SUBMISSION OF PROPOSALS
The Army works to maintain its technological edge by partnering with industry and academia. Agile, free thinking, small, high tech companies often generate the most innovative and significant solutions to meet our soldiers’ needs. The Army seeks to harness these talents for the benefit of our soldiers through the SBIR Program.
The Army participates in one DoD solicitation each year with a two-tiered Phase I and Phase II proposal evaluation and selection process. Army scientists and technologists have developed 252 technical topics and the Phase III dual-use applications for each which address Army mission requirements. Only proposals submitted against the specific topics following this introduction will be accepted.
The Army is undertaking a transformation to better meet small-scale contingencies without compromising major theater war capability. This transformation has had a major impact on the entire Army Science and Technology (S&T) enterprise -- to include the SBIR program. To supply the new weapon systems and supporting technologies needed by the transformed Objective Force (OF), the Army has initiated the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program. The SBIR program has been aligned with FCS and OF technology categories -- this will be an ongoing process as OF/FCS needs change and evolve. All of the following Army topics reflect OF and FCS technology needs. Over 70% of the topics also reflect the interests of the Army acquisition (Program Manager/Program Executive Officer) community.
ü New this year: Your entire proposal (consisting of Proposal Cover Sheets, the full Technical Proposal, Cost Proposal, and Company Commercialization Report)must be submitted electronically through the DoD SBIR/STTR Proposal Submission Website. A hardcopy is NOT required. Hand or electronic signature on the proposal is also NOT required. You may visit the Army SBIR Website (address: http://www.aro.army.mil/arowash/rt/ ) to get started. This page links to the DoD-wide SBIR proposal submission system (available directly at http://www.dodsbir.net/submission), which will lead you through the preparation and submission of your proposal. Refer to section 3.4n at the front of this solicitation for detailed instructions on the Company Commercialization Report. You must include a Company Commercialization Report as part of each proposal you submit to the Army; however, it does not count against the proposal page limit. If you have not updated your commercialization information in the past year, or need to review a copy of your report, visit the DoD SBIR Proposal Submission site. Please note that improper handling of the Commercialization Report may result in the proposal being substantially delayed and that information provided may have a direct impact on the review of the proposal.
ü Be reminded that section 3.4.b of this solicitation states: “If your proposal is selected for award, the www.acq.osd.mil/sadbu/sbir/)”; therefore, do not include proprietary or classified information in these documents. Note also that the DoD web site contains timely information on firm, award, and abstract data for all DoD SBIR Phase I and II awards going back several years. technical abstract and discussion of anticipated benefits will be publicly released on the Internet on the DoD SBIR/STTR web site (
ü The Phase II Plus Program objectives are to (1) extend Phase II R&D efforts beyond the current Phase II contract to meet the product, process, or service requirements of a third party investor, preferably an acquisition program, and (2) accelerate the Phase II project into the Phase III commercialization stage. "Third party investor" means Army (or other DoD) acquisition programs as well as the private sector. The general concept is to provide qualified Phase II businesses with additional Phase II SBIR funding if they can obtain matching non-SBIR funds from acquisition programs, the private sector, or both. Under Phase II Plus, additional funds may be provided by modifying the Phase II contract, and where appropriate, use will be made of the flexibility afforded by the SBA 1993 Policy which allows total Phase I + Phase II SBIR funding to exceed $850,000. Additional SBIR matching funds, subject to availability, will be provided on a one-to-one matching basis with third-party funds, but not to exceed $250,000. The additional SBIR funds must be used for advancing the R&D-related elements of the project; third-party investor funds can be used for R&D or other business-related efforts to accelerate the innovation to commercialization. More information is available on the Army SBIR web site: http://www.aro.army.mil/arowash/rt/.
The Army has enhanced its Phase I-Phase II transition process by implementing the use of a Phase I Option that the Army may exercise to fund interim Phase I - II activities while a Phase II contract is being negotiated. The maximum dollar amount for a Phase I is $70,000. The Phase I Option, which must be proposed as part of the Phase I proposal if desired, covers activities over a period of up to four months and at a cost not to exceed $50,000. All proposed Phase I Options must be fully costed and should describe appropriate initial Phase II activities which would lead, in the event of a Phase II award, to the successful demonstration of a product or technology. The Army will not accept Phase I proposals which exceed $70,000 for the Phase I effort and $50,000 for the Phase I Option effort. Only Phase I efforts selected for Phase II awards through the Army’s competitive process will be eligible to exercise the Phase I Option. To maintain the total cost for SBIR Phase I and Phase II activities at a limit of $850,000, the total funding amount available for Phase II activities under a resulting Phase II contract is $730,000, unless Phase II Plus funds are provided.
Companies submitting a Phase I proposal under this Solicitation must complete the Cost Proposal within a total cost of up to $70,000 (plus up to $50,000 for the Phase I Option, if desired). Phase I and Phase I Option costs must be shown separately; however, they may be presented side-by-side on a single Cost Proposal. The Phase I Option proposal must be included within the 25-page limit for the Phase I proposal. In addition, all offerors will prepare a Company Commercialization Report, for each proposal submitted. The Company Commercialization Report does not count toward the 25-page Phase I proposal limitation.
Selection of Phase I proposals will be based upon scientific and technical merit, will be according to the evaluation procedures and criteria discussed in this solicitation, and will be based on priorities established to meet the Army’s mission requirements. The first Criterion on soundness, technical merit, and incremental progress toward topic or subtopic solution (refer to section 4.2 at the front of this solicitation), is given slightly more weight than the other two evaluation criteria which are equal. When technical evaluations are essentially equal in merit between two proposals, cost to the government may be considered in determining the successful offeror. Due to limited funding, the Army reserves the right to limit awards under any topic, and only those proposals of superior scientific and technical quality will be funded.
Proposals not conforming to the terms of this solicitation and unsolicited proposals will not be considered. Awards will be subject to the availability of funding and successful completion of contract negotiations. The Army typically provides a firm fixed price contract or awards a small purchase agreement as a Phase I award, at the discretion of the Contracting Officer.
Phase II proposals are invited by the Army from Phase I projects that have demonstrated the potential for commercialization of useful products and services. The invitation will be issued in writing by the Army organization responsible for the Phase I effort. Invited proposers are required to develop and submit a commercialization plan describing feasible approaches for marketing the developed technology. Fast Track participants may submit a proposal without being invited, but the application must be received NLT 120 days after the Phase I contract is signed or by the Phase II submission date indicated later, whichever date is earliest. The Fast Track technical proposal is due by the Phase II proposal submission date indicated later. Cost-sharing arrangements in support of Phase II projects and any future commercialization efforts are strongly encouraged, as are matching funds from independent third-party investors, per the SBIR Fast Track program (see section 4.5 at the front of this solicitation) or the Phase II Plus program. Commercialization plans, cost-sharing provisions, and matching funds from investors will be considered in the evaluation and selection process, and Fast Track proposals will be evaluated under the Fast Track standard discussed in section 4.3 at the front of this solicitation. Proposers are required to submit a budget for the entire 24 month Phase II period. During contract negotiation, the contracting officer may require a cost proposal for a base year and an option year, thus, proposers are advised to be mindful of this possibility. These costs must be submitted using the Cost Proposal format (accessible electronically on the DoD submission site), and may be presented side-by-side on a single Cost Proposal Sheet. The total proposed amount should be indicated on the Proposal Cover Sheet, Proposed Cost. At the Contracting Officer’s discretion, Phase II projects may be evaluated after the base year prior to extending funding for the option year.
The Army is committed to minimizing the funding gap between Phase I and Phase II activities. All Army Phase II proposals will receive expedited reviews and be eligible for interim funding (refer to top for information on the Phase I Option). Accordingly, all Army Phase II proposals, including Fast Track submissions, will be evaluated within a single two-tiered evaluation process and schedule. Phase II proposals will thus typically be submitted within 5 months from the scheduled DoD Phase I award date (the scheduled DoD award date for Phase I, subject to the Congressional Budget process, is 4 months from close of the DoD Solicitation). The Army typically funds a cost plus fixed fee Phase II award, but may award a firm fixed price contract at the discretion of the Contracting Officer.
Submission of Army SBIR Proposals
All proposals written in response to topics in this solicitation must be received by the date and time indicated in Section 6.2 of the introduction to this solicitation. Submit your proposal(s) well before the deadline. The Army does not accept late proposals.
All Phase I proposals must be submitted electronically via the DoD SBIR/STTR Proposal Submission Site. Each proposal must include the Proposal Cover Sheets along with the full Technical Proposal, Cost Proposal and Company Commercialization Report. The Army will NOT accept proposals which are improperly submitted. A confirmation of receipt will be sent via e-mail shortly after the closing of the solicitation. Selection and non-selection letters will also be sent electronically via e-mail.
Your entire proposal must be submitted using the online submission system. This
site allows your company to come in any time (prior to 14 August 2002) to
upload an updated Technical Proposal or edit your Cover Sheets, Cost Proposal
and Company Commercialization Report. The Army WILL NOT accept any
proposals which are not submitted through the on-line submission site (http://www.dodsbir.net/submission). The submission site does not limit the overall file size
for each electronic proposal submission.
However, file uploads may take a great deal of time depending on your
02.2 Solicitation Open 1 July - 14 August 2002 Phase II Invitation April 2003+
Phase I Evaluations August - November 2002 Phase II Proposal Receipt May 2003+
Phase I Selections November 2002 Phase II Evaluations June – July 2003
Phase I Awards December 2002* Phase II Selections July 2003
Phase II Awards November 2003*
*Subject to the Congressional Budget process.
+ Subject to change; Consult ARO-W web site listed above
Small Businesses are encouraged to suggest ideas that may be included in future Army SBIR solicitations. These suggestions should be directed to the SBIR points-of-contact at the respective Army research and development organizations (detailed below).
Inquiries of a general nature should be addressed in writing to:
MAJ Janice M. Baker
Army SBIR Program Manager
5001 Eisenhower Avenue
Alexandria, VA 22333-0001
FAX: (703) 617-8274
ARMY SBIR PROGRAM
POINTS OF CONTACT (POC) SUMMARY
Armaments RD&E Center John Saarmann (973) 724-7943
Army Research Laboratory Dean Hudson (301) 394-4808
Army Research Dr. Ellen Segan (919) 549-4240
Aviation RD&E Center Peggy Jackson (757) 878-5400
Communications Electronics Command Suzanne Weeks (732) 427-3275
Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Ron Hinkle (410) 436-2031
Missile RD&E Center Otho Thomas (256) 842-9227
Natick Soldier Center Dr. Gerald Raisanen (508) 233-4223
Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Joe Pellegrino (407) 384-3960
Tank Automotive RD&E Center Alex Sandel (810) 574-7545
Developmental Test Command John Schnell (410) 278-1478
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Engineering Research Development Center)
Engineer Research & Development Center Susan Nichols (703) 428-6255
Construction Engineering Research Lab Anne Cox (217) 373-6789 ext. 7311
Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab Theresa Salls (603) 646-4651
Topographic Engineering Center Charles McKenna (703) 428-7133
Waterways Experiment Station Phil Stewart (601) 634-4113
Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel (Army Research Institute)
Army Research Institute Dr. Jonathan Kaplan (703) 617-8828
U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command
Space and Missile Defense Command Dr. Doug Deason (256) 955-1843
Army Medical Command
Medical Research and Materiel Command Pat McAllister (301) 619-7360
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
This is a Checklist of Requirements for your proposal. Please review the checklist carefully to ensure that your proposal meets the Army SBIR requirements. Failure to meet these requirements will result in your proposal not being evaluated or considered for award. Do not include this checklist with your proposal.
____ 1. The Proposal Cover Sheets along with the full Technical Proposal, Cost Proposal and Company Commercialization Report were submitted using the SBIR proposal submission system, which can be accessed via the Army’s SBIR Web Site (address: http://www.aro.army.mil/arowash/rt/ ) or directly at http://www.dodsbir.net/submission. The Proposal Cover Sheet clearly shows the proposal number assigned by the system to your proposal.
_____ 2. The proposal addresses a Phase I effort (up to $70,000 with up to a six-month duration) AND (if applicable) an optional effort (up to $50,000 for an up to four-month period to provide interim Phase II funding).
_____ 3. The proposal is limited to only ONE Army solicitation topic.
_____ 4. The Project Summary on the Proposal Cover Sheet contains no proprietary information and is limited to the space provided.
_____ 5. The Technical Content of the proposal, including the Option, includes the items identified in Section 3.4 of the solicitation.
_____ 6. The Company Commercialization Report is submitted online in accordance with Section 3.4.n. This report is required even if the company has not received any SBIR funding. (This report does not count towards the 25-page limit)
______ 7. The proposal, including the Phase I Option (if applicable), is 25 pages or less in length. (Excluding the Company Commercialization Report.) Proposals in excess of this length will not be considered for review or award.
