HSPD-5 and the NRF assign overall incident management responsibilities to DHS and the Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex of the NRF identifies the Department of Defense as the Coordinating Agency for domestic accidents involving nuclear weapons in DoD custody. In accordance with the NRF Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex, DHS may designate the Coordinating Agency to lead the Federal response in nuclear weapon accidents. This appendix summarizes the responsibilities of Federal agencies that provide support when the Department of Defense leads the Federal response, briefly describes the 15 Emergency Support Functions that provide the structure for coordinating Federal interagency support, and sketches the responsibilities of government entities below Federal level, as well as the responsibilities of NGOs and the private sector.
The Cooperating Agencies listed in Table 1. provide support for the DoD lead, and their responsibilities are summarized below. A detailed listing of the responsibilities of the Coordinating and Cooperating Agencies can be found in the NRF Nuc/Rad Incident Annex.
a. Department of Agriculture.
(1) Inspects meat and meat products, poultry and poultry products, and egg products identified for interstate and foreign commerce to ensure that they are safe for human consumption.
(2) Assists, in conjunction with HHS, in monitoring the production, processing, storage, and distribution of food through the wholesale level to eliminate contaminated product or to reduce the contamination in the product to a safe level.
(3) Collects agricultural samples within the Ingestion Exposure Pathway Emergency Planning Zone (through the FRMAC). Assists in the evaluation and assessment of FRMAC data to determine the impact of the accident on agriculture.
(4) Assesses damage to crops, soil, livestock, poultry, and processing facilities; and incorporates findings in a damage assessment report.
(5) Provides emergency communications assistance to the agricultural community through the State Research, Education, and Extension Services electronic mail, or other USDA telecommunications systems.
(6) Supports/advises on decontamination and screening of pets and farm animals that may be exposed to radioactive material.
(7) Assists in animal carcass disposal.
b. Department of Commerce.
(1) Provides operational weather observations and prepares forecasts tailored to support emergency accident management activities.
(2) Provides plume dispersion assessment and forecasts to the IMAAC and/or Coordinating Agency, in accordance with established procedures.
(3) Archives, as a special collection, the meteorological data from national observing and numerical weather analysis and prediction systems applicable to the monitoring and assessment of the response.
(4) Ensures that marine fishery products available to the public are not contaminated.
(5) Provides assistance and reference material for calibrating radiological instruments.
(6) Provides radiation shielding materials.
(7) Serves as the agent for informing international hydro-meteorological services and associated agencies through the mechanisms afforded by the World Meteorological Organization (in the event of materials potentially crossing international boundaries).
(8) Provides radio-analytical measurement support and instrumentation.
c. Department of Energy.
(1) Coordinates Federal offsite radiological environmental monitoring and assessment activities as the lead technical organization in the FRMAC (emergency phase), regardless of who is designated the Coordinating Agency.
(2) Maintains technical liaison with State and local agencies with monitoring and assessment responsibilities.
(3) Maintains a common set of all offsite radiological monitoring data in an accountable, secure, and retrievable form and ensures the technical integrity of FRMAC data.
(4) Provides monitoring data and interpretations, including exposure rate contours, dose projections, and any other requested radiological assessments to the Coordinating Agency and to the States.
(5) Provides, in cooperation with other Federal agencies, the personnel and equipment to perform radiological monitoring and assessment activities and provides on-scene analytical capability supporting assessments.
(6) Requests supplemental assistance and technical support from other Federal agencies as needed.
(7) Arranges consultation and support services through appropriate Federal agencies to all other entities (e.g., private contractors) with radiological monitoring functions and capabilities and technical and medical expertise for handling radiological contamination and population monitoring.
(8) Works closely with the Senior EPA representative to facilitate a smooth transition of the Federal radiological monitoring and assessment coordination responsibility to EPA at a mutually agreeable time and after consultation with the State and Coordinating Agency.
(9) Provides, in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies, personnel and equipment, including portal monitors, to support initial external screening and provides advice and assistance to State and local personnel conducting screening/decontamination of persons leaving a contaminated zone.
(10) Provides plume trajectories and deposition projections for emergency response planning assessments, including source term estimates where limited or no information is available to the IMAAC and/or Coordinating Agency, in accordance with established procedures.
(11) Upgrades, maintains, coordinates, and publishes documentation needed for the administration, implementation, operation, and standardization of the FRMAC.
(12) Maintains and improves the ability to provide wide-area radiation monitoring now resident in the AMS.
(13) Maintains and improves the ability to provide medical assistance, advisory teams, and training related to nuclear/radiological accidents and incidents now resident in the REAC/TS.
