U.S. Forces Japan, component policy, and U.S–Japan bilateral agreements govern logistics support and base privileges of contractor employees.
  • For work performed in Korea, U.S.–Korea bilateral agreements govern the status of contractors and employees, criminal jurisdiction, and taxation. U.S. Forces Korea and component policy as well as U.S.–Korea bilateral agreements govern logistics support and base privileges of contractor employees.

The state of the local banking system and its impact on contract business arrangements also can affect contract work.

Real-World Example:

A chief of contracting, a prepared and experienced person, responded to a humanitarian effort in Pakistan within a moment’s notice. The chief of the contracting office initially asked for volunteers from his unit but determined that he was the best suited for the emergency operation and would accept the deployment. He left a sustainment effort where things were established and was thrown into a bare-base operation overnight, where the environment was unknown and immature. He was able to support a critical mission by being physically, mentally, and deployment ready for the extremely demanding forward operation.

The Bottom Line:

A CCO should always be prepared to forward-deploy, whether as an ADVON CCO or to support buildup or sustainment operations. CCOs often receive very short notice of deployment, especially at the onset of a contingency.

Referrals and reachback. Some PRs cannot be fulfilled through the local market. The CCO should not overlook or underestimate the usefulness of the referral system for fulfilling requirements. Requirements may be referred to another contracting activity for action or may be returned to a CONUS location for reachback support. Many sources of contracting expertise geographically separated from the deployed CCO could be used, such as the following:

  • US embassy or consulate
  • Nearest permanent military installation contracting office
  • Theater J4 
  • CONUS contracting offices
  • Army Contracting Command (ACC)–Rock Island
  • DLA
  • Navy husbanding contracts
  • Joint Theater Support Contracting Command (JTSCC).

Real-World Example:

At times, Continental United States (CONUS) contracting offices may be asked to support outside CONUS (OCONUS) contingencies in some capacity. For example, CCOs in Haiti supporting the January 2010 earthquake had to reachback to Hurlburt Field CCOs to purchase supplies for U.S. personnel supporting the operation and fly them in on a daily C-130 flight to avoid pulling scarce resources off the shelf in the local disaster area.

The Bottom Line:

Deployed CCOs should determine whether reachback support is available for the respective operation and if so, the CCO should make the effort to fully understand the reachback office's capabilities and utilize the support to the extent practicable pursuant to agency proceedures. Similarly, Contracting Officers serving in a reachback support office should reach forward to deployed CCOs to explain the capabilities and offer support where able.

In some cases, the forward-deployed assets might not be able to process the deluge of requirements for large-scale contingencies. In other cases, conditions in the contingency area of operations might be so dangerous that a large contracting footprint cannot be made and maintained. The complexity of the contract requirement might also lead to its assignment to a contracting center of excellence for the pre-award and contract award phases and then its transfer to the CONUS activity for contract administration. No matter the factors that drive the situation, the following ground rules govern supporting an OCONUS contingency from a CONUS site:

  • The OCONUS CCO who will administer the contract needs to participate in the contract award process and assist in the development of the acquisition strategy. The OCONUS CCO understands the environment and will ultimately drive the acquisition. The OCONUS CCO and designated COR must be contacted early and often.
  • The CONUS office must be aware of established memorandums of understanding or agreement with the OCONUS partner to ensure operation-specific issues are clearly specified and all parties are aware of existing SOFAs or other agreements.

For CCOs using reachback buying units, basic funding and shipment information is useful for the reachback cell to know. In most cases, the vendor is asked to deliver to a specified AOR buying office—the normal free on board (FOB) destination point. A determination of shipping costs should be included for shipping and handling per item in case the CONUS vendor’s FOB point is at origin rather than destination. The CCO must know that the more preferred purchasing method is through the local AOR to prevent customs and delivery nightmares. The CCO should check the local market before resorting to reachback solutions or Internet purchases.