_____ 8. The proposal contains no type smaller than 11-point font size (except as legend on reduced drawings, but not tables).
_____ 9. The Cost Proposal has been completed and submitted for both the Phase I and Phase I Option (if applicable) and their costs are shown separately. The Cost Proposal has been filled in electronically or included as the last page of the uploaded technical proposal. The total cost should match the amount on the cover pages.
_____ 10. The proposal must be electronically submitted through the online submission site (http://www.dodsbir.net/submission) by August 14, 2002.
ARMY 02.2 SBIR TITLE INDEX
Armaments RD&E Center (ARDEC)
A02-001 Innovative Energy Generation
A02-002 Innovative Wireless Communications
A02-003 Extraction of Nitrocellulose from Gun Propellant Formulations
A02-004 High Power Miniature Laser
A02-005 Innovative Lightweight Munitions
A02-006 Nano-particle Capacitor Technology
A02-007 Hyperspectral 3-D Detector
A02-008 Precision Robotics for Tomography
A02-009 Non-Conventional Munitions
A02-010 Novel High Intensity Green or Blue Strobe Effect
A02-011 Small Scale Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) Platform
A02-012 Advanced Smart Munitions Transceiver
A02-013 Global Positioning System (GPS) In-Theater Reconstitution
A02-014 Enhanced Alternative Kinetic Energy Penetrators
A02-015 Innovative Hydrogen Embrittlement Predictor
A02-016 Driver Assist Smart Alignment System
A02-017 Innovative Lightweight Hybrid Ammunition Container
A02-018 Adaptable/ Reusable Hardware/Software Architectures and Components for Future Combat System Automated Resupply
A02-019 Innovative Ammunition Security Monitoring System
A02-020 Automated Remote Payload Delivery System
A02-021 Innovative Crowd Control Technologies
A02-022 Low Cost Molded Optics for Small Caliber Projectiles
A02-023 Intermediate Staging Base Decision Aid
Army Research Institute (ARI)
A02-024 Embedded Training for Objective Force Warrior
A02-025 Identifying and Assessing Interaction Knowledges, Skills, and Aptitudes for Objective Force Soldiers
A02-026 Planning Exercise System to Promote Shared Mental Models
A02-027 Training Rapid Decision-Making Processes Required by the Dismounted Objective Force Leader
A02-028 Defining and Developing Interpersonal Performance for Objective Force Soldiers
A02-029 Cost-Effective, Realistic Measures of Job Performance
A02-030 Developing New Predictors of Stress Resilience for the Objective Force
Army Research Lab (ARL)
A02-031 Research in Intrusion Detection Systems for Insider Attacks
A02-032 Joining Metals and Ceramics that Exhibit a Large Mismatch in Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
A02-033 Low-Cost, Mine-Blast-Resistant Crew Seat for Interim Armored Vehicle (IAV) and Future Combat System (FCS) Ground Vehicles of the Objective Force
A02-034 Development of a Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) Module for a Small Robotic Platform
A02-035 Development of a Human/Robot Control Interface
A02-036 Active Infrared Multi-Spectral Sensor
A02-037 Explosive Detection System
A02-038 Translation of Foreign Road Signs Using a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
A02-039 Production of Non-Traditional Optical Surfaces for Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Guidance
A02-040 Complex Obstacle Traversing Suspension System for Wheeled Ground Vehicles
A02-041 Laser Shock Peening Technology for Army Vehicle Life Extension
A02-042 Position and Orientation for Distributed Sensors
A02-043 Novel Display Devices
A02-044 Development of a Field Portable Acousto-Optical Ultrasonic Evaluation System
A02-045 Oil-Free Thrust Bearings for Army Turboshaft Engines
A02-046 Advanced High Energy Batteries
A02-047 Antenna Array Architectures that Accommodate Polarization Diversity and Beam-Spoiling Architecture
A02-048 Lightning Effects Mitigation
A02-049 Methanol Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid for the Individual Soldier
A02-050 Low-cost Alternatives to Titanium Plate Production
A02-051 System for Radio Communication and Sound Exposure Monitoring
A02-052 Maintenance Modeling for Reducing the Maintenance Footprint
A02-053 Decision Support for Rapid Deployment Planning at Air Ports of Embarkation
A02-054 Novel Techniques for Thermal Load Management
Army Research Office (ARO)
A02-055 Software Driven Virtual Minefield
A02-056 Safe Packaging of Ammonia for Compact Hydrogen Sources
A02-057 Hybridized Full Wave – Asymptotic Electromagnetic (EM) Computational Engine for Antenna Computer Aided Design
A02-058 Anthrax Germination
A02-059 High Density Optical Data Storage
A02-060 Noninvasive, Real-time Imaging of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) Activation
A02-061 Terahertz Interferometric Imaging Systems (TIIS) for Detection of Weapons and Explosives
A02-062 Portable Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Sensor for Detection of Biological Agents
A02-063 Packaging for Radio Frequency Microelectronic (MEMS) Devices Subjected to Harsh Environments
A02-064 Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons In Aqueous Solutions
A02-065 Chaotic Radio Frequency (RF) Sources for Ranging and Detection (RADAR) Applications
A02-066 Non-invasive Device for Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome
A02-067 Hybrid Computer-Human Supervision of Complex Discrete-Event Systems
Army Test & Evaluation Center (ATEC)
A02-068 Mobile Multi-spectral Beam Steering Device
A02-069 Precision Metric Zoom Lens
Aviation RD&E Center (AVRDEC)
A02-070 Embedded Sensing Capability for Composite Structures
A02-071 Structural Integrity of Bonded Repair
A02-072 Light Weight Material for Ballistic Armor
A02-073 High Reduction Ratio Drive System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
A02-074 Ultra Wideband Network Datalink
A02-075 Non-Contacting Torque Sensor for Helicopter Tail Rotor Drive Systems.
A02-076 A Dynamic Rotorcraft Model for the Study of Advanced Maneuver Concepts
A02-077 Active Control Rotor Using No Swashplate
A02-078 "OpenGl" Optimization for Army Rotorcraft Displays
A02-079 Guidelines for Countering Turbulence in Hovering Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)
A02-080 Automated Wingman
A02-081 Turbine Engine Component High Cycle Fatigue Life Enhancement by Surface Treatment
A02-082 Low Cost Manufacturing Techniques for Small Airfoils/Blisks
A02-083 Accurate Aerodynamic Analysis Design Tool for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)
Communications Electronics Command (CECOM)
A02-084 Ultra Wideband Technology for Sensor Network Communications
A02-085 Mine Detection
A02-086 Munitions for Standoff Mine Neutralization
A02-087 Image Fusion of Thermal and Image Intensified Video Sensors for Ground-Mobility Applications
A02-088 Variable Optical Transmission Lens Element (for Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) Applications)
A02-089 Standoff Mine Neutralization Using Forward Looking Mine Detection Sensors
A02-090 Adaptive Analysis for Chemical Recognition and Identification Using Remote Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy.
A02-091 Land Mine Detection Algorithm Development
A02-092 Longwave Spectrometer Gratings
A02-093 Early Warning Detection of Computer Network Attacks Against Mobile Networks
A02-094 Dual Function Radio for Wireless Local Area Network (LAN) and Bluetooth.
A02-095 Distributed Uncooled Infrared Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) with Information Fusion
A02-096 Automatic Target Detection and Tracking (ATD&T) Algorithms for Small Autonomous Projectiles
A02-097 Robust Detection of Scatterable Minefields
A02-098 MicroElectro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Cryo-coolers
A02-099 Developing Spectrum Sharing Technique and Demonstrating its Application
A02-100 High Gain Antenna for Wireless Local Area Network (LAN)
A02-101 Integrated Channel Access and Routing for Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) Implementation for Sensor/Munitions Networks
A02-102 Network Quality of Service (QoS) Forecasting for Multimedia
A02-103 Bandpass Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC) for Direct Conversion of Radio
Frequency (RF) Waveforms
A02-104 Direct Digital Synthesizer for 2-2000 MHz Radio Frequency (RF) Waveforms
A02-105 Reliable Geographic-Aware Multicasting for Sensor-Equipped Munition Networks
A02-106 Header Compression for Wireless Ad-hoc Networks in a Military Environment
A02-107 VHF/UHF Laminated Antenna
A02-108 Application of Color Flexible Displays
A02-109 Return-Path Guidance System
A02-110 Rapid Knowledge Correlation and Link Analysis Tool (RKCLAT)
A02-111 Smart Chargers for Smart Batteries
A02-112 Urban Positioning, Ranging and Identification (ID)
A02-113 “Meaning Based, Context Sensitive” Search Engine
A02-114 10 kW Alternator for
Power on the Move Applications Army topic A02-114 has been withdrawn
from the solicitation
A02-115 Decision Making Systems Using Wireless Handheld Location Specific Applications
A02-116 Self Regulating Fuel Cell/4 Cell Li-Ion Battery Hybrid
A02-117 Thermal Management System for Cooling and Heating of Transit Cases
A02-118 Global Positioning System (GPS) Pseudolite Transmit Antenna
A02-119 Refrigerant Expansion Energy Recovery System
A02-120 Microwave Digital Beamformer (DBF) Radar Technology
A02-121 Miniaturized Integrated Noise-Limiting Radio Frequency (RF) Front-End
A02-122 Air Vehicle Sound Suppression Technology
A02-123 Small, Low Cost Infrared Semiconductor Laser System, for Military Platform Protection and
Free Space Communications
A02-124 Light-Weight, High-efficient, Wideband Compact Power Amplifier
A02-125 Forward Area Portable Forensics System
A02-126 Novel Computer Network Scanning Techniques
A02-127 Digital Direction Finding
A02-128 Beyond Line-of-Sight Combat Identification System
A02-129 Tactical Human Intelligence Interview Device
A02-130 Real-Time Multi-Sensors Architecture of Blind Detection for Asynchronous Code Division Multiple
Access (CDMA) System.
