(Revised February 24, 2021)
(See DFARS 225.79, DFARS/PGI view)
(1) DoD Focal Point on Export Controls.
(i) Within DoD, the focal point on export controls is the Defense Technology Security Administration (DTSA). Official authorities and responsibilities of DTSA are established in DoD Directive 5105.72.
(ii) Initial DoD acquisition workforce questions regarding the applicability of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) or the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) to specific procurements or items, or interpretation of DoD issuances regarding export controls, may be directed to the DTSA Policy Directorate, by phone at 571-372-2438/2377 or by visiting the DTSA web site at: http://www.dtsa.mil/SitePages/contact-us/default.aspx.
(2) Regulations. The Department of State and the Department of Commerce are the lead agencies responsible for regulations governing the export of defense articles, commercial items, and dual use items.
(i) The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), issued by the Department of State, control the export of defense-related articles and services, including technical data, ensuring compliance with the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.). The United States Munitions List (USML) identifies defense articles, services, and related technical data that are inherently military in character and could, if exported, jeopardize national security or foreign policy interests of the United States.
(A) The ITAR is published in Title 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Parts 120 through 130 (22 CFR 120-130). The official version of the ITAR is maintained at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html. The Department of State also maintains an on-line version at http://www.pmddtc.state.gov/regulations_laws/itar_official.html.
(B) The USML is part of the ITAR, in 22 CFR Part 121, and is available at the web sites in paragraph (2) (i) (A) of this section.
(C) The Department of State is responsible for compliance with the ITAR. Depending on the nature of questions you may have, you may contact the following Department of State office to obtain additional information:
U.S. Department of State
Bureau of Political Military Affairs
Directorate of Defense Trade Controls
Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance
(D) Contracting officers should not answer any questions a contractor may ask regarding how to comply with the ITAR. If asked, the contracting officer should direct the contractor’s attention to paragraph (c) of the clause at DFARS 252.225-7048 and may inform the contractor that the Department of State publishes guidance regarding ITAR compliance at http://www.pmddtc.state.gov/compliance/index.html.
(E) Contracting officers should not answer any questions a contractor may ask regarding the State Department requirement, mentioned in the clause at 252.225-7048, for contractors to register with the Department of State in accordance with the ITAR. If asked, the contracting officer should direct the contractor’s attention to paragraph (b) of the clause, which directs the contractor to consult with the Department of State regarding any questions relating to compliance with the ITAR. (The registration requirements are in Subpart 122.1 of the ITAR. Subpart 122.1 requires any person who engages in the United States in the business of either manufacturing or exporting defense articles or furnishing defense services to register with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.)
(ii) The Export Administration Regulations (EAR), issued by the Department of Commerce, control the export of dual-use items, (items that have both commercial and military or proliferation applications) and purely commercial items. These items include commodities, software, and technology. Many items subject to the EAR are set forth by Export Control Classification Number on the Commerce Control List.
(A) The EAR is published in Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 730 through 774 (15 CFR Parts 730-774), available at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html and http://www.access.gpo.gov/bis/ear/ear_data.html.
(B) The Commerce Control List is part of the EAR, in Supplement No. 1 to 15 CFR Part 774, and is available at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html and http://www.access.gpo.gov/bis/ear/ear_data.html.
(C) The Department of Commerce is responsible for compliance with the EAR. Depending on the nature of questions you may have, you may contact the following Department of Commerce office to obtain additional information:
U.S. Department of Commerce
Bureau of Industry and Security
Office of Exporter Services (OExS)
OExS Hotline: 202-482-4811.
(D) Contracting officers should not answer any questions a contractor may ask regarding how to comply with the EAR. If asked, the contracting officer should direct the contractor’s attention to paragraph (b) of the clause at DFARS 252.225-7048 and may inform the contractor that the Department of Commerce publishes guidance regarding EAR compliance at http://www.bis.doc.gov/.
(3) National Security Decision Directive (NSDD) 189, National Policy on the Transfer of Scientific, Technical, and Engineering Information.
(i) NSDD 189 establishes a national policy that, to the maximum extent possible, the products of fundamental research shall remain unrestricted. NSDD 189 provides that no restrictions may be placed upon the conduct or reporting of federally funded fundamental research that has not received national security classification, except as provided in applicable U.S. statutes. As a result, contracts confined to the performance of unclassified fundamental research generally do not involve any export-controlled items, as defined in paragraph (a) of the clause at DFARS 252.225-7048.
(ii) NSDD 189 does not take precedence over statutes. NSDD 189 does not exempt any research, whether basic, fundamental, or applied, from statutes that apply to export controls such as the Arms Export Control Act, the Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, or the U.S. International Emergency Economic Powers Act, or the regulations that implement those statutes (the ITAR and the EAR). Thus, if export-controlled items are used to conduct research or are generated as part of the research efforts, the export control laws and regulations apply to the controlled items.
(iii) NSDD 189 is available at http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-189.htm.
(4) DoD Instruction 2040.02, International Transfers of Technology, Articles, and Services. This DoD instruction provides guidance to manage and control transfers of technology, articles, and services consistent with U.S. foreign policy and national security objectives. DoD Instruction 2040.02 is available at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/.
(5) Other DoD Issuances. Other DoD issuances that address export control matters include those listed below. Except as otherwise noted, these issuances are available at https://www.esd.whs.mil/DD/.