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Civil Augmentation Programs

Civil augmentation programs (CAPs) plan for the use of civilian contractors during contingencies or in wartime to augment the logistics support of selected forces. Typically, these programs could apply in all phases of contingency operations. The Army, Navy, and Air Force each have a CAP contract, CCOs need to understand the capabilities of each type. All three CAPs support U.S. joint operations worldwide and prevent the dilution of military forces stemming from their provision of the required services and support. However, these contracts are expensive, so they should be used only when it is not appropriate for military personnel to provide needed services and functions. Commanders must be vigilant in the use of civilian augmentation because contract costs can easily become inflated, particularly when changes or additions are made late in the execution phase. However, civilian augmentation contracts often are the only means for obtaining the skilled people and services needed to quickly construct and repair buildings and equipment as well as critical services formerly provided by military personnel.

Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). LOGCAP is an Army regulatory program that augments the force by pre-planning for and executing contracted services in support of DoD-directed and -supported missions. Operational commanders identify their requirements and request LOGCAP, as appropriate, to meet mission needs. LOGCAP is characterized by the following elements:

  • Capabilities. In general, it can be used to provide scalable logistics and base support services to short- and long-term operations.
  • Planning. The LOGCAP Program Management Office (PMO) helps requiring activities by engaging in deliberate planning. LOGCAP planners participate in designated planning conferences and prepare general and operationally specific plans.
  • Management. LOGCAP is a Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA), program. HQDA G-4 holds primary responsibility for LOGCAP policy and base program funding and is the approval authority for LOGCAP use. The U.S. Army Materiel Command, through its subordinate command, the Army Sustainment Command (ASC), is responsible for program planning and execution. Within ASC, the LOGCAP PMO is the focal point for overseeing the program in coordination with requiring activities, contracting activities, contingency contract administration service activities, and compliance organizations. (See Army Regulation (AR) 700-137 for further information on LOGCAP planning, procedures for requesting LOGCAP support, and program management.)  

Air Force Contract Augmentation Program (AFCAP). AFCAP is a worldwide contingency contract tool available to support the Air Force, joint forces, and any U.S. government agency in need of urgent logistics assistance to support contingency operations. Like all CAP programs, AFCAP is designed to rapidly leverage private-industry capabilities as a force multiplier in supplying highly responsive solutions to meet global mission objectives across the full range of military operations. AFCAP contractors have a worldwide capability, coupled with a breadth and depth of commercial business interests aligned to meet contingency operations requirements. Unlike the other service CAPs, AFCAP can be used to procure and expeditiously ship just-in-time (JIT) commodities. Depending on urgency, degree of requirements definition, and task stability, contracts can be tailored as firm-fixed-price (FFP), cost-plus-fixed-fee (CPFF), or cost-plus-award-fee (CPAF) task orders as necessary to best match government needs. AFCAP is characterized by the following elements:

  • Capabilities. AFCAP can provide, at a minimum, 72 core general engineering and other logistics services and associated commodity procurement and shipment capabilities. It can also be used to provide initial force beddown of non-Air Force personnel (the Air Force has an organic military capability for its own life support). AFCAP may be used to help transition and upgrade bare bases from initial austere support to temporary standard facilities and utilities. This approach allows the recovery and reconstitution of critical war reserve materiel resources for use at other locations or for the support of additional expansion for a specific mission.
  • Planning. AFCAP contractors can be asked to provide rough order of magnitude (ROM) estimates; however, most ROM estimates are performed by the HQ Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency (AFCESA) staff. Task orders for planning by AFCAP contractors can be awarded to help customers with their requirements.
  • Management. HQ AFCESA performs program management functions, and the Air Force Education and Training Command (AETC) provides contracting support for AFCAP requiring activities. HQ AFCESA is located at Tyndall Air Force Base, FL, and program management is deployed forward as required. The AETC contracting staff retains all contracting functions, including all procuring contracting officer (PCO) and contingency contract administration services (CCAS) functions (and issuance of all task orders), execution of modifications resulting in price changes to task orders, and execution of modifications to the basic contract (exercise of options). If requested by AFCAP, the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) supports property administration as required.