A02-131 Automated Extraction of Counter-Terrorism Intelligence
A02-132 Network Assisted Global Positioning System (GPS) Direct Y Acquisition
Engineer Research & Development Center (ERDC)
A02-133 Automated Fusion of Digital Elevation Models
A02-134 Developing a Seamless Integration Between Machine Learning Techniques and Rule-Based Classification of Remotely Sensed Imagery
A02-135 Advancing Hyperspectral Signature Integration with Airborne and Ground-based Laser Technology
A02-136 Hardened, Fast Response Thermal Measurement
A02-137 Improved Processing of Geospatial Vector Data
A02-138 Cognitive Battlespace Terrain and Intelligence Manager (CBTIM)
A02-139 Synthesis of Laser Altimeter Waveforms
A02-140 Development of Innovative Materials for Adsorption of Lead, Cadmium and Mercury Vapors from
A02-141 Protection From Terrorist Threat to Water Based Utility Systems
A02-142 Detection of Occupied Caves
A02-143 Tracking System To Monitor Vehicle Dynamic Properties and Environmental Impacts
Missile RD&E Center (MRDEC)
A02-144 Polymer Liners for Lightweight Gel Propulsion Storage Tanks
A02-145 Innovative Technology Development for Laser Radar (LADAR)
A02-146 Low Cost, High Purity Magnesium Aluminate Spinel Powder for IR Missile Domes
A02-147 Advanced Metrology for Atypical Optical Surfaces
A02-148 Laser Based Target Acquisition System for Lethal Unmanned Ground Vehicles
A02-149 Skew Symmetric Orthogonal Mount with Integral Conductors for Micromachined Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Inertial Sensor Applications
A02-150 Optimizing Composite Rocket Motor Development Using Advanced Evolutionary Algorithms
A02-151 High Dynamic Range Advanced Infrared Projector for Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations
A02-152 Hypervelocity Missile Stage Separation
A02-153 Rheometer for Time Dependent Non-Newtonian Gel Propellants
A02-154 Compact Laser with Active/Passive Cooling for LADAR Applications
A02-155 Computer Simulation for the Design of Radar Absorbing Material (RAM)
A02-156 PC-Based Realtime Infrared/Millimeter Wave Scene Generator
A02-157 Radiative Transfer Calculations on Hybrid Unstructured/Structured Flowfield Grids
A02-158 Infrared Seeker Performance Metrics
A02-159 Automated Generation of Viscous CFD Grids for Increased Productivity of High Fidelity
A02-160 Altitude Effects - Fluid Flow Transition and Continuum Breakdown
A02-161 Health Monitoring for Condition Based Maintenance
A02-162 Life Prediction of Composite Pressure Vessels
A02-163 Controls Based Missile Engagement Network
Medical Research and Materiel Command (MRMC)
A02-164 Non-Invasive Measurement of Vital Organ Venous and Arterial Oxygen Saturation
A02-165 Central Nervous System Cellular Infusion Device
A02-166 Rapid Method for the Quantification of Exo-Erythrocytic (Liver-stage) Malaria Parasites
A02-167 Development of Monoclonal Antibody-Based Therapeutics for Treatment of Cancer
A02-168 Medical Modeling & Simulation – Assessment Tools to Support Medical Readiness Training
A02-169 Diagnosis of Biological Threats Through Bioinformatics
A02-170 Combination of Tocopherol Derivatives and Antibiotics as Countermeasures to Hazards from Radiation
A02-171 Multiplex Bead Immunosassays for the Rapid Prognosis and Diagnosis of Insults from Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) (Sulfur Mustard and Nerve Agents)
A02-172 Cognitive Status Report Generator
A02-173 Ultra-compact, Lightweight Battlefield Splint
A02-174 Secure Medic Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
A02-175 Accelerated Drug Design Through Computational Biology
A02-176 Develop a Rapid and Sensitive Nucleic Acid-based Assay to Assess Human Responses to
Threat Agent Exposure
A02-177 Development of High Throughput Molecular Profiles for the Detection and Staging of Cancer
A02-178 Cold Sterilizer Solution for Sterilization of Medical Instruments in Austere Environments
A02-179 Robotic Patient Recovery
A02-180 Wear-and-Forget Electrocardiogram and Ventilation Sensor Suitable for Multi-day Use in
A02-181 Developing High-Throughput Inhibition Assays for Drug Discovery
A02-182 Developing Human-Compatible Needleless Delivery Systems for Administering Bioscavengers
A02-183 Rapid Serological Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus Infections
A02-184 Medical Modeling & Simulation – Exsanguinating Hemorrhage from Limbs
A02-185 In-situ Aquatic Biomonitoring Platform
A02-186 Development of an Effective Trapping System for Adult Mosquito Vectors of Dengue Fever
A02-187 Near Infrared Technology for the Detection of Cancer
A02-188 Rapid Microfluidic Salivary Component Analyzer to Monitor Hydration Levels in Deployed Soldiers
Natick Soldier Center (NSC)
A02-189 High Toughness Ceramics Containing Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement
A02-190 Temperature Responsive Fibers for Variable Loft of "Smart" Insulation
A02-191 Wearable Environmental EMI/RF Hardened Electrical and Optical Connectors
A02-192 Narrow-Band Infrared Obscurant Material
A02-193 Novel Clothing Nonwoven Liner Material - Nanofibers in Melt Blown Media
A02-194 Wearable Sensor Embedding Techniques
A02-195 Materials for Novel Ultralightweight Thin-film Flexible Displays
A02-196 Heat Stress Relief for Individuals Encapsulated in Protective Clothing
A02-197 Free Drop Concepts for Aerial Delivery
A02-198 Cogeneration: Quiet Power And Environmental Control for Command and Control Shelters
A02-199 Low Cost, High Precision, Low Payload Weight, Autonomous, Aerial Delivery System
A02-200 Rapid Helicopter Sling Load Hookup
A02-201 Heat-Driven Managed Cooling Cycle for Remote Refrigeration
A02-202 Compact Lightweight Containers for Hot Food Delivery
A02-203 Lightweight and Low-Cost Flexible Structure Textiles
A02-204 Crew Sustainment for Future Combat Vehicle
A02-205 Lightweight Airdrop Platform
Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC)
A02-206 Enhanced Electromagnetic Effects
A02-207 Advanced Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) Algorithm Development to Enhance the Lethality of Interceptors Against Maneuvering Targets
A02-208 Enhanced Lethality for Army Directed Energy Weapon Systems
A02-209 Precise and Accurate Dynamic Positioning Device
A02-210 Advanced Signal/Data Processing Algorithms
Simulation, Training & Instrumentation Command (STRICOM)
A02-211 Unified Position/Location Tracking and Communications Device for Live Urban Warfare Training
A02-212 Transportable Multi-Modal Interactive Device for the Dismounted Soldier
A02-213 Scene Management for Complex Environments
A02-214 Advanced Personal Digital Assistant for Training and Simulation
A02-215 Dynamic Composable Simulations for Robotic Behaviors
A02-216 Embedded C4I Training Using Courseware and a Game Engine
A02-217 Display for Embedded, Deployable Training Systems)
Tank Automotive RD&E Center (TARDEC)
A02-218 Development of Ballistic Resistant Airless 20 Inch Wheels for the Interim Armored Vehicle (IAV) and Future Combat Systems (FCS).
A02-219 Injury Potential From Lateral Crash Loading of Shoulder Harnesses
A02-220 Development and Methodology Solutions of Innovative Filtration System Components for
A02-221 Mitigating Damage During Hostile Takeover of a Vehicle
A02-222 Wheels over Track Optimization for Future Combat System (FCS) Application
A02-223 Nondestructive Inspection Technique for Detecting Defects in Metal Matrix Composites
A02-224 Laser-Triggered Light-Absorbing Spark Gap
A02-225 Field Repair Technology for Composite Bridges
A02-226 Diode Laser Technology for Directed Material Deposition (DMD) Processes
A02-227 Develop Dust Tolerance Inprovements and New Technology for Military Air Cleaner Blower Motor
A02-228 Integrated Signature Management Lightweight Armor Technology
A02-229 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Communication
A02-230 Motion Planning for Omni-Directional Vehicles
A02-231 A Cross-Discipline Design Workstation for Future Combat Systems (FCS) and 21st Century Truck
A02-232 High Power Density Packaging for High Temperature Silicon Carbide Power Modules
A02-233 Active Hit Avoidance Radar based on Ultra-Low Signature, Time-Modulated, Ultra-Wideband
A02-234 Virtual Prototyping Thermal Management Design Tool
A02-235 Security for Open Architecture Web-Centric Systems
A02-236 MEMS Applications for Automotive Diagnostics
A02-237 High Temperature Tribological Lubricants for Low Heat Rejection, High Temperature Operation
A02-238 Development of Methodology for Evaluating Air Cleaner Vibration Levels Experienced in Vehicles to Verify Performance of Advanced Filter Media
A02-239 Dynamic Flexible-Body Modeling for Complex Vehicle Systems
A02-240 On Vehicle Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Water Creation
A02-241 Lightweight Composite Armor Body Panels for Commercial Vehicles
A02-242 Removal of Sulfur in Defense Mobility Fuels to meet EPA mandates.
A02-243 Computational Nano-Science and Technology
A02-244 Virtual System Integration Lab (VSIL) – A Flexible System Integration Tool for Virtual
Prototyping & Simulation
A02-245 Ultra High Efficiency Blower System for Engine and Vehicle Applications
A02-246 Military and Commercial Vehicle Applications fo High Power LED Technology
A02-247 Innovative Tactical Vehicle Structures Utilizing Advanced Composite Materials
A02-248 Advanced Tire Coefficient Characteristics for Improved Vehicle Dynamics Models
A02-249 42-Volt Vehicle System Conversion
A02-250 Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) for Improving the Performance of Small Robotic Systems
A02-251 Integrated Mobility and Vehicle Design Tool
A02-252 Legged Robotics
ARMY 02.2 SBIR TOPICS
A02-001 TITLE: Innovative Energy Generation
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Small Arms
OBJECTIVE: To design and develop an innovative energy generation power supply that would able to be operated at storage and transportation environment and a gun launch environment or both.
DESCRIPTION: The envisioned power supply will have application for the Future Combat System and other related munition applications. The power supply must be able to generate/extract energy from existing environments including but not limited to: pressure, vibrations, temperature, humidity, shock or setback forces. In addition this technology/devices should have a high energy density and a low unit production cost. The power supply technology will have applications ranging in size from approximately the size of a AA battery to being incorporated into a Smart Cargo projectile or other FCS projectiles or submunitions. The resulting approach(s) cannot degrade existing performance, structural integrity of the projectile body and must minimize the weight amount of room required for the technology. Current power supply technology does not handle all relevant environments. A system must be designed to generate/extract power in either a storage (Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordinance (HERO) safe) and transportation environment, a gun launched environment or both while maintaining a 20-year shelf life. In the storage and transportation environment the technology must be able to survive a temperature range of –65 °F to 180 °F with temperature changes of only 3 to 10 degrees over a period of a day along with minimal changes in pressure and vibrations during transportation. In a gun launched environment the device must survive the temperature range along with forces up to 100,000 G’s and pressures up to 60,000 PSI along with any forces encountered while in flight. In both environments, rapid discharge of energy/power or slow discharge of energy/power could be utilized and the device must able to operate multimode: a) off, b) generating/extracting and c) discharging.
PHASE I: Design and develop a power source that is capable of functioning in a storage and transportation environment or a gun launched environment or both. Compare possible options to factors including but not limited to survivability, required volume, integration issues, power production requirements and efficiency. Provide results of proof of principle experimentation and demonstration with a roadmap indicating implementation to the aforementioned applications. From this study down select to candidate technology for transition to Phase II.
PHASE II: Build prototype device and test in a relevant environment. Prove power production within the specified limits and demonstrate survivability in operational environment.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Possibility for application not limited to the realm of munitions. Any application in which a power source is required could benefit from this technology. When the volume taken up by a power source is eliminated, the product becomes smaller, possible lighter, and allows space for additional features or functions.
1) Jaffe, B., Cook, W. R. and Jaffe, H., Piezoelectric Ceramics, 1971.
2) RRAPDS Environmental Sensor Overview & System Demo https://w4.pica.army.mil/asis/RRAPDS-Webjune01files/fram.htm Thermolectric generators http://www.hi-z.com
3) Bailey, J. C., 1999, "Comparison of Rechargeable Battery Technologies for Portable Devices," Conference on Small Fuel Cells and the Latest Battery Technology, Bethesda, MD.
4) Gozdz, A., 1999, "Flat Li-ion Batteries," Conference on Small Fuel Cells and the Latest Battery Technology, Bethesda, MD.
5) International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE Intelligent Sensing and Wireless Communications In Harsh Environments. Carlos M. Pereira, Michael S. Mattice, Robert Testa. March 6-8, 2000; Smart Structures and materials 2000, Newport Beach, California.
6) Smart Electronics and MEMS. The International Society for Optical Engineering. March 6-8, 2000, Newport Beach, California.
KEYWORDS: power, battery, smart projectile, sensor, fuze, power generation, smart munitions, guided munitions, microelectronics, prognostics, lethality, optimized resources
A02-002 TITLE: Innovative Wireless Communications
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM Small Arms
OBJECTIVE: To develop innovative secure communications technologies as alternatives to Radio Frequency (RF) wireless technologies for integration into the next generation of smart munitions for the Future Combat Systems (FCS).
DESCRIPTION: Communications technologies, such as those based on optical transmission and other novel technologies, are sought as alternatives to Radio Frequency (RF) wireless transmissions. The primary goal is to achieve a wireless sensor/actuator and communications/command capabilities within the munitions housing without the need for any physical wiring between sensors, actuators, processors and communications devices. Noise free and high bandwidth communication links between the processors, the sensors and actuators are particularly critical for the highly sensitive sensors such as MEMS based accelerometers and rate gyros being developed for guidance and control purposes. Such data communications networks also provide the possibility of being integrated into the structure of the munitions, thereby occupying minimal added volume and greatly simplifying the problems related to high-G hardening and surviving harsh environmental conditions. The target application for this effort shall be the Future Combat System (FCS) Multi-Role Armament Munitions Suite, such as the Smart Cargo Round and other FCS advanced munitions. The proposed concepts should be capable of withstanding the harsh firing environment, such as the high temperatures and pressures of firing and very high accelerations of sometimes in excess of 100,000 Gs. The methods being proposed in this topic do not emit energy, thus intelligence cannot be monitored by external means.
PHASE I: Design an innovative, wireless communication system as alternatives to RF transmissions to implement communication links between sensors, actuators, onboard processors and other communications devices.
PHASE II: Develop a prototype wireless, communication system.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The development of embedded non-RF secure, extremely low-noise and high bandwidth wireless communications network and protocol concepts for munitions that must survive harsh firing environment and could be integrated into the structure of the munitions are quite appropriate for any military and commercial system and devices that rely heavily on sensors, actuators and processor communication. One possible application of this technology is to fit it into the Multi Role Cannon Munition Suite.
Reference Specification: Future Combat System Multi-Role Armament Smart Cargo Projectile proposed characteristics:
Weight 18kg, Lightweight materials
Diameter 105mm, Maximize payload volume
G load approximately 20,000 G’s
Range 4-50 km, Stability and Maneuverability
1) International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE, Intelligent Sensing and Wireless Communications In Harsh Environments. Carlos M. Pereira, Michael S. Mattice, Robert Testa. March 6-8, 2000; Smart Structures and materials 2000, Newport Beach, California.