Link to online training on export controls:
CLM 036 Technology Transfer and Export Control Fundamentals, http://icatalog.dau.mil/onlinecatalog/courses.aspx?crs_id=306
The following documents are accessible at: http://pmddtc.state.gov:
(i) The U.S. Government controls exports of defense articles, technical data, and defense services. The controls are imposed by the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) and the Department of State regulation that implements the AECA export controls. That regulation is the ITAR. See PGI 204.7302(2)(i) (DFARS/PGI view) for more information about the ITAR.
(ii) Under the ITAR, the Department of State manages an export licensing system in which government approvals are often necessary for companies to hold discussions about potential projects, pursue joint activities, ship hardware, or transfer know-how to one another, and even sometimes to move engineers and other personnel within branches of the same company located in different countries. This process can be challenging for U.S. exporters and for foreign firms in their supply chains.
(iii) Given the close allied relationship of the United States with Australia and the United Kingdom, the President and the respective Prime Ministers decided to reform the defense trade system between their countries with the goal of facilitating the exchange of certain defense articles, technical data, and defense services between their militaries and security authorities, and their industries. They negotiated bilateral Defense Trade Cooperation DTC Treaties to achieve this goal. These bilateral DTC Treaties establish permissions for export without export licenses for each country, if an export meets the DTC Treaty requirements. Other exports remain under the AECA and the ITAR. The DTC Treaties are intended solely to waive certain requirements of the ITAR for specific transactions within the scope of the DTC Treaties not remove any requirements for contractors to comply with domestic U.S. law.
(iv) The Department of State regulations implementing the DTC Treaties are in the ITAR.
(2) How the DTC Treaties work.
(i) The DTC Treaties establish Approved Communities. The “Approved Community” for each DTC Treaty is defined in DFARS clause 252.225-7047. Exports of most U.S. defense articles, technical data, and defense services are permitted to go into and to move within the Approved Community, without the need for government approvals and export licenses (provided that all persons comply with statutory and regulatory requirements outside of DFARS and ITAR concerning the import of defense articles and defense services or the possession or transfer of defense articles, including, but not limited to, regulations issued by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives found at 27 C.F.R. Parts 447, 478, and 479, which are unaffected by the DTC Treaties) when in support of the following:
(ii) Under the DTC Treaties, instead of a U.S. exporter preparing and requesting Department of State approval of an export license or other written authorization for a project, the exporter may elect to use the applicable DTC Treaty if Treaty conditions are met. If using a DTC Treaty, the exporter will check the Department of State website (http://pmddtc.state.gov) or other appropriate reference and verify that—
If all three conditions are met, then the U.S. exporter and the Australian or U.K. partner may use the DTC Treaty exemptions in the ITAR to move qualifying defense articles without the need to obtain export licenses or other written authorizations, provided compliance with paragraph (2)(i) of this section.
(iii) A company using a DTC Treaty, in addition to checking the three lists (as explained in paragraph (2)(ii) of this section), must also comply with requirements in the applicable DTC Treaty and the associated Implementing Arrangements, and the provisions of the ITAR pertaining to the DTC Treaty. These include marking and recordkeeping requirements to ensure that export-controlled items are recognized as such and treated accordingly. For example, instead of normal ITAR requirements, the provisions of the ITAR pertaining to the DTC Treaties establish the requirements that apply. Similarly, DFARS 225.7902 implements requirements that relate to exports that a prospective contractor may make under a DoD solicitation or that a contractor may make in performance of a DoD contract. The company must continue to comply with domestic laws and regulations, including those pertaining to the movement of defense articles within the United States.
(1) Since the DTC Treaties apply only to eligible items, a solicitation or contract falls within the scope of the DTC Treaties, and is thus eligible for DTC Treaty coverage (i.e., falls within the scope of the DTC Treaties) if it will acquire at least one defense article that is not otherwise exempt from the DTC Treaties and is required for—
(i) Combined military or counterterrorism operations as described in the Implementing Arrangements;
(ii) Cooperative security and defense research, development, production, and support programs that are identified pursuant to the Implementing Arrangements;
(iii) Cases where the government or Australia or the government of the United Kingdom is the end user in mutually agreed specific security and defense projects, that are identified pursuant to the Implementing Arrangements; or
(iv) U.S. Government end use under a solicitation or contract.
(2) Since the DTC Treaties apply only to eligible items, a solicitation or contract falls within the scope of the DTC Treaties and is thus eligible for DTC Treaty coverage when it will acquire at least one defense article that is DTC Treaty-eligible and the contract falls within the scope of the DTC Treaties. Article 3, section (2) of each DTC Treaty and Section 4 of each Implementing Arrangement require the DTC Treaty Participants to maintain lists of defense articles to be exempted from the scope of the DTC Treaties. These exempted technology lists are incorporated in Supplement No. 1 to part of the ITAR and are accessible at: http://www.pmddtc.state.gov/treaties/index.html
(3) The DTC Treaties do not apply to defense articles initially being acquired pursuant to the U.S. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program, although, once the defense articles are acquired by the Australia or United Kingdom under an FMS case, the DTC Treaty applies as though the defense articles were exported under the DTC Treaty, subject to PGI 225.7902-2 (DFARS/PGI view).
(4) If a company obtains an export license, or other authorization, for the export of defense articles that might otherwise have been eligible for export without a license under a DTC Treaty, the terms of the export license, or other authorization, shall apply unless and until the company obtains approval to transition to DTC Treaty coverage. The process and requirements for transition are described in 22 CFR 126.16(i) and 22 CFR 126.17(i), respectively.