Administrative requirements for referrals. Referral packages should be tracked until completed. This tracking supports the CCO in knowing referral status and the finance officer and resource manager in tracking outstanding commitments. Before sending a requirement to another location, usually via e-mail or fax, the CCO should ensure that the acquisition package is complete. Funds should be transferred in accordance with DoDI 4000.19, “Support Agreements.”

Other contracting offices in the AOR. DoD has contracting offices around the world. No matter where CCOs deploy, a contracting office is always in the geographic vicinity. A few of the unified commands have contract representation on the J4 staffs, but most delegate theater contracting to an SCO. DoD unified commands and associated contact information are as follows:

FLCs. The regional FLC structure supports contracting for Navy units. The regional FLC can offer details on potential existing contract support for noncombative contingency operations. Links to each of the regional FLCs are available at the NAVSUP Global Logistics Support (GLS) webpage.

OCONUS defense contractors. The contractor support option is available to field commanders to augment available military support resources and HNS. In the initial stages of an operation, the supplies, services, and construction provided by local contractors can improve response time and free military resources for combat operations. As the operation progresses, contractors provide traditional logistics support and other nonlogistics-related support. Contractors also may provide services such as security, interpreters, communications, or infrastructure support. Such contractor support allows the commander to minimize the number of combat personnel used for such noncombat functions and to maximize the number of combat personnel focused on combat operations. At the conclusion of operations, contractors also can facilitate early redeployment of military personnel.

DoDI 1100.22, “Policy and Procedures for Determining Workforce Mix,” sets restrictions on the functions contractors can perform and those inherently governmental. Activities that are restricted at least in part include security furnished in hostile or volatile areas as well as procurement functions.

When determining requirements for contract guard force or other private security functions in contingency operations, humanitarian or peace operations, or other military operations or exercises, requiring activities must be familiar with the information found at http://www.acq.osd.mil/log/ps/psc.html. Functions that may be provided by private security contractors (PSCs) include the protection of fixed facilities, assets, and personnel and the use of mobile convoy security to protect personnel and materiel movements in the insecure areas outside U.S. bases. PSCs must be employed cautiously when major combat operations are ongoing or imminent. Several factors should be weighed when considering specific security contracts, including the location where contract security personnel will operate; anticipated threat; property or personnel to be protected; manner in which the contractor will be operating in areas of increased risk, including command and control, sharing of threat information, and communication with forces; and the training and qualifications of contract security personnel. CCOs must be familiar with DoDI 3020.50,  “Private Security Contractors (PSCs) Operating in Contingency Operations, Humanitarian or Peace Operations, or Other Military Operations or Exercises,” which implements policy for the use of PSCs in contingency operations. For additional policy, procedures, and guidance on contracts performed outside the United States, to include private security functions; see DFARS 225.3 and PGI 225.3.

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External Contracts

U.S. Navy global contingency contracts. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) has awarded two worldwide contingency theater support contracts, the Global Construction Capability Contract (GCCC) and the Global Contingency Services Contract (GCSC). The GCCC focuses on construction, while the GCSC addresses facilities support. Any GCCC or GCSC orders must be coordinated through a NAVFAC coordinating officer.