2) Smart Electronics and MEMS. The International Society for Optical Engineering. 6-8 March, 2000, Newport Beach, California.
KEYWORDS: FCS munitions, FCS, smart cargo projectile, smart munitions, guided munitions.
A02-003 TITLE: Extraction of Nitrocellulose from Gun Propellant Formulations
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate technology that enables the recovery and reuse of nitrocellulose (NC) from gun propellant formulations.
DESCRIPTION: The US stockpile of unserviceable, obsolete and excess munitions currently exceeds 500K tons. A portion of this inventory is made up of bulk propellant that has been downloaded from various munition items and kept in storage. Historically, the final disposition of this material has been destruction via open burning or via conventional incineration. Current demilitarization policy and planning is shifting the focus from destruction to resource recovery and reuse (R3). To this end, it is proposed to conduct a research effort to develop a process that employs chemical extraction techniques to remove and recover NC from gun propellant. This will primarily involve the evaluation and comparison of various solvents as extraction agents for NC. An evaluation matrix will be developed and used as the basis for carrying out the experimental design. In addition to solvent extraction efficiency, the matrix will include evaluation criteria such as environmental, safety and economic factors. Execution of the experimental design will result in the establishment of a preliminary process. The NC recovered in this process will then be subjected to specification analysis after which a ball powder propellant will be formulated from it and tested for chemical, physical and performance characteristics. The proposed project will establish a pilot process and then seek to develop optimized operating conditions.
PHASE I: Carry out laboratory testing to establish baseline parameters for the recovery of NC from gun propellants using solvent extraction technology. A structured experimental design will be prepared and executed in order to evaluate various candidate solvents. A preliminary process flowsheet and material balance will be developed based on the selected solvent.
PHASE II: Based on the preliminary process established in Phase I, a pilot scale process will be developed, evaluated and optimized. The NC recovered via this process will be tested for specification compliance and then formulated into a ball powder propellant that will also be subjected to quality and performance testing. Design data sufficient to allow scale-up to a prototype demilitarization process will be generated.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: In the area of demilitarization, this technology has application to many different propellant formulations in which NC is used. Development of environmentally benign solvent extraction technology could have application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
1) Joint Ordnance Commanders Group, Munitions Demil/Disposal Subgroup, Joint Demilitarization Study, US Army Defense Ammunition Center and School, Savanna, IL, September 1995. Reference can be obtained by contacting the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center, Technology Directorate, 1 C Tree Road, McAlester, OK 74501-9053. Telephone is 918-420-8084, e-mail is firstname.lastname@example.org.
KEYWORDS: Nitrocellulose, propellant, reuse, solvent extraction, demilitarization
A02-004 TITLE: High Power Miniature Laser
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO-Ground Combat and Support Systems (GCSS)
OBJECTIVE: Conduct feasibility study and identify enabling technologies for a miniature lethal high-power LASER source.
DESCRIPTION: Current laser systems that deliver energy levels over 100 Joules are far too large to be incorporated into a man-portable or hand-held system. In order to keep up with future soldier demand, current technology must be evolved to the point where such systems weigh less than 30 pounds, rather than hundreds of pounds. The next generation of mini-lasers is envisioned to be battery operated, and therefore must be very efficient. An overall system approach is needed to look at the entire system to improve efficiency and system size and weight. The Power Train technologies are the major enablers, which includes the High Energy/Power density power source-battery and power conditioning-energy storage/switching. Multi-functionality and efficiency of components is of utmost importance in order to reduce component count and thermal management, thereby enhancing compactness and reliability. Desired wavelength of the envisioned laser is ~ 800 nm, and a rep rate ~ 200 Hz, delivering ~100 J per pulse.
PHASE I: Investigate possible candidate technologies in solid-state LASER systems including but not limited to optics, stabilization, and power train. Identify the critical components and prepare an optimization and miniaturization plan to be demonstrated in Phase II. Conduct a trade-off study as to reduction in power output or increase in weight and overall geometry in order to arrive at an optimized size, i.e., a high efficiency system will result in less thermal loss, and therefore reduce the size of the thermal management system.
PHASE II: Construct a prototype system from recommendations based on the findings in Phase I. Make this system available for testing to demonstrate wavelength, rep rate, and power output.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Applications in miniaturization can benefit a host of Directed Energy concepts, including active protection systems, FCS, and Non-Lethal capabilities.
KEYWORDS: LASER, Directed Energy, Non-Lethal, Lethality, pulse power, energy
A02-005 TITLE: Innovative Lightweight Munitions
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM Small Arms
OBJECTIVE: Reduce the weight of the Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW) components through innovative means.
DESCRIPTION: The OICW is a dual munition (20mm and 5.56mm) weapon system for the infantry capable of firing kinetic energy projectiles and an air-bursting fragmentation munition. The OICW has a weight limit of twelve pounds. In order to meet this limit without sacrificing any of the current features of the weapon, alternative processing methods are often explored. Weight reduction of the plastic housing, the KE barrel of the gun and the grenade launcher barrels are a few of the parts that are being explored for potential weight reduction. This SBIR will explore forming techniques using functionally gradient and/or reinforced materials with the goal of reducing the overall weight of the parts being examined. The components could be produced from advanced castings and advanced forming techniques. Investigate processes that could include, but are not limited to, High Velocity Particle Compaction, laser forming and other processes that may permit producing components, combined with selective reinforcement of wear resistant materials for improved wear and durability.
PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of a process to produce advanced functional gradient material for the OICW application. The materials should include functionally gradient and/or reinforced materials from advanced forming techniques. A trade off analysis will be conducted to evaluate costs, weight and durability of the OICW components and the production method.
PHASE II: Determine hardware requirements specific to the selected process and design a prototype. Develop and refine the forming technique. Select evaluation criteria for the OICW components. Form selected OICW components using the selected process and gradient/reinforced materials. Evaluate the components based on cost, weight, mechanical properties, microstructure and other relevant criteria.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Demonstrate producibility of the components and develop an implementation plan for the OICW components. Potential commercial applications include the production of lightweight components in various industries that include aerospace and automotive industries.
OPERATING AND SUPPORT COST (OSCR) REDUCTION: It is an enabling technology, which reduces replacement costs.
1) The Project Manager Small Arms web site - http://w4.pica.army.mil/Opmsa/programs/Production/Objective_Weapons/oicw.htm
KEYWORDS: OICW, Producibility, Lightweight, Forming Techniques, High Velocity Particle Compaction, Laser Forming.
A02-006 TITLE: Nano-particle Capacitor Technology
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM Small Arms
OBJECTIVE: Design and build an innovative high capacitance, low inductance capacitor for use in various Directed Energy applications.
DESCRIPTION: Electrification of combat systems requires high energy density storage media. The extraction of stored energy in short pulses required for weaponry depends upon internal inductance and resistance of the storage media. Currently available capacitors need several orders of magnitude improvement in energy density as well as minimization of internal inductance and resistance. Capacitor technology based on nano-particles has a great potential for improving all the desired parameters. This concept of fabricating capacitors will revolutionize the electronics industry by reducing the size and enhancing the performance of electronic components and systems.
PHASE I: Investigate electrical parameters of nano-particles of various materials. Use this information to fabricate a single capacitor cell and characterize its performance. Develop a model to predict scalability to a kilojoule level.
PHASE II: Fabricate and characterize a 1 kJ device operating at greater than 1 kV.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: General power conditioning – power supplies for all types of military, commercial, and industrial applications. Pulsed power applications especially Directed Energy.
KEYWORDS: Directed Energy, power sources, high power, capacitors
A02-007 TITLE: Hyperspectral 3-D Detector
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO-Ground Combat and Support Systems (GCSS)
OBJECTIVE: Develop an optical and/or infrared detector component that simultaneously acquires the spectral intensity across the entire 2-D field of view for at least 16 spectral bands.
DESCRIPTION: Hyperspectral detectors rely on a starring array to measure either the intensity of multiple spectral bands for a 1-D field of view (line scanner) and acquire the other dimension by scanning over time the line, or, the detectors scan over time the spectral band intensities while acquiring the intensity of a single band simultaneously over a 2-D field of view. This solicitation is for a detector system which scans the entire spatial 2-D field of view and measures the intensity at each pixel of at least 16 spectral bands simultaneously. Such a detector would acquire the data cube, (x, y, wavelength) intensities simultaneously.
PHASE I: Design the proposed system and provide theoretical proof that the proposed method will work. Provide clear documentation that the proposed system can be fabricated. Obtain confirmation that the system can be built and commitment from a fabricator to build it.
PHASE II: Fabricate and deliver to the government a prototype system. Test the system providing test results that show latency between the various pixels, signal-to-noise, spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution.
PHASE III DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Such devices have broad application in agriculture (crop evaluation), medical diagnostics and imaging, process control of chemicals and materials of all sorts, non-destructive inspection of products, detection of biological molecules…
1) Jim Jafolla, et. al., “ASIC Implementation of Real-Time Spectral/Spatial Algorithms For Autonomous Target Detection,” SPIE Imaging Spectrometry VI, July 2000. ADDITIONAL REFERENCES ON FOLLOWING PAGE.
2) Mark Dombroski, Paul Willson, and Clayton LaBaw, “Countering CC&D Through Spectral Matched Filtering of Hyperspectral Imagery”, National Infrared International Symposia (IRIS), John Hopkins, University, Baltimore, MD (November 1997).
3) Mark Dombroski, Paul Willson, and Clayton LaBaw, “Defeating Camouflage and Finding Explosives Through Spectral Matched Filtering of Hyperspectral Imagery”, SPIE Counter-Terrorism Conference, Boston, MA (November 1996).
KEYWORDS: hyperspectra, imaging detectors, sensors, infrared detection, optics, camera
A02-008 TITLE: Precision Robotics for Tomography
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Tank and Medium-Caliber Armament System
OBJECTIVE: Develop an innovative precision robotic system which moves and manipulates munition items from a normal production line into appropriate precise positions for computed tomography (CT) inspection systems.
DESCRIPTION: This solicitation is for research and development of components necessary to robotically move objects that contain explosives and energetic material from floor, platform, or conveyor, and position the object in an x-ray beam, translating and rotating it as required for acquiring the hundreds of images by generic cone beam computed tomographic inspection systems. One might think that off-the-shelf robotics would apply, but the precision necessary and the extreme safety requirements for handling energetic explosive muntions exceed that of current robotics. The government has only recently begun inspecting munition items using generic CT where the material handling is done manually. Historically, the material handling and the CT are custom built in one integrated system for inspection of a particular item. The limitation of such a system to one end item makes them prohibtively expensive. If now, a generic robotic system (as defined below) can be developed and implemented in conjunction with the government's generic CT, cost savings of millions of dollars would be reaped. X-ray computer tomographic (CT) imaging of munition items requires the item be rotated, translated, and positioned repeatably to within 0.001 inches and five arc seconds. Items to be moved vary from ounces to 200 pounds. During the x-ray process, all parts of the robotic arm that might be in the x-ray imaging space, must be of low-density material. Parts of the robot must not extend more than a few millimeters into the space surrounding the object perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Munition items range in diameter from 20 millimeters to 155 millimeters and in height from a few centimeters to one meter. To meet safety requirements, the robotic system that picks up and manipulates munitions must have adequate sensor feedback and secondary safety devices to prevent the item from being detonated either mechanically or electrically. Motors, sensors and controls used for the system must be proper for explosive items and an explosive environment. The actual munition holding devices must be such as to not interfere in the acquisition of the CT data. This is non-trivial. The combination of attributes the system needs are not available in the market place. This difficulty has stymied the fabrication of generic automated assembly line systems for the inspection of munition items by computed tomography. The result is that generic CT systems, which the Army has developed, can be used only with manual handling of munitions. This topic requires research in innovative tactile and vision sensors and feedback loops for motion control, innovative methods of securing items so that under all conditions the munition will not be dropped or slammed into an obstacle, and error budget management between various component manipulators.
PHASE I: Design a feasibility concept for components of the precision robotics tomography system which can meet the safety requirements for explosive and energetic materials and simultaneously position munition objects which range in diameter from 20 millimeters to 155 millimeters and weigh from eight ounces to 200 pounds.
PHASE II: Develop a prototype for the precision robotics tomography system.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: CT is becoming a common non-destructive tool for inspecting manufactured items. CT systems, unlike many other processes within the manufacturing plant, do not employ robotic arms as solicited. With such an arm, CT non-destructive systems will merge well into the industrial production lines. Dual use will include numerous production plants, both government owned and privately owned. The robotic arm solicited will enhance the expansion and versatility of CT on production lines.