(14) Maintains and improves the ability to provide near-real time assessments of the consequences of accidental or potential radiation releases by modeling the movement of hazardous plumes and to correct modeled results through integration of actual radiation measurements obtained from both airborne and ground sources, resident in the NARAC. The NARAC also maintains and improves their ability to model the direct results (blast, thermal, radiation, EMP) of a nuclear detonation.
(15) Maintains and improves the first-response ability to assess an emergency situation and to advise decision makers on what further steps can be taken to evaluate and minimize the hazards of a radiological emergency resident in the RAP.
(16) Maintains and improves the ability to respond to an emergency involving U.S. nuclear weapons through the ARG.
(17) Maintains and improves the ability of the Consequence Management Planning Team, CMHT, and CMRTs to provide initial planning, coordination, and data collection and assessment prior to or in lieu of establishment of a FRMAC.
(18) Assigns a SEO for any response involving the deployment of the DOE/NNSA emergency response assets. The SEO is responsible for the coordination and employment of these assets at the scene of a nuclear weapon accident, and the deployed assets will work in support of and under the direction of the SEO.
d. Department of Health and Human Services.
(1) In conjunction with USDA, inspects production, processing, storage, and distribution facilities for human food and animal feeds that may be used in interstate commerce to ensure protection of the public health.
(2) Collects samples of agricultural products to monitor and assess the extent of contamination as a basis for recommending or implementing protective actions (through the FRMAC).
(3) Provides advice on proper medical treatment of the general population and response workers exposed to or contaminated by radioactive materials.
(4) Provides available medical countermeasures through deployment of the Strategic National Stockpile.
(5) Provides assessment and treatment teams for those exposed to or contaminated by radiation.
(6) Provides advice and guidance in assessing the impact of the effects of nuclear weapon accidents on the health of persons in the affected area.
(7) Manages long-term public monitoring and supports follow-on personal data collection, collecting and processing of blood samples and bodily fluids/matter samples, and giving advice concerning medical assessment and triage of victims. Tracks victim treatment and long-term health effects.
e. Department of Homeland Security. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 establishes DHS to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States ; reduce the vulnerability of the United States to terrorism, natural disasters, and other emergencies; and minimize the damage and assist in the recovery from terrorist attacks, natural disasters, and other emergencies. The act also designates DHS as “a focal point regarding natural and manmade crises and emergency planning.” The Secretary of Homeland Security determines the extent of DHS involvement for domestic nuclear weapon accidents.
(1) Emergency Preparedness and Response/Federal Emergency Management Agency.
(a) In consultation with the Coordinating Agency, coordinates the provision of Federal resources and assistance to affected SLT governments under the Stafford Act or Federal-to-Federal support provisions of the reference (c).
(b) Monitors the status of the Federal response to requests for assistance from the affected State(s) and provides this information to the State(s).
(c) Keeps the Coordinating Agency informed of requests for assistance from the State(s) and the status of the Federal response.
(d) Identifies and informs Federal agencies of actual or apparent omissions, redundancies, or conflicts in response activity.
(e) Establishes and maintains a source of integrated, coordinated information about the status of all non-radiological resource support activities.
(f) Provides other support to Federal agencies responding to the emergency.
(2) National Communications System. Acting through its operational element, the National Coordinating Center for Telecommunications (NCC), the NCS ensures the provision of adequate telecommunications support to nuclear weapon accident response operations.
(3) Science and Technology. Provides coordination of Federal science and technology resources as described in the Science and Technology Support Annex. This includes organization of Federal S&T support, as well as assessment and consultation in the form of Scientific and Technical Advisory and Response Teams (STARTs) and the IMAAC.
(4) U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). For incidents that have cross-boundary impacts, works with the other affected agency to determine how best to cooperatively respond consistent with the NCP model. Because of its unique maritime jurisdiction and capabilities, is prepared to provide appropriate security, command and control, transportation, and support to other agencies that need to operate in the maritime domain.
f. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
(1) Reviews and reports on available housing for disaster victims and displaced persons.
(2) Assists in planning for and placing homeless victims in available housing.
(3) Provides staff to support emergency housing within available resources.
(4) Provides housing assistance and advisory personnel.
g. Department of the Interior.
(1) Advises and assists in evaluating processes affecting radioisotopes in soils, including personnel, equipment, and laboratory support.
(2) Advises and assists in the development of geographic information systems databases to be used in the analysis and assessment of contaminated areas, including personnel and equipment.