Global Construction Capability Contract. The GCCC is a competitively solicited, multiple-award, cost-reimbursable contract with an award fee. This acquisition vehicle has three prequalified sources to provide a maximum of $1 billion of construction over 5 years. The contract furnishes construction, design and build construction, and related engineering services in response to natural disasters, humanitarian assistance needs, conflicts, or situations with similar characteristics. This scope includes occasional projects to ensure readiness to perform during emergency situations and military exercises. NAVFAC also uses the GCCC as an acquisition tool to support DoDD 4270.5, “Military Construction.” The GCCC is characterized by the following elements:

  • Capabilities. The GCCC gives the Navy—or the Navy on behalf of DoD or other federal agencies when authorized—an immediate response for civilian construction capability needs. The scope includes the capability to provide general mobilization services for personnel, equipment, and material to support naval construction forces (NCF) mobilization and similar mobilization efforts and to set up and operate material liaison offices at a deployed site in support of NCF operations. The work is mostly construction, but services incidental to the construction may also be included. Construction critical response during an emergency primarily supports response to natural disasters, military conflicts, or humanitarian aid needs.
  • Planning. Each contractor is required by contract to maintain an in-place contingency response plan, available to facilitate responses to emerging requirements. The plan identifies prepositioned resources, suppliers, and procedures for rapidly developing, detailed execution plans tailored to the specific requirements of the emergency.
  • Management. NAVFAC Atlantic in Norfolk, VA, manages the GCCC. Other NAVFAC components also may be given ordering office authority under this contract.

Global Contingency Services Contract. The GCSC is an indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity (IDIQ), CPAF contract designed to quickly provide short-term facilities support services with incidental construction at other locations (including remote sites) throughout the world. The GCSC is characterized by the following elements:

  • Capabilities. This performance-based contract is designed to respond to natural disasters, humanitarian efforts, contingencies, or other requirements (such as nonperformance by an incumbent contractor or instances of unanticipated lapses in service). The contract has a ceiling of $450 million over 5 years.
  • Planning. The contractor is required by contract to maintain an in-place contingency response plan, available to facilitate responses to emerging requirements. The plan identifies prepositioned resources, suppliers, and procedures for rapidly developing, detailed execution plans tailored to the specific requirements of the emergency situation.
  • Management. NAVFAC Pacific manages the GCSC. Other NAVFAC components may also be given ordering office authority under this contract.
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General Deployment Procedures

Before departing for a contingency operation, all contractors authorized to accompany the forces (CAAF) personnel are required to report to the deployment center designated in the contract to complete the following general deployment procedures:

  • Validate entry of accountability information in the Synchronized Predeployment and Operational Tracker (SPOT) database.
  • Issue or validate possession of proper identification cards.
  • Receive applicable government-furnished equipment.
  • Receive medical and dental screening, including required military-specific vaccinations and immunizations (such as against anthrax, smallpox, and typhoid).
  • Validate or complete required training on topics such as the Geneva Conventions; law of armed conflict; general orders; standards of conduct; force protection; personnel recovery; medical issues; operational security; antiterrorism efforts; nuclear, biological, and chemical protective gear; country briefing and cultural awareness; combating trafficking in persons (CTIP); and other appropriate subjects.

After completing deployment processing, certified by annotation of the letter of authorization (LOA) or provision of a separate deployment processing certification letter, CAAF personnel receive deployment process certifications to bring with them to the joint reception center (JRC). The contractor certification documentation for CAAF personnel deploying as part of a specific unit is included in the appropriate unit manifest. CAAF personnel deploying individually are required to carry this certification at all times.

In-theater contractor personnel management. The in-theater contract and contractor management challenges discussed in this section include accountability, reception, onward movement, and restrictions on contractor support (by area, phase of operation, or other measures as appropriate). Other key in-theater contractor personnel management considerations (such as discipline, force protection, and security) are addressed in other sections of this chapter.