2) H. Phillips and J. J. Lannutti, "Measuring Physical Density with X-ray Computed Tomography," NDT&E International 30, 339 (1997).
KEYWORDS: robotic arm, automation, production lines, robotics, manufacturing equipment, tomography
A02-009 TITLE: Non-Conventional Munitions
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM Small Arms
OBJECTIVE: Design and build a replacement for the traditional Flash-Bang grenade capable of multiple “flash-bang” events that repeat on a predetermined time scale without the use of explosives or pyrotechnics. This time scale can be set at manufacture, or preferably, selectable by the user. The final product must incorporate both the “flash” and the “bang,” although the method used to create these events is up to the designer. The target not only consists of personnel targets, but the electronic equipment they use as well.
DESCRIPTION: Current “Flash-Bang” technology is outdated and has its disadvantages. Those disadvantages are the presence of flame and the creation of smoke. These factors reduce the effectiveness of the system. The smoke creates an obscurant situation that can impair the rapid infiltration of the soldier into the room, and the possibility of fire can ultimately consume the room with flame, possibly harming non-combatants or the soldier himself. These issues need to be addressed in an alternative to the explosive device currently being utilized. Advances in acoustics, light generation, and other directed energy sources allow for the elimination of pyrotechnics and explosives in non-lethal grenade applications. A device that creates a startle effect can provide the soldier with a few seconds to gain entry to an area without opposition from the momentarily incapacitated foe. Directed energy technology also opens the door to a preemptive strike grenade that has similar effects on electronic devices present as well. A desire for a multi-event device has also been shown from the user community. A series of events happening in rapid succession over the course of 2 to 5 seconds can increase the overall effectiveness of the system.
PHASE I: Develop a theoretical design for the replacement device. Provide a trade-off study of candidate technologies that will lead to a down select for the required “flash” and “bang” as well as the anti-materiel effects. Provide mathematical model for the function of the device, including, but not limited to the intensity of the flash effect, the sound pressure level of the bang, and the range of electronic disruption. Also, develop the technology and show models for the methodology used to create the multiple events.
PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype system in a realistic environment. Provide a sample to undergo testing at ARDEC for comparison to traditional “flash bang” system.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Possibility exists of incorporating technologies that could be intrinsically non-lethal, and could be used in the civilian realm as well as the military. Law enforcement, the Department of Corrections, and the US Military could all benefit from a “Flash Bang” like device that eliminates the risk of fire and degradation of “friendly” vision due to smoke. The same technology could transition to Area Denial type applications.
KEYWORDS: Directed Energy, acoustics, strobe, light, lasers, area denial.
A02-010 TITLE: Novel High Intensity Green or Blue Strobe Effect
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM Small Arms
OBJECTIVE: Design and build a novel, high intensity green or blue strobe for non-lethal effects.
DESCRIPTION: In an effort to maximize the “stun” effect of a bright light, conventional or laser, research has indicated that the human eye is most sensitive to green or blue light. In order to capitalize on this, a high intensity green or blue strobe needs to be developed for insertion into other systems. It should require relatively low power (in the area of a 9-volt battery) to operate for a duration not less than 30 seconds. The frequency of the strobe can be random, preprogrammed, or selectable by the user.
PHASE I: Develop a theoretical design for a high intensity blue or green strobe. Show an analysis of intensity vs. power requirements. Show models that predict the strobe frequency and intensity at various ranges.
PHASE II: Construct and demonstrate a prototype device in a relevant environment. Optimize system for size, power consumption and output as required by current ARDEC needs. Deliver a final prototype for Government testing.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: This technology could replace current “Dazzler” type lasers in the field. They have a host of applications ranging from the Military to civilian police forces and the Department of Corrections. They are beneficial anytime a momentary stun effect is desired to provide a tactical advantage in a non-lethal situation.
KEYWORDS: Directed Energy, acoustics, strobe, light, lasers, area denial.
A02-011 TITLE: Small Scale Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) Platform
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM Mines, Countermines, Demolitions (PM MCD)
OBJECTIVE: To develop a remotely operated robotic platform that can be transformed from an airborne configuration to a ground configuration for delivering a lethal payload into target areas such as a small cave, into a building, or on top of a structure, or simply to be near a high-value enemy asset. The airborne platform will require the development and integration of a control, navigation and communication system that will allow for a semi-autonomous operation of the platform beyond visual range to deliver the lethal payload.
DESCRIPTION: Military and special operations under very rugged terrain conditions or in a complex urban environment can be greatly enhanced with a transformable unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) that can be converted into an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) for penetrating into a small cave or building entrance to provide surveillance and to deliver a special lethal payload. It is also conceivable to be able to convert one UAV into multiple UGV’s to provide multi-tasking (visual data, acoustic data, laser target designation) and multi-target defeat capability. Present UGVs have demonstrated many potential capabilities and come in many various forms and sizes. Some designs have even demonstrated limited wall climbing capability. Similarly, UAV designs are found in various forms and sizes with different payload capacities. UAV and UGV technology have been advancing so rapidly in the commercial sector that with suitable modifications, these designs can be utilized for military and special operations. A limited development effort is required for the transformation of the commercial UAV’s and UGV’s into a low-cost, portable, military rugged, small package, and light weight design usable by the soldier for specific missions. These transformable UAV and UGV packages must be kept at a weight and size configuration to allow them to be transportable by one man. The total system weight should be kept under 50 lbs. (i.e. platform, fuel, payload, etc.) and the packaged system must be easily transported by one man while on-foot or in a transport vehicle (i.e. truck, Humvee, etc.) One operational scenario is to develop a command & control link capability for the UAV & UGV platform to quickly fly semi-autonomously to a location (i.e. 10 km or beyond) and then have an operator, at the new location, take control of it for final command and operation. The transformable UAV and UGV platform must have the capability to carry video surveillance, electronic sensors, lethal and non-lethal payloads. Semi-autonomous/autonomous operation is also possible to provide search, protect and destroy missions.
This topic calls for investigation of a wide range of technology areas for potential application in the development of specialized UAV and UGV systems. Technologies (i.e. video imaging, acoustic sensors, secured digital control/communications, etc.) have to be researched and developed taking advantage of existing electronics technology capability for potential application on the specialized UAV/UGV transformable system concepts. The investigation will commence by researching individual electronics command/control and flight control components technologies suitable for low cost UAV/UGV platforms. The components will be developed and tested to determine their limitation and feasibility for use in developing the UAV/UGV system. It is anticipated that several candidate designs of the transformable UAV/UGV concepts will be developed, and demonstration of a full-up UAV system for semi-autonomous operation will be conducted. The UAV system design will incorporate features and technology that will facilitate further enhancement to a level of autonomous operation. One or several UAV-UGV transformable platforms will be investigated with at least one chosen configuration to be designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate its ability to deliver a lethal payload into a target such as a cave or building. All necessary navigation, command/control and sensor packages will be included to allow for beyond visual range semi-autonomous flight operation, remote controlled operation of the platforms, and the ability to provide real-time data recording for follow-on analysis. A lethal payload delivery demonstration will also be conducted against a selected target
PHASE I: Design a low cost dispensable UAV/UGV system/platform that uses state-of-the-art technologies to deliver payloads semi-autonomously. Investigate a wide range of innovative technologies for weight reduction, target acquisition, commmand and control, propulsion, etc., for components required for this feasibility concept.
PHASE II: Develop a prototype UAV/UGV system for semi-autonomous operation from an optimized feasibility concept.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The UAV-UGV technology can be used in a variety of law enforcement applications such as surveillance, delivery of special sensors for the detection of chemical/biological hazards under special terrain and operational conditions. Use of UAV's for law enforcement, border patrol, entertainment industry as well as military applications is well established. The availability of a low cost control, navigation, and communication system for small-scale UAV’s would facilitate the widespread deployment of low cost air platforms, and to allow new applications to be generated. Phase III will provide advanced engineering and product development toward a low-cost production design and commercialization.
1) E. Krotkov and J. Blitch, "The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) tactical mobile robotics program," International Journal of Robotics Research 18(7), pp. 769-776, 1999
2) R. Murphy, "Marsupial Robotics for Law Enforcement," Proceedings of SPIE, Enabling Technologies for Law Enforcement and Security, Vol. 4232, pp. 428-432, 5-8 November 2000, Boston, USA.
3) William Devine, "Low Cost Microsensors for Surveillance and Monitoring," Proceedings of SPIE, Enabling Technologies for Law Enforcement and Security, Vol. 4232, pp. 305-312, 5-8 November 2000, Boston, USA.
4) P.R. Chandler etc., "Research issues in autonomous control of tactical UAVs," Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Volume 1, pp. 384-398, 1998.
5) W-L Guan and et al., "Development of low-cost differential Global Positioning System for remotely piloted vehicles," Journal of Aircraft, Volume 36, July/August 1999, pp. 617-625
6) D. Withs, "Simple loitering flight path for high altitude uncrewed aerial vehicles," Journal of Aircraft Volume 38 No. 2, Mar/Apr 2001, pp. 388-389.
KEYWORDS: Lethal Payload, Sensors, Small-Scale UAV, Small –Scale UGV, Autonomous
A02-012 TITLE: Advanced Smart Munitions Transceiver
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM Mines, Countermines, Demolitions (PM MCD)
OBJECTIVE: Design and build a 140 GHz Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) prototype transceiver that could be used as a radar front end in advanced smart munitions sensors/seekers.
DESCRIPTION: Smart munition cannon-fired millimeter-wave (MMW) radar sensors and seekers are usually designed to operate in the 35 and 94 GHz atmospheric windows. These frequencies have offered a compromise between antenna beamwidth and sidelobe levels and other factors such as clear weather atmospheric attenuation, bandwidth, weather attenuation, obscurant performance, range, cost, available MMW component size, and MMW component performance. There has always been some need to achieve smaller beamwidths by using higher MMW frequencies; however, the-state-of-the-art of MMW technology (performance, cost, and availability) and the decreased radar range performance (due to increased clear and adverse weather attenuation) precluded going to these higher frequencies. The steady advance of MMW science and technology prescribes that the time may now be ripe for the jump to 140 GHz (the next atmospheric window) sensors and seekers. Although the increased atmospheric attenuation at 140 GHz is very real, there are some applications which don’t require long range capabilities (such as area denial, WAM-type systems); in addition, strong atmospheric attenuation may be desirable, in some applications, to preclude enemy detection of the radar signal. The current SBIR effort would use the existing MMW science and technology base to design and develop a generic 140 GHz FMCW transceiver prototype. The design objectives for this transceiver are: it will be packaged into a volume of less than 50 cubic centimeters (not including antenna), have a tuning range of at least 2 GHz centered at 140 GHz, have a linearity better than 3%, have a power output greater than 10 milliwatts, and have a radio frequency (RF) to IF gain greater than 10 dB at 140 GHz. The transceiver would not include required power supplies or variable voltage sources; these would be external to the transceiver envisioned in this SBIR.
PHASE I: Design a 140 GHz FMCW transceiver. Specify all components and their performance parameters.
PHASE II: Develop and fabricate a prototype of the transceiver designed in Phase I. Demonstrate (through laboratory measurements) that all design objectives have been met.
PHASE III DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: This transceiver would have wide utility in civilian applications such as: communication systems, collision avoidance radars for automotive vehicles, intrusion detectors, high frequency police radars, fluid height measuring systems, etc.
1) C. K. Yong, R. Sloan, and L. E. Davis, “A Ka-band indium-antimonide junction circulator,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 49, Issue 6, Part I, pp. 1101-1106, June 2001.
2) C. Pobanz, M. Matloubian, V. Radisic, G. Raghavan, M. Case, M. Micovic, M. Hu, C. Nguyen, S. Weinreb, and L. Samoska, “High performance MMICs with submillimeter wave InP-based HEMTs, ”Proceedings of the 2000 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, pp. 67-70.
3) C. W. Pobanz, M. Matloubian, M. Lui, H.-C. Sun, M. Case, C. M. Ngo, P. Janke, T. Gaier, and L. Samoska, “A high-gain monolithic D-band InP HEMT amplifier,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 34, Issue 9, pp. 1219-1224, Sept. 1999.
4) S. Weinreb, T. Gaier, M. Barsky, Y. C. Leong, and L. Samoska, “High-gain 150-215 GHz MMIC amplifier with integral waveguide transitions,” IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, Vol. 9, Issue 17, pp. 282-284, July 1999.
5) J. Weinzierl, Ch. Fluhrer, and H. Brand, “Dielectric waveguides at submillimeter wavelengths,” 1998 Terahertz Electronics Proceedings, 1998 Sixth International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, pp. 166-169.