(3) Advises and assists in assessing and dealing with impacts to natural resources, including fish and wildlife, subsistence uses, public lands, Indian tribal lands, land reclamation, mining, minerals, and water resources. Further guidance is provided in the Tribal Relations Support Annex and the ESF #11 – Agriculture and Natural Resources Annex of reference (c).
(4) Provides liaison between Federally recognized tribal governments and Federal, State, and local agencies for coordination of response activities. Additionally, the department advises and assists DHS on economic, social, and political matters in the U.S. insular areas should a radiological incident occur in these areas.
h. Department of Justice/Federal Bureau of Investigation. Coordinates all law enforcement and criminal investigative response to acts of terrorism to include: intelligence gathering, hostage negotiations, and tactical operations. Further details regarding the FBI response are outlined in the Terrorism Incident Law Enforcement and Investigation Annex of reference (c) as well as Enclosure 2, section 5 of DoD 3150.08-M.
i. Department of Labor/Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Provides advice and technical assistance to DHS, the Coordinating Agency, and State, local and tribal governments concerning the health and safety of response workers implementing the policies and concepts in this reference. Where this is a conflict between OSHA standards and those of other agencies, the Safety Officer (see section 2.b.(6) of the ICS Functional page) will dictate the appropriate standards to apply.
j. Department of State.
(1) Coordinates foreign information-gathering activities and all contacts with foreign governments, except in cases where existing bilateral agreements permit direct agency-to-agency cooperation.
(2) Conveys the U.S. Government response to foreign offers of assistance.
k. Department of Transportation. Provides technical advice and assistance on the transportation of radiological materials and the impact of the incident on the transportation infrastructure.
l. Department of Veterans Affairs.
(1) Provides medical assistance using the Medical Emergency Radiological Response Team.
(2) Provides temporary housing.
m. Environmental Protection Agency.
(1) Provides resources, including personnel, equipment, and laboratory support (including mobile laboratories) to assist DOE in monitoring radioactivity levels in the environment.
(2) Assumes coordination of Federal radiological monitoring and assessment responsibilities after the transition from the Department of Defense or DOE.
(3) Assists in the development and implementation of a long-term monitoring plan and long-term recovery plan.
(4) Provides nationwide environmental monitoring data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring Systems for assessing the national impact of the accident.
(5) Develops Protective Action Guides in coordination with the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC).
(6) Recommends protective actions and other radiation protection measures for the public and emergency responders.
(7) Recommends acceptable emergency levels of radioactivity and radiation in the environment.
(8) Prepares health and safety advice and information for the public.
(9) Estimates effects of radioactive releases on human health and the environment.
(10) Provides response and recovery actions to prevent, minimize, or mitigate a threat to public health, safety, or the environment caused by actual or potential releases of radioactive substances, including actions to detect, identify, contain, clean up, and dispose of such substances.
(11) Assists and supports the NIRT, when activated.
(12) Provides, in cooperation with other Federal agencies, the law enforcement personnel and equipment to conduct law enforcement operations and investigations for nuclear weapon accident involving criminal activity that are not terrorism related.
n. General Services Administration. See ESF #7, reference (c).
o. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Serves as a Coordinating Agency for incidents involving space craft.
p. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
(1) Provides technical assistance to include source term estimation, plume dispersion, and dose assessment calculations.
(2) Provides assistance in Federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities.
q. American Red Cross. Assesses the mass care consequences of a nuclear weapon accident, and in conjunction with State, local, and tribal mass care organizations, develops and implements a sustainable short-term and long-term strategy for effectively addressing the consequences of the accident.
The ESFs provide the structure for coordinating Federal interagency support for accidents requiring Federal coordination. The ESF structure includes mechanisms used to provide Federal support to States and Federal-to-Federal support, both for declared disasters and emergencies under the Stafford Act and for non-Stafford Act incidents. This structure also provides the mechanisms for interagency coordination during all phases of accident management. Some departments and agencies provide resources for response, support, and program implementation during the early stage of an accident, while others are more prominent in the recovery phase. The 15 ESFs are briefly described below. A sample placement of the ESFs within the JFO is at Figure 1. For a detailed discussion of each ESF, consult the NRF Emergency Support Function Annexes.
a. ESF #1 – Transportation. Provides transportation support to assist in domestic nuclear weapon accident management.
b. ESF #2 – Communications. Provides Federal communications support to Federal, State, local, tribal, and private-sector response efforts.
c. ESF #3 – Public Works and Engineering. Provides public works and engineering-related support for the changing requirements of domestic nuclear weapon accident management to include preparedness, prevention, response, recovery, and mitigation actions.