Personnel accountability. JFCs view the proper establishment and maintenance of the accountability of all CAAF personnel as extremely important. Without such information, properly planning for and integrating contingency contractor personnel into the overall operation are impossible. Personnel accountability is critical in determining and resourcing government support requirements such as facilities, life support, force protection, and force health protection in hostile or austere operational environments. The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, OUSD(AT&L), has designated SPOT as the DoD enterprise system for managing and maintaining accountability (by name) of contractor personnel when they are deployed to an operational area. SPOT gives CCDRs the foundation for operational contract support planning and enables functional oversight and integration of all contracted capabilities. A web-based database, SPOT allows authorized users to view, enter, and manage contractor personnel predeployment, accountability, and location data. In addition, SPOT is designed to issue automated LOAs, which document the authorized government services negotiated in the terms and conditions of the contract, as part of the contractor accountability process. Contractors are required to carry the LOA with them at all times while deployed. SPOT business rules are found in DoD Business Rules for the Synchronized Predeployment and Operational Tracker (SPOT).

Reception. All CAAF personnel are processed in and out of the operational area through a JRC or other JFC-designated personnel center. The CCO should give the contractor JRC guidance to ensure its accountability in theater is current and maintained. The JRC verifies contractor personnel are included in the SPOT database and they meet all theater entrance requirements. Contractor personnel who do not satisfy established theater entrance requirements may be returned to the point of origin or placed in a holding area until these requirements are met. GCCs and their subordinate JFCs need to set and enforce specific policies for handling CAAF personnel who do not meet all established theater entrance requirements.

Onward movement. After the JRC fully verifies that the contractor is included in the SPOT database and that all theater entrance requirements are met, the required operationally specific identification documents should be issued to contractor personnel. The JRC arranges for transportation of the contractor and contractor equipment to the point of performance. The arrangement of intra-theater transportation of CAAF personnel includes appropriate force protection and security measures, commensurate with those taken for DoD civilians.

Location and movement considerations. Contractors can be expected to perform virtually anywhere in the operational area, subject to the terms of the contract and the JFC risk assessment of the local threat level. On the basis of this risk assessment, the JFC or subordinate area commanders may restrict the location and timing of contract support; however, care must be taken to coordinate such restrictions with component commanders, applicable DoD agencies, and contracting officers. In addition, contractor personnel location reporting and equipment movement must be incorporated into the JFC movement control, personnel accountability, and force protection plans.

SPOT Registration(8)

DoDI 3020.41, “Operational Contract Support,” requires contractor visibility and accountability to be maintained through a common joint database—SPOT or its successor—in applicable contingency operations. Also, all required data must be entered into SPOT or its successor before a contractor employee is permitted to deploy to or enter a military theater of operations. Contracting officers, through the terms of the contracts, must require contractors to enter by-name data before an employee’s deployment and to maintain and update the information in SPOT or its successor. Additional information on SPOT registration and contractor personnel LOAs is available in the Register for SPOT Access Quick Guide.

DFARS Clause 252.225-7040 is required in contracts when supporting contingency and humanitarian or peacekeeping operations unless a deviation is in place to replace or supplement the clause (See DFARS 225.371-5 for examples of deviations that include supplemental or additional SPOT requirements.) The clause also applies, and is required, when supporting other military operations or military exercises, as designated by the combatant commander or as directed by the Secretary of Defense. The clause requires contractors to use SPOT to enter all applicable data on contracted personnel before deployment and maintain data for all contractor personnel authorized to accompany U.S. armed forces deployed outside the United States. It further requires contractor personnel to have a SPOT-generated LOA signed by the contracting officer in order to process through a deployment center or to travel to, from, or within the designated operational area. The LOA identifies any additional authorizations, privileges, or government support to which contractor personnel are entitled under the contract. The contractor and contracting officer must ensure SPOT is maintained and up-to-date with current contractor information and solicitations and contracts include the requisition provisions and clauses in accordance with agency policy and procedures.

Isolated Personnel Report

CCOs, their designated representatives, and contractors must be aware of the personnel recovery system in place and designed to support their recovery. CCOs and supporting acquisition personnel often travel outside their base to meet with contractors, visit sites, etc., and can therefore be exposed to hostile environments where the threat of abduction and capture are high. ISOPREP training provides information on the processes and actions required if someone is isolated from friendly control. This training includes individual survival, evasion, resistance, and escape (SERE) training, as specified by the requiring activity and supported by JFC and the service component. SERE 100 is a universal basic requirement for all theaters.