6) M. Wollitzer, J. Buechler, and J.-F. Luy, “High efficiency planar oscillator with RF power of 100 mW near 140 GHz,” 1997 Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol. 3, IEEE MTT-S 1997 International Microwave Symposium, pp. 1205-1208.
7) S. Weinreb, P. C. Chao, and W. Copp, “Full-waveguide band, 90 to 140 GHZ, MMIC amplifier module,” 1997 Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol. 3, IEEE MTT-S 1997 International Microwave Symposium, pp. 1279-1280.
8) R. Judaschke and E. Sckunemann, “Design and optimization of millimeter-wave IMPATT oscillators,” 1996 Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol. 2, IEEE MTT-S 1996 International Microwave Symposium, pp. 939-942.
9) M. Wollitzer, J. Buechler, F. Schaffler, and J.-F. Luy, “D-band Si-IMPATT diodes with 300 mW output power at 140 GHz,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 32, Issue 2, pp. 122-123, 18 Jan. 1996.
10) H. Wang, R. Lai, D. C. W. Lo, D. C. Streit, P. H. Liu, R. M. Dia, M. W. Pospieszalski, and J. Berenz, “A 140-GHz monolithic low noise amplifier,” IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, Vol. 5, Issue 5, pp. 150-152, May 1995.
11) R. Judaschke and E. Sckunemann, “140 GHz GaAs double-Read IMPATT diodes,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 31, Issue 7, pp. 582-583, 30 March 1995.
KEYWORDS: Sensors, seekers, radar, smart munitions, millimeter waves.
A02-013 TITLE: Global Positioning System (GPS) In-Theater Reconstitution
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO-Ground Combat and Support Systems
OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative, affordable replacements for the Global Positioning System (GPS) that a commander can deploy swiftly within a Theater's Area of Operations.
DESCRIPTION: The destruction or degradation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation (for example, by counter-orbiting debris deployments or ground-based missile or laser attack) or its five associated worldwide ground stations (perhaps in terrorist attacks), would represent a catastrophic loss of capability to our armed forces, especially in the midst of a theater conflict. While it may not be possible to replicate the best accuracy of the fully functional GPS system in such a circumstance, it may be possible to restore GPS-like capability to a theater's area of operations, allowing reasonable navigation over terrain and situational awareness using existing GPS receivers. The contractor would investigate the feasibility of providing accuracies sufficient for navigation and various types of weapons targeting. This system would support vehicles and infantry with GPS receivers, but without inertial navigation equipment. It could also augment or calibrate ground vehicle inertial systems. Offerors would generate a concept design, system architecture and deployment/operations concept. The offeror would demonstrate the system through simulation. The replacement system should appear as newly acquired "satellites" from the receiver's perspective subsequent to the loss or degradation of the Global Positioning Systems (GPS). The substitute system must be reasonably accurate, and as precise as the Global Positioning System (GPS) in normal operations. The replacement system should provide the same precision and accuracy relative to at least one agreed-upon reference point within a Theater's Area of Operations.
PHASE I: Research should focus on parametric concept design and development of a simulation of in-theater GPS Reconstitution assets including deployment mechanisms (such as howitzers), flight bodies (for example, a modified ground-launched, loitering round such as QuickLook), and ground stations. The simulation should incorporate parametric trade-studies of the error budgets of individual components on the overall system. The size of candidate ground-based and air-borne assets should be estimated and possible issues with feasibility and development identified.
PHASE II: On determining one or more likely concepts, develop detailed designs of prototype reconstitution elements and refined models in simulation, and build hardware sufficient to conduct a hardware-in-the-loop demonstration of the operation of the replacement system. Conduct testing and analysis to calibrate its performance against the GPS and refine the concept. Phase II deliverables should include a static prototype(s) of the airborne GPS reconstitution element built to target weight and geometry of a contemplated fielded configuration and a prototype of the ground control system, sufficient for a demonstration of feasibility. The contractor is anticipated to use innovative testing techniques to circumvent the high cost of building flying prototypes or attaching prototypes to aircraft for captive flight test. The final demonstration should consist of a feasibility demonstration sufficiently convincing so as to allow serious consideration of the concept as a new start program given demonstration success.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Continuous GPS availability is vital for both navigation and targeting in modern military operations. There are also important commercial applications. A swiftly deployed, ground-launched GPS Reconstitution system could benefit precise navigation both in the air and on coastal waterways. Commercial vessels depend increasingly on GPS. Without a replacement capability, a sudden, unexpected loss of GPS capability might result in substantial loss of life and property in certain critical circumstances.
OPERATING AND SUPPORT COST REDUCTION (OSCR): Existing concepts for GPS Reconstitution address electronic counter-measures to GPS jamming, but assume that the GPS system is still globally available. However, even in the face of local jamming, a GPS Reconstitution capability that can operate in a local theater without requiring crewed aircraft and sophisticated counter-measures would reduce operation and support costs
1) J. Walsh, W. Davis, TACOM-ARDEC publication, “The QuickLook Munition in the OneSAF Testbed Baseline MMBLVersion,” projected date Dec. 2001.
2) Federation of American Scientists website:
3) )The Aerospace Corporation website: http://www.aero.org/publications/GPSPRIMER/
KEYWORDS: GPS, reconstitution, artillery, UAV, QuickLook, navigation, targeting, communication
A02-014 TITLE: Enhanced Alternative Kinetic Energy Penetrators
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Tank and Medium-Caliber Armamen System
OBJECTIVE: To enhance the penetration capability and behind armor effects of tungsten alloy projectiles via chemistry, mechanical properties and geometry variations, as well as processing innovations or other novel means.
DESCRIPTION: There is a potential for mounting international political pressure to halt the US in its continued use of Depleted Uranium as a preferred penetrator material. Consequently, an environmentally friendly tungsten alloy penetrator that can duplicate the performance properties of a Depleted Uranium rod at equal or higher density would be of great value to the Government. Nano sized tungsten particles, single crystal technologies, and novel approaches theoretically could be applied to enhance the tungsten alloys properties in the areas needed. The ultimate goal is to demonstrate a candidate penetrator that meets or exceeds current Depleted Uranium performance against current and future threat targets.
PHASE I: Using the current monolithic 93% tungsten-alloy as a baseline penetrator material, propose potential changes and/or alternatives that can be implemented to enhance this material’s penetration mechanics and behind armor debris effects. These are to include, but not be limited to, the optimization of its metallurgical characteristics, chemistries, mechanical properties, unique geometries, or other novel approaches.
PHASE II: Develop a prototype enhanced alternative kinetic energy penetrator and test it to ensure that it meets the required capabilities.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The technology developed under this program has potential for other military and commercial applications. Signficant cost and development time savings could apply to weapons programs for the Army, Navy, Marines, and the Air Force. For commercial applications this technology might be used in the well-drilling industry which currently employs shaped charge liners to assist in the penetration of rock formations. The shortcomings of this approach is that shaped charges do not penetrate with any consistency. One way of improving on this capability would be the use of a tungsten rod that could be tailored to provide a much more consistent width and depth hole in rock formations.
OPERATING AND SUPPORT COST (OSCR) REDUCTION: An environmentally friendly tungsten alloy penetrator would eliminate most of the stockpile surveillance and environmental clean-up costs associated with maintaining the current depleted uranium war reserve.
1) Scientific American, The Science of the Silver Bullet, 5 March 2001.
KEYWORDS: Tungsten, penetrators, ductility, kinetic energy
A02-015 TITLE: Innovative Hydrogen Embrittlement Predictor
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM Arms
OBJECTIVE: Develop an analytical method and associated software to predict hydrogen embrittlement in high-strength steel alloy components.
DESCRIPTION: High-strength steel alloys are typically used for gun tubes and projectile structures. Many of these alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement under sustained tensile load. The Army needs an analytic method that can be used with finite element analysis results to predict component resistance to hydrogen embrittlement in highly stressed components.
PHASE I: Develop and/or demonstrate a generic analytical method that can predict critical stress intensity factors as a function of mechanical, micro-mechanical, and chemical properties of an alloy. Provide proof of concept examples for munitions alloys such as 300M, AISI 4340, AF1410, 18Ni, and AerMet (R) 100, Examples of high-strenth aluminum and titanium alloys are also desirables.
PHASE II: Experimentally validate the analytical method developed in Phase I through a series of structural component tests that are either consistent with standard tests or representative of potential Army structures, loads, and temperature ranges. Incorporate the generic analytic method in a user-friendly software package for a personal computer.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: A simple method to predict hydrogen embrittlement might be particularly useful to the automotive, airplane, refining, and piping industries where highly-stressed components remain under tensile load. The small business could refine their computer program and generate example problems that would apply to the above mentioned industries. A users guide, a theory manual, and an examples manual could be developed for the user-friendly computer program.
1) Spencer, G. L., and Duquette, D. J., "The Role of Vanadium Carbide Traps in Reducing the Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of High Strength Alloy Steels," Report TR-ARCCB-TR-98016, Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY, Benet Labs, Aug, 1998.
2) Graves, J. H., "Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and properties of AerMet 100 Steel", Army Research Laboratory, ARL-TR-507, August, 1994.
3) You, C. P., Thomposn, A. W., Bernstein, I. M., "Ductile Fracture Process in 7075 Aluminum", Metallurgical & Materials Transactions A-Physical Metallurgy & Materials Science, v 26A, n2, pp. 407-415, Feb, 1995.
4) Nguyen, D., Thompson, A. W., Bernstein, I. M., "Microstructural Effects on Hydrogen Embrittlement in a High Purity 7075 Aluminum Alloy", v 35, n 10, p. 2417-2425, Oct 1987.
KEYWORDS: Fracture toughness, hydrogen embrittlement, micro-strucure, steel alloys, stress intensity factor
A02-016 TITLE: Driver Assist Smart Alignment System
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO, Ground Combat Support Systems
OBJECTIVE: To design, develop and integrate novel sensors and vehicle alignment systems for ammunition logistics operations.
DESCRIPTION: It is envisioned that this technology will precisely guide the Palletized Load System/Heavy Expanded-Mobility Tactical Truck-Load Handling System (PLS/HEMTT-LHS) driver to streamline the load and unload operation. It will enable the vehicle operator to interface the Container Roll-in/Out Platform (CROP) flawlessly with other transportation systems, such as MILVAN containers and USAF aircraft logistical cargo rail systems. This new technology will permit cargo movement operations to be done without mistakes and with no on-the-ground spotters through day/night/adverse weather conditions, thus drastically reducing current cargo handling times. This innovative system will also reduce vehicle operator training requirements and minimize load/unload collision accidents and binds, protecting soldiers, vehicles, aircraft, and equipment. Currently, the PLS and the HEMTT-LHS trucks are the primary “workhorse” tactical cargo vehicles of the Army in terms of transporting ammunition and supplies. Using a large hydraulic hook, these vehicles are able to pick up a flatrack or CROP loaded with supplies onto their frame for transport. Both the flatrack and the CROP have metal an “A-frame” structure at one end to facilitate interface (hook pick-up point) with the transport vehicle. The A-frame stands approximately four feet off of the ground, giving the driver sufficient visibility and margin of error to make it possible for most drivers to pick up the platform without a problem.
However, there are many applications where visual alignment proves insufficient. The primary area for consideration is CROP to aircraft interface. New technology has made it possible to adapt the bottom of a CROP to fit onto the logistical loading rails of the aircraft. However, unless the aircraft and the truck are perfectly aligned, the CROP will bind halfway up the ramp due to its length (20 ft.), significantly increasing the loading time of the aircraft and possibly damaging the aircraft.
A second area where alignment is crucial concerns off loading the CROP from the PLS or HEMTT-LHS truck into an Army MILVAN (ISO) container. Again, due to its length, unless the CROP is precisely aligned, it will bind in the container. This not only increases the loading time, it also can damage the container, the CROP, and the cargo.
A third area where alignment has become an issue is in proposed future systems. Some of these systems incorporate CROP-like platforms that do not have an A-frame. This means that the “pick-up target” for the driver’s load handling system will be inches off the ground, no longer easily visible out of the cab, making some sort of new sensor alignment technology mandatory. Similarly, even with the current CROP, darkness and adverse weather conditions can make the truck/CROP interface very difficult, slow, and manpower intensive.
SAFETY: Dependent upon the design characteristics, there may be an additional benefit of alerting the vehicle operator if someone or something is between the vehicle and docking area - thereby enhancing operational safety.
The solution for these interface problems is a novel guidance system that will guide the truck driver back to the “target” with a very high degree of accuracy. This system will have to recognize and orient itself to a variety of physical objects such as the back of an aircraft or an Army MILVAN. Its spatial orientation will include three-dimensional awareness as well as range finding, both with a very small tolerance for error. The system will then provide active feedback to the driver as he/she approaches the object. Possible application technology areas may include SONAR, RADAR, laser imaging, or advanced Machine Vision techniques, but currently no technology exists that can provide the necessary level of precision in all possible operating scenarios.