d. ESF #4 – Firefighting. Manages and coordinates firefighting activities, including the detection and suppression of fires on Federal lands, and provides personnel, equipment, and supplies in support of State, local, and tribal agencies involved in rural and urban firefighting operations.
e. ESF #5 – Emergency Management. Serves as the support ESF for all Federal departments and agencies across the spectrum of domestic incident management from prevention to response and recovery.
f. ESF #6 – Mass Care, Emergency Assistance, Housing, and Human Services. Promotes the delivery of services and the implementation of programs to assist individuals, households, and families impacted by a nuclear weapon accident requiring Federal coordination.
g. ESF #7 – Logistics Management and Resource Support. Consists of emergency relief supplies, facility space, office equipment, office supplies, telecommunications, contracting services, transportation services (in coordination with ESF #1—Transportation), security services, and personnel required to support immediate response activities for Federal, State, local, and tribal governments.
h. ESF #8 – Public Health and Medical Services. Provides the mechanism for coordinated Federal assistance to supplement SLT resources in response to public health and medical care needs (to include veterinary and/or animal health issues when appropriate).
i. ESF #9 –Search and Rescue. Rapidly deploys components of the National Urban Search and Rescue Response System to provide specialized life-saving assistance to SLT authorities.
j. ESF #10 – Oil and Hazardous Materials Response. Provides Federal support in response to an actual or potential discharge and/or uncontrolled release of oil or hazardous materials.
k. ESF #11 – Agriculture and Natural Resources. Supports SLT authorities and other Federal agency efforts to address: 1.) provision of nutrition assistance; 2.) control and eradication of an outbreak of a highly contagious or economically devastating animal/zoonotic disease, highly infective exotic plant disease, or economically devastating plant pest infestation; 3.) assurance of food safety and food security (under Department of Agriculture jurisdictions and authorities); and 4.) protection of natural and cultural resources and historic properties.
l. ESF #12 – Energy. Restores damaged energy systems and components.
m. ESF #13 – Public Safety and Security. Provides a mechanism for coordinating and providing Federal-to-Federal support or Federal support to State and local authorities to include non-investigative/non-criminal law enforcement, public safety, and security capabilities and resources.
n. ESF #14 – Long-Term Community Recovery. Provides a framework for Federal Government support to State, regional, local, and tribal governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector designed to enable community recovery from the long-term consequences of a nuclear weapon accident.
o. ESF #15 – External Affairs. Coordinates Federal actions to provide the required external affairs support to Federal, State, local, and tribal incident management elements.
a. State Responsibilities. The United States is a federation of sovereign entities or commonwealths with specific roles and responsibilities (see Enclosure 2, section 1. of DoD 3150.08-M). This fact was first espoused in Article II of the Articles of Confederation, and later carried forth in the U.S. Constitution, namely with the Tenth Amendment. Although court decisions have shifted the original dual Federalism concept set forth in the Articles of Confederation to one of cooperative Federalism where the Federal government is a strong central authority, each of the States still retain certain inalienable powers. One of these powers is the State’s responsibility to ensure the public safety and welfare of the people of the State. Oversight of this responsibility lays with the State’s chief executive -- the Governor. To fulfill this responsibility, the Governor:
(1) Coordinates State resources to address the full spectrum of actions to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from incidents in an all-hazards context to include terrorism, natural disasters, incidents, and other contingencies.
(2) Under certain emergency conditions, typically has police powers to make, amend, and rescind orders and regulations.
(3) Provides leadership and plays a key role in communicating to the public and in helping people, businesses, and organizations cope with the consequences of any type of declared emergency within State jurisdiction.
(4) Encourages participation in mutual aid and implements authorities for the State to enter into mutual aid agreements with other States, tribes, and territories to facilitate resource-sharing.
(5) Is the Commander-in-Chief of State military forces (National Guard when in State Status and the authorized State militias).
(6) Requests Federal assistance when it becomes clear that State or tribal capabilities will be insufficient or have been exceeded or exhausted.
b. Local Responsibilities. Individual States are composed of several local political units or jurisdictions (cities, towns, villages, and counties). Whereas a State is a sovereign entity, a local political unit is normally subordinated to the State in which it lies; the laws of individual States refine this status. However, much like a State, each jurisdiction is responsible for the public safety and welfare of the people of that jurisdiction. The Chief Executive Officer for the local level can be a mayor or city or county manager. In executing his responsibilities, the local Chief Executive Officer:
(1) Is responsible for coordinating local resources to address the full spectrum of actions to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from incidents involving all hazards including terrorism, natural disasters, incidents, and other contingencies.