CCOs should ensure the contractor is aware of, and complies with, the requirements in DFARS Clause 252.225-7040, “Contractor Personnel Supporting U.S. Armed Forces Deployed Outside the United States.”

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OCS across the Phases of an Operation(9)

Operational Phases. Pursuant to JP 3-0, "Joint Operations," there are six operational phases. These phases often overlap or may not even apply, depending on the operation. Operational contract support (OCS) (and contingency contracting) spans across all operational phases and is a critical component to supporting military forces and achieving commander objectives during contingencies. Specific OCS actions can vary across the phases depending on the size, complexity, and duration of the operation and conditions on the ground. CCOs play an important role in the successful execution of OCS and therefore must understand the operational phases below and determine where contingency contracting can help achieve mission objectives.

The phases of an operation, along with applicable OCS actions, are as follows:

  • Phase 0—Shape. Designed to dissuade or deter adversaries; develop relationships with, and assure multinational partners; and set conditions for the successful execution of contingency plans. Missions generally are conducted through security cooperation activities.
    • OCS Actions:Contract-related boards, cells, and working groups are established; OCS planning and analysis of the operational environment is conducted; support is provided to security cooperation activities; and contracting support is executed normally, pursuant to peacetime requirements.
  • Phase I—Deter. Characterized by preparatory actions that indicate the intent to execute subsequent phases of the operation.
    • OCS Actions: This includes mobilization and initial deployment of CCOs. Contracting support is limited to deterrence activities, such as support to special operations forces (SOF). Additionally, contracting support can be utilized to establish specific sustainment capabilities (e.g., staging base for enabling joint operations in subsequent phases).
  • Phase II—Seize initiative. Focused on applying force to gain access to the operational area and expand friendly freedom of action. Military actions are characterized by an extremely high operating tempo and freedom of action of maneuvering forces and their supporting organizations.
    • OCS Actions: This includes joint reception, staging and onward integration (JRSOI). Theater support contracts are primarily used. Service and commodity contracts are limited to supplement organic military support to initial deployed units. Basic life support requirements are acquired, if needed. CCOs must understand commander requirements and acquisition priorities.
  • Phase III—Dominate. Focused on breaking the enemy’s will to resist or, in noncombat situations, focused on controlling the operational environment (OE). Service component contingency contracting teams would normally operate in direct support of their habitually supported units, emphasizing effectiveness and responsiveness. Coordination of common contract support generally is limited to major contract actions in support of operational-level logistics and selected other support requirements.
    • OCS Actions: Some aspects of JRSOI exist. Transition to stabilization and reconstruction. Theater support contracts continue to be used to provide support not covered by CAP task orders or other support. There is an increased use of external support and systems support contracts in large-scale operations.
  • Phase IV—Stabilize. Generally characterized by a shift in focus from sustained combat operations to stability operations. During this transition, the subordinate JFC generally expands and formalizes the requirements review, validation, and approval process and may implement measures to control the flow of contracted support and the associated personnel from outside the operational area. The number of contracts often increases, and they become more complex and costly. Work with OCS support personnel to ensure a well-planned and -executed programmatic systems approach to OCS actions is in place.
    • OCS Actions: Stabilization and reconstruction in full effect. OCS efforts are expanded from forces support requirements to non-forces support (e.g., security force assistance (SFA) actions and emergency support to the reconstruction of local civil infrastructure). Requirements review, validation, and approval become more formalized to assist in controlling flow of contract support into the OE. CCOs should expect an increase in the use of external support contracts (e.g., staff augmentation services).
  • Phase V—Enable civil authority. Characterized by joint forces support to legitimate civil governance and drawdown of forces.
    • OCS Actions: Stabilization and reconstruction efforts transition to termination and redeployment. New requirements should be minimized unless in support of drawdown activities. Typical requirements include packing, crating, and freight services; commercial transportation of military equipment; construction and operation of wash racks for vehicles; and environmental cleanup. This phase should include an overall reduction in OCS requirements and a focus on contract termination, closeout, and transition (if applicable) to external support agencies.