PHASE I: Design a novel driver assist smart alignment system concept.
PHASE II: Develop a prototype of the driver assist smart alignment system.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: This technology has both military and commercial applications. The military application will be for the PLS/HEMTT-LHS truck which is the Army tactical cargo vehicle. This system/technology has many applications in the commercial sector. Any transportation/cargo system that must interface with another transportation/cargo system has the potential to be improved by this innovative system, making the potential market massive.
OPERATING AND SUPPORT COST (OSCR) REDUCTION: This system will decrease operation and support costs by expediting the CROP hardware interfaces at the nodes of the transportation system, such as onto an airplane. It will also increase operational safety and aid in eliminating damaged and destroyed equipment such as MILVAN containers and aircraft cargo rail systems.
Please note: The interfaces of the PLS truck in the animations found on these websites. They offer visual representations of the types of vehicle alignment scenarios that can be found in the field.
KEYWORDS: Operator Assist, Vehicle Alignment, CROP, transportation, reduced handling time, increased safety
A02-017 TITLE: Innovative Lightweight Hybrid Ammunition Container
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO, Ground Combat Support Systems
OBJECTIVE: Design and fabricate a lightweight container, rectangular or cylindrical using composite/metal hybrid materials for various large and small caliber ammunitions. The lightweight ammo container is intended to enhance the logistics efficiency in the field as well as provide venting for Insensitive Munitions (IM) performance in the event of fire. This technology can be readily applied to 2.75 Rocket container for both lightweight and IM purpose.
DESCRIPTION: Currently, ammunitions are packaged in heavy rectangular or cylindrical steel containers. There were several attempts in the past to substitute the material by using thermoplastic and composite for designing a lightweight and low cost container. The thermoplastic design did not perform well due to temperature problems. Conventional composite materials showed a lot of promises in structural performance but still have problems in the critical areas such as the seal design. Therefore a hybrid container fabricated with innovative composite materials and lightweight metal would improve the success of a lightweight ammo container. The composite materials must have a high strength to weight ratio and capable of binding with metal part. It is desired that the weight of the lightweight hybrid container to be reduced by 25% or more compared to an existing design. Throughout the temperature range of 160F and –65F, the lightweight container is required to maintain a 3 psi seal, meet the rough handling tests consisting of secured cargo and loose cargo vibration followed by 3 foot drop tests. The lightweight container must maintain its dimension stability and seal integrity for long term storage. It is also desired that the materials selected be commercially available and cost effective.
PHASE I: Conduct a materials selection and develop a container conceptual designs. Conduct feasibility studies of the conceptual design with reference to the rough handling requirement per MIL-STD-1904 and IM fast cook-off requirement per MIL-STD-2105B. Also provide the processing methods and estimated unit production cost to the Army for evaluation.
PHASE II: Fabricate a small quantity of prototype containers selected from PHASE I. The containers will be delivered to the Army for qualification testing and IM testing for venting.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: In addition for use as ammo container, the lightweight container can be used as a regular transit container to package valuable instruments such as camera, video equipment, medical equipment, etc. in the industry.
1) MIL-STD-1904, Military Standard, Design and Test Requirements for Level A Ammunition Packaging.
2) MIL-DTD-2105B, Military Standard, Hazard Assessment Tests for Non-Nuclear Munitions.
KEYWORDS: Ammo container, lightweight, composite, hybrid, seal, Insensitive Munitions, IM
A02-018 TITLE: Adaptable/ Reusable Hardware/Software Architectures and Components for Future Combat System Automated Resupply
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Unmanned Ground Vehicle & System Joint Project Off
OBJECTIVE: Develop a generic, multi-mission capable, reusable modular hw/sw suite and development environment to support advanced supervisory/semi-autonomous and autonomous control of multiple platforms for materiel handling, resupply and logistics automation for Future Combat System (FCS) applications.
DESCRIPTION: Recent advances in multi-agent intelligent systems technologies, software engineering, non-supervisory learning technologies, multi-sensory based perception and reasoning under uncertainty, collaborative planning, high performance robotic manipulation, visualization technology, and intelligent controls, now make possible a new generation of low cost intelligent systems capable of performing resupply functions under combat conditions without exposing friendly personnel. Current systems are outdated and employ manpower intensive tele-operation technology with high cost, custom hardware/software architectures. Revolutionary advances over current state-of-the-art technology is critical to meeting the FCS logistics requirements. Specifically, the computer science and algorithm base for intelligent systems and supporting software development environments now enable streamlined development and standardization of intelligent software enabled control systems which can be retrofitted on a broad range of legacy platforms as well as next generation FCS robotic platforms to reduce software cost and reduce manpower requirements. The key technical challenge will be to fully exploit this emerging science base and provide an integrated architecture and solution approach that addresses fundamental problems of mobility and base motion effects, flexible task level control and automation, multi-sensor integration, multi-manipulator coordination associated with automated container handling and movement, autonomous resupply, and distributed, autonomous control of multiple heavy-lift platforms, such as cranes and forklifts, necessary to automate forward re-supply point operations. Technical issues of interest include MMI, task visualization, compliant motion control, visual servo control, voice natural language interface for control, multi-manipulator control strategies, modeling, design and real time prototyping tools, knowledge based task level control and control from moving base including path planning, navigation and obstacle detection/avoidance and component based software architectures. Control approaches should also address issues related to multi-platform autonomous control, communication and coordination. It is envisioned that preliminary modeling and simulation studies will be performed to determine performance/robustness characteristics of architecture and algorithms, and to assess real time processing, MMI and sensor requirements.
PHASE I: Design a feasibility concept which develops methodology, algorithm and architecture approaches to intelligent multi-platform tele-operation and task automation for applications to materiel handling and automated logistics. The design should maximize commonality, reuse and adaptability across platform type and configurations.
PHASE II: Develop prototype component hardware/software and supporting development environment and conduct proof of concept demonstration and establish performance capabilities.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The technology developed under this program is applicable to a broad range of commercial logistics and material handling applications such as hazardous waste removal, commercial logistics, cargo loading/unloading, factory and warehouse automation, exploration, fire fighting, crime fighting, commercial bridge and high tension power line repair, etc. Phase III will include integration into laboratory and field test bed material prototypes to support technology maturation and transition. Topic supports key Army initiatives to increase efficiency and reduce the cost associated with sustaining the future digitized force through the development and application of advanced automation technology.
1) Yong-Zai Lu, Min He and Chen-Wei Xu, Fuzzy modeling and Expert Optimization Control for Industrial Processes, IEEE On systems Technology, vl. 5, 1997
2) The Software Engineering Institute, software Technology Review, Http://sei.cmu.edu/str, July 1997.
3) G. N. Saridis, Architectures for Intellegent Controls, Intelligent Control systems: theory and Applications, IEEE Press, 1995.
KEYWORDS: reuseable, hardware/software, modular
A02-019 TITLE: Innovative Ammunition Security Monitoring System
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO-Ground Combat and Support Systems (GCSS)
OBJECTIVE: Develop an innovative ammunition security monitoring system capable of detecting whether munitions have been tampered with or "booby trapped" by enemy forces.
DESCRIPTION: Certain battlefield operational scenarios entail ammunition supply/resupply activities wherein a “flatrack” for example, of ammunition (or other class of supply) is deposited in a battlespace environment for later retrieval by soldiers. In the intervening period of time, there is a risk of discovery and sabotaging or “booby trapping” by enemy forces. There is a well documented history of this being a problem in the past, and soldiers are understandably wary of this situation. Soldiers need confidence that this has not taken place so that they can readily make use of these critical supplies. The Army is wide open for ideas and approaches to address this issue. Creative, innovative approaches are encouraged and the Army has no preconceived notions of how best to address this issue. The device/system developed would ideally be something that meets the following general requirements:
· It should be quick and easy to make operational upon delivery of the ammunition, or be automatically operational upon delivery.
· It should not be easily detected by enemy forces or easily defeated.
· Operate autonomously with self contained power and no human operator “in the loop” for at least 10 days, 20-30 days would be better.
· Be relatively low cost – probably should be no more than a few hundred dollars.
· Be environmentally robust - e.g., tolerant of temperature extremes from –50 to + 145 F, tolerate rain, high winds, dust, etc. Function during day and night conditions.
· Must monitor an area within which lies an 8’ X 20’ flatrack of ammunition. It should detect the presence of an “unauthorized” individual, or foreign object that comes within approximately 15 feet or so of the flatrack. The ability to adjust this “stand-off” distance would be ideal. Time and date stamping when/if the stand-off “zone” has been breached would probably be desirable.
· It should not be “falsely triggered” by small animals, friendly forces, wind, and other environmental elements.
· It should be quick and easy for friendly forces, upon arrival, to determine if someone has previously breached the prescribed standoff distance (“safety zone”) from the flatrack or not. For example, it would be desirable for a soldier to be able to wirelessly execute a query to a specific flatrack, or all flatracks in a given area, and get a response regarding whether or not the “safety zone” had been breached by unauthorized individuals.
· Ideally the device/system will be easily transported and put into an operational mode as opposed to being a permanent fixture on the flatrack. This would allow for deployment only where and when needed.
PHASE I: Design an ammunition security monitoring system that has considered the above-mentioned design parameters.
PHASE II: Optimize the Phase I design and demonstrate its ability to detect humans without being falsely triggered by irrelevant elements. Conduct extensive testing to ascertain system viability.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: This system/device would have significant application potential to the commercial sector to monitor valuable items that are temporarily stored in open areas where observation by humans is not possible or practical for a variety of reasons and where only certain individuals or groups of individuals are authorized access.
1) Army’s Interim Division (IDIV) Organizational and Operational Plan (OOP)
KEYWORDS: Diagnostics, security, electronics, monitoring, remote sentry, alarms
A02-020 TITLE: Automated Remote Payload Delivery System
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM Mines, Countermines, Demolitions (PM MCD)
OBJECTIVE: Design and develop an innovative propulsion system for an existing platform (Landmine Alternative application).
DESCRIPTION: The design of munition fields has been greatly improved through the use of advanced technology in sensors, better performing explosives and SMART (advanced) technology. However, these platforms remain stationary. The objective of this SBIR would be to design an innovative propulsion system that can effectively move an Anti-Personnel Landmine Alternative (APLA) munition. The proposed effort would incorporate state of the art techonolgy for the propulsion system to move the platform over various types of terrain. The propulsion system should be less than 5lbs in weight and carry a payload of up to 10 lbs. The diameter of the propulsion system should be less than 5 inches. The device should be portable for manual installation.
PHASE I: Design an innovative propulsion system that can carry a payload and be mobile in various terrain i.e., sand, rocks, mud, etc. Prepare a study/report with recommended size and weight of the propulsion system, payload size and weight and environmental survivability of the item.
PHASE II: Perform simulation and modeling to determine optimum capacities for size and weight of propulsion system. Develop and demonstrate a prototype propulsion system in a realistic environment based on modeling results. Conduct initial testing to provide proof of concept.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: This device could be used by the Army and the Marines in Homeland Defense as well as warfighting operations.
1) Broad Agency Announcement (BAA), DAAE30-01-BAA-0100 - "Critical/Unique Component Technology to Enhance landmine Alternatives"
KEYWORDS: Platform, propulsion, maneuver agility – land and water
A02-021 TITLE: Innovative Crowd Control Technologies
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM Small Arms
OBJECTIVE: To explore and develop innovative selectable force/controlled-effect approaches for Crowd Control applications. All developments shall reduce risk to both combatant and non-combatants, and reduce collateral damage and unintended consequences to equipment and structures.
DESCRIPTION: The Crowd Control program seeks innovative technology to stop and/or disperse a crowd at a variety of ranges. Often, a materiel solution for short range (0- 50 meters) may not be effective for longer ranges (50-300 meters, or beyond). Consequently, long range solutions may be deadly for shorter ranges. Development of a constant or controlled effects solution independent of range, is required. This will allow for a consolidation in the number of materiel solutions required and for them to be employed during a greater variety of situations. Examples of these may include, but are not limited to, extended range electric stun (utilizing advancements over the hand-held, very short range technology currently being employed with law enforcement agencies), variable kinetic energy based on range to target (e.g., one way to achieve this result is by variable velocity), and directed energy. Preference is for man-portable solutions, although crew-served or vehicle-mounted systems will be considered based on innovation.
PHASE I: Develop an innovative system concept, with supporting analysis, for stopping and controlling crowds utilizing a controlled effects capability throughout the range of 6 to 100 meters (Threshold), 0 to 300 meters (Objective).