(2) Dependent upon State and local law, has extraordinary powers to suspend local laws and ordinances, such as to establish a curfew, direct evacuations, and, in coordination with the local health authority, to order a quarantine.
(3) Provides leadership and plays a key role in communicating to the public and in helping people, businesses, and organizations cope with the consequences of any type of domestic incident within the jurisdiction.
(4 Negotiates and enters into mutual aid agreements with other jurisdictions to facilitate resource-sharing.
(5) Requests State and, if necessary, Federal assistance through the Governor of the State when the jurisdiction’s capabilities have been exceeded or exhausted.
c. Tribal Responsibilities. From its earliest days, the United States has recognized the sovereign status of Native American or Indian tribes as domestic dependent nations. The U.S. Constitution recognizes Indian sovereignty by classing Indian treaties among the "supreme law of the land," and establishes Indian affairs as a unique area of Federal concern. In early Indian treaties, the United States pledged to "protect" Indian tribes, thereby establishing one of the bases for the Federal trust responsibility in our government-to-government relations with Indian tribes. These principles continue to guide our national policy towards Native American tribes. These principles were reaffirmed on November 6, 2000, with Presidential Executive Order 13175 - Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments. Much like State and local entities have Chief Executives, so do tribal governments. In this capacity, the Tribal Chief Executive Office is responsible for the public safety and welfare of the people of that tribe. To fulfill these responsibilities, the Tribal Chief Executive Officer, as authorized by the tribal government:
(1) Is responsible for coordinating tribal resources to address the full spectrum of actions to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from incidents involving all hazards including terrorism, natural disasters, incidents, and other contingencies.
(2) Has extraordinary powers to suspend tribal laws and ordinances, such as to establish a curfew, direct evacuations, and order a quarantine.
(3) Provides leadership and plays a key role in communicating to the tribal nation and in helping people, businesses, and organizations cope with the consequences of any type of domestic incident within the jurisdiction.
(4) Negotiates and enters into mutual aid agreements with other tribes/jurisdictions to facilitate resource-sharing.
(5) Can request State and Federal assistance through the Governor of the State when the tribe’s capabilities have been exceeded or exhausted.
(6) Can elect to deal directly with the Federal Government. (Although a State Governor must request a Presidential disaster declaration on behalf of a tribe under the Stafford Act, Federal agencies can work directly with the tribe within existing authorities and resources.)
NGOs are non-profit entities that are based upon the interests of its members, individuals, or institutions. They are not created by a government, but do serve a public purpose, not a private benefit. NGOs collaborate with first responders, governments at all levels, and other agencies and organizations providing relief services to sustain life, reduce physical and emotional distress, and promote recovery of disaster victims when assistance is not available from other sources.
a. American Red Cross. The ARC is an NGO that provides relief at the local level and also coordinates the Mass Care element of ESF #6. For a nuclear weapon accident, the ARC assesses the mass care consequences of a radiological incident, and in conjunction with State, local, and tribal (including private-sector) mass care organizations, develops and implements a sustainable short-term and long-term strategy for effectively addressing the consequences of the incident.
b. Community-Based Organizations (CBOs). CBOs receive government funding to provide essential public health services. The National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (NVOAD) is a consortium of more than 30 recognized national organizations of volunteers active in disaster relief. Such entities provide significant capabilities to incident management and response efforts at all levels. For example, the wildlife rescue and rehabilitation activities conducted during a pollution emergency, such as a nuclear weapon accident, may be carried out by private, nonprofit organizations working with natural resource trustee agencies.
The private sector is more involved in planning and prevention than in the actual response to an accident. However, the relationships established between the Federal government and the private sector is invaluable during an actual accident. DHS uses a private sector advisory group to provide advice on incident management and emergency response issues. This advice assists the private sector if a nuclear weapon accident occurs. The roles, responsibilities, and participation of private sector organizations vary depending upon the nature of the private sector organization.
a. Impacted Organization or Infrastructure. Private-sector organizations may be affected by direct or indirect consequences of a nuclear weapon accident, including privately owned critical infrastructure, key resources, and those main private-sector organizations that are significant to local, regional, and national economic recovery from the accident. Examples of privately owned infrastructure include transportation, telecommunications, private utilities, financial institutions, and hospitals.
b. Response Resource. Private-sector organizations provide response resources (donated or compensated) during an incident—including specialized teams, equipment, and advanced technologies—through local public-private emergency plans, mutual aid agreements, or incident specific requests from government and private-sector-volunteered initiatives.
c. State/Local Emergency Organization Member. Private-sector organizations may serve as an active partner in local and State emergency preparedness and response organizations and activities.
 This includes the District of Columbia.