Contract Support Organizations and Capabilities

Theater support contracting organization capabilities differ among military services. On the basis of the individual mission and organization, each service has its own approach to developing, training, and deploying contracting personnel. Although differing in organization, training, and experience, each service must have its contracting personnel meet the Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA) certification requirements. However, knowing the organizational approaches and capabilities of each service can help the JFC maximize the capabilities each provides.

Defense Logistics Agency. DLA is responsible for providing effective and efficient worldwide logistics support to military departments and CCMDs under conditions of peace and war; other DoD components and federal agencies; and, when authorized by law, state and local government organizations, foreign governments, and intergovernmental organizations. DoD created the DLA Joint Contingency Acquisition Support Office (JCASO) to establish a capability to orchestrate, synchronize, and integrate program management of contingency acquisition across GCCs and, when requested by the combatant commander, to deploy as an enabling joint staff organization to augment the combatant commander staff for OCS support. JCASO can provide combatant commanders (CCDRs) a deployable OCS capability to help coordinate OCS program activities. JCASO provides expeditionary support in the initial phases of a declared contingency through its mission support teams (MSTs). Additional information on JCASO and MSTs is available at the Defense Logistics Agency’s JCASO web page.

Defense Contract Management Agency. DCMA is the combat support agency (CSA) responsible for contract administration for the DoD acquisition enterprise and its partners to ensure delivery of quality products and services to the operating force. Also, while not a core mission, DCMA (along with the services) may serve as a CCAS force provider in major contingency operations when requested by the supported GCC and as directed by USD(AT&L). (JP 4-10 details CCAS roles and responsibilities and DCMA’s capabilities as a CCAS force provider.)

Defense Contract Audit Agency. Although not a CSA, DCAA provides invaluable in-theater support. Under the authority, direction, and control of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), it performs all DoD contract audits and advises DoD components that procure supplies and services and administer contracts on contract and subcontract accounting and financial matters. These services are furnished in connection with the negotiation, administration, and settlement of contracts and subcontracts to ensure that taxpayer dollars are spent on fair and reasonable contract prices. DCAA provides contract audit services to other federal agencies as appropriate.

Other DoD and Intelligence Community CSAs. CCOs should be familiar with other CSAs that can provide department-level and tactical support to the U.S. military during combat operations:

  • Defense Intelligence Agency
  • Defense Threat Reduction Agency
  • Defense Information Systems Agency
  • National Security Agency
  • National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  • National Reconnaissance Office.
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Additional References

The following references were not mentioned in this chapter but offer additional information related to planning and guidance:

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Footnotes

1. See the definitions for simplified acquisition threshold (SAT) and micro-purchase threshold in FAR 2.101 and DFARS 202.101, which detail the increase in respective threshold when supporting emergency operations.

2. See the Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy (DPAP) Contingency Contracting website’s International Operations page for details on current and past operations.

3. FAR 2.101, 10 U.S.C. 2302(8) and 41 U.S.C. 153.

4. See the DPAP Contingency Contracting website’s Domestic Emergencies page for details on domestic disaster and emergency relief efforts.

5. Joint Contingency & Expeditionary Services (JCXS) is the new name for the Joint Contingency Contracting System (JCCS) platform.

6. The Defense Acquisition University’s Acquisition Community Connection is not the official repository of AARs; each Service has its own system and method for collecting them for validation and input into the Joint Lessons Learned System (JLLS).

7. DoDD 2010.9, “Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreements.”

8. See the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Program Support), SPOT, for more information.

9. Much of the information in this section was derived from JP 4-10, "Operational Contract Support."

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