PHASE II: Optimize Phase I design and demonstrate prototype/technology against realistic target(s).
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The selected technology will have a dual application as it will likely be commercialized and used by law enforcement type agencies for Homeland Security, Force Protection and Counter-Terrorism.
1) Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Concept, Signed by LtGen M.R. Steele, Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans, Policy and Operations, U.S. Marine Corps, on 1/05/98. Available of the World Wide Net at http://www.jnlwd.usmc.mil/
KEYWORDS: Non-Lethal, Crowd Control, Stop/Disperse, Controlled Effects
A02-022 TITLE: Low Cost Molded Optics for Small Caliber Projectiles
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Joint Services Small Arms Program (JSSAP)
OBJECTIVE: Design and develop an innovative optical ogive for an advanced small caliber maneuvering projectile.
DESCRIPTION: Future small caliber projectiles (such as the Light Fighter Lethality - LFL- projectile) will have guidance and control and seekers and sensors on board to enable them to maneuver to a target. The target information will be transmitted through an optical system housed in the nose cone of the projectile. This SBIR topic is seeking innovative solutions for this optical system, such as moldable optics that could provide the required target transmission characteristics and yet provide manufacturing cost savings not possible with conventional grinding processes. High volume production of LFL seeker projectiles is expected because of its ammunition-type application. Therefore, only by molding the optics can the necessary reductions in manufacturing costs be realized. Current methods of grinding optics will be too expensive manufacturing wise for the LFL production volume. In addition, use of the popular Germanium lenses will add significant material cost. Therefore, it is recommended that alternative materials, for instance amorphous materials, be sought that will satisfy the performance requirements and are capable of being molded into the optical elements. The optical elements will be housed within the ogive of the projectile. The first element will be the optical ogive and will have a unique shape, the nose cone of the projectile, followed by an internal aspheric corrector lens. The maximum diameter for the ogive is equal to that of projectile (25mm). The diameter of the aperture for the optics is 12.7mm (0.5”) with an effective focal length of 11.5mm. An important consideration for the support structure concerns its accuracy in aligning the optical elements. Information on the optical alignment will be required in addition to estimates of the optical performance of the optical system, i.e., resolution, modulation transfer function (MTF) if possible, optics transmission for the 7 to 14 micron wavelength spectrum (the seeker wavelength), weight, chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, etc.
PHASE I: Design an innovative moldable ogive which will include the optical performance rquirements and manufacturing plan, as well as the support structure for the optical components.
PHASE II: Develop a prototype optical ogive assembly and test it to meet all design parameters. The conformal dome and internal aspheric corrector lens shall both be molded. The support structure does not have to be molded.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: This low cost, molded optics process is applicable to both military and non-military optical systems. T here are applications to lens systems for industrial surveillance optical systems, as well as professional and point and shoot camera’s which use lens systems that can be damaged due to rough handling.
1) Strohm, Chris, Inside the Army, May 7, 2001, “Army Seeks Smart Projectile for Future Lightweight Weapon System”.
2 )McGlinchey, David, Inside the Army, August 27, 2001, “Army Invites Industry Input on New ‘Light Fighter Lethality’ Projectile”.
3) Spiegel, Kori; Sadowski, Lucian, National Defense Industrial Association, 2001 Joint Service Small Arms Symposium, Exhibition and Firing Demonstration, 13-16 August 2001, “Light Fighter Lethality”.
KEYWORDS: Optics, Optical Coatings, Optics Hardening, and IR imaging
A02-023 TITLE: Intermediate Staging Base Decision Aid
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO Ground Combat and Support Systems
OBJECTIVE: Develop a reusable set of intelligent agents and decision aid technologies for the administration and operation of an Intermediate Staging Base and its relationship to the Objective Force.
DESCRIPTION: Current work in intelligent agents, distributed object based computing and open architecture have demonstrated these technologies hold promise of providing an over-arching system capable of optimizing the entire in-theater combat service support (CSS) storage, distribution and handling operation. To efficiently perform these activities, a new multi-agent infrastructure must be developed that allows a new breed of intelligent agents to work together within the constraints of class V regulations and all other classes of supply. In order for these goals to be realized significant work needs to be done in the areas of agent communication languages, multi-agent infrastructure, single-agent participation in this infrastructure, conversational policies for communication and a common ontology for community participation. These technologies must extend open architecture component designs to resolve any interoperability issues caused by the disparities that currently exist between the informational databases fielded today. These next generation agents must be compliant with the High Level Architecture as well as interface with all other Objective Force informational applications as they become available. The resultant technology will be evaluated as to its ability to increase the velocity distribution of all classes of supply from CONUS depots and transportation hubs through in-theater storage and final distribution to the warfighter. As a demonstration of the final results, this technology will be used to build an intelligent interface and data prioritizing scheme between the various supply tracking systems and the planned Global Combat Support System-Army (GCSS-A). The prototype system at the end of Phase II will demonstrate enhanced asset visibility and increase the distribution velocity of mixed-load shipments throughout the retail system to the combat users while reducing manpower requirements of CSS operations. This prototype must also demonstrate the ability to communicate by the end of Phase II with the underlying components of the Global Combat Support System-Army (GCSS-A) system, including the Unit Level Logistics System, the Movement Tracking System and the Standard Army Maintenance System and SAAS. These existing applications will be leveraged by the prototype system to provide an adaptive decision aid to generate optimized configuration and build procedures. The final system demonstration will coordinate orders from the warfighter and create the desired mixed-load, matched with the available tactical conveyance and dispatched while automatically updating the appropriate database. The multi-agent technology developed to meet this need will include intelligent agent based planning, scheduling, optimization and plan-monitoring algorithms providing the decision aids required for generating the storage layout, build procedures and scheduling. Technical issues of interest include man machine interface, task visualization, voice natural language interface for control, modeling, knowledge based task automation and site planning. The prototype system must maintain compliance with all JTA and DII COE mandates for interoperability.
PHASE I: Provide architecture design and system hardware specification options for a storage and load building decision aid system. Develop innovative software architecture and algorithmic approaches for all data collection, data processing and user interfaces. Perform throughput modeling and simulation studies to determine performance characteristics of the search algorithms, real time processing and system interoperability requirements. Provide analysis for evaluating system performance.
PHASE II: Develop intelligent agent planning and query software components, hardware/software architecture, development environment and simulations for building and modifying a prototype storage and load building decision aid system. Demonstrate information throughput between this system and other STAMIS applications. Demonstrate system performance capabilities in an in-theater multi-class handling field experiment using test scenarios designed around mission configured load requirements. Provide prototype system with operators control station, documented source code, development environment and complete operators manual suitable for training non-technical personnel for evaluation exercises.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The technology developed under this program can be applied to any data warehouse or data mining operation to extract pertinent information. This system will provide an optimized plan for the storage of inventory and the loading of any large container system reducing the man-hours required for typical loading operations. This technology is also applicable to automated warehousing, railhead and port operations.
1) The Global Combat Support System-Army, (GCSS-A), Architecture: http://gcss.jsj4.com/gcssoa/index.html
2) Standard Army Ammunition System- Modernization, (SAAS-MOD): http://www.cascom.army.mil/automation/automated_systems/standard_army_ammunition_system/Standard_Army_Ammunition_System-Modernization.htm
3) Program Executive Office Standard Army Management Information Systems, PEO STAMIS: http://www.peostamis.belvoir.army.mil
4) The defense Modeling and Simulation Office, Warfighter: High Level Architecture: http://www.dmso.mil/
KEYWORDS: multi-agent, intelligent agent, software architecture, interoperability, decision aids, user interface,.
A02-024 TITLE: Embedded Training for Objective Force Warrior
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Combined Arms Tactical Trainers
OBJECTIVE: To develop embedded instructional capabilities required to train proficient operation and tactical use of proposed advanced Objective Force Warrior (OFW) soldier equipment. These capabilities will be based on the projected wearable computing and communication resources implicit in the OFW concepts. They will provide means for managing and measuring performance on simulation-based training, using complex synthetic and mixed reality scenarios. Technology for inserting computer generated forces, equipment, and structures in mixed reality scenarios is only beginning to be developed for existing mixed reality equipment. Techniques for managing training and measuring operator performance with synthetic insertions has not been addressed and is critical to embedded training on the conceptual OFW equipment.
The approach must be based on the conceptual functions and capacities embodied in the Objective Force Warrior (OFW) program (see Andrews, 2001; Objective Force Warrior, 2001; U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center Public Affairs Office NATIC, 2001), and further should be oriented toward embedded or strap-on augmentation of the proposed soldier systems. The conceptual functions for the OFW include (but are not limited to) location of forces, communication (both graphic and auditory), access to remote sensors, control over remote weapons platforms, and situation awareness aids. Initial embedded training approaches are being developed and tested in virtual simulations or augmented reality mockups (e.g. On-Demand Interactive Simulation Centered Training, 2002). The embedded skill training systems will need to address the full range of OFW systems. These embedded training components will be designed to augment field exercises for OFW mission-specific training on mission procedures, tactics and techniques, rules of engagement, and situational awareness. The projected embedded training performance measurement and review system requested in this topic should capture trainee interactions with all OFW equipment, including weapons, displays, graphic interfaces (icon, hand-written entry, and hand & arm signals), user-specific voice recognition and natural language processing interface capabilities.
DESCRIPTION: The missions to be accomplished by the Army continue to evolve, and yet retain the core element of the dismounted soldier. Missions that begin as aid or relief become peace agreement enforcement, civilian protection, police operations, and direct combat. The soldiers at the center of these efforts must be trained and equipped to deal with rapidly changing situations and goals without surprise or loss of focus, and with maximal effectiveness. In addition, the soldiers role is increasingly one of information gatherer, providing information to command echelons and having information provided in return that enables the soldier to deal with the occupation and control of the immediate environment and populace (including organized opponents, disorderly crowds, and individual terrorists or criminals) (Ford, 1999).
The Objective Force Warrior (OFW) program is intended to provide soldiers and small unit leaders not only with more flexible and effective armament and support, but with new sources of information and aids for dealing with that information (for example, see Tappert, et al., 2001). Maximizing the effectiveness of new technology requires highly skilled operators (Brown, 1999). Acquiring and maintaining skill with these tools will require frequent and repetitive practice in widely varying situations with the full range of possible goals and potential changes in mission. The new augmented reality display, communication, and aiding technology will provide the basis for simulation of the full range of situations, missions, and changes - including practice in dealing with technology degradation and failure. The key to fully successful use of new systems will be the users capability to function correctly while adapting to varying levels of system failure (Brown, 1999).
While the projected systems are conceptual in nature, current technology can simulate much of the expected capability. Personal digital assistants (PDA) can receive and transmit text, graphics, voice and video via wireless networks. There are also attachments for these systems that incorporate GPS and Internet access to maps. Augmented reality (AR) systems are being developed and tested for manufacturing (Mizell, 2001), construction (Klinker, Stricker, & Reiners, 2001), and medicine (Satava & Jones, 2001). Other functions projected for the OFW can currently be simulated in virtual environment systems. These same systems, however, have limited capabilities for presenting training scenarios and instructional materials, measuring trainee performance, providing feedback, and managing the training process. The issue is not how to develop the systems, but how to train optimally using them. An iterative process of prototype development and evaluation using virtual simulations of tactical situations is seen as the most productive approach to the development of training methods and techniques.
PHASE I: Develop a baseline description of critical anticipated OFW leader and soldier functions necessary for mission success. Identify representative skills of different types from the list of critical functions. Identify instructional techniques which have been shown to train those types of skills successfully. Match requirements for training delivery, performance measurement, and feedback with those likely to be found in OFW systems. Develop complete specifications for a demonstration implementation in Phase II.
PHASE II: The goal of this phase is to produce and evaluate a demonstration of the proposed prototype training, performance measurement and feedback techniques for a range of potential OFW system critical functions. The demonstration should include artificial scenarios for practice/rehearsal of realistic use of OFW equipment overlaid on a simulated real environment (e.g. a VE simulated MOUT site). Specifications of needed computing resources, sensors, and bandwidth for adding the mission rehearsal and performance measurement system to the OFW projected equipment will also be documented.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The demonstrated prototype configuration should provide specifications for alterations or additions to OFW system configurations and capabilities that would support embedded training, performance measurement, and feedback techniques. The configuration specifications and demonstrated capabilities would also provide information for a wide range of AR applications in emergency, police, and security systems. As an example, the design of personal AR for police and security forces (including homeland defense) would extend the immediate information available for background checks on individuals as well as increase each officer's situational information available to team members. Training in operation of those functions would best be done in simulations embedded on the equipment, and performance must be measured to insure effective training and operation of the equipment. Other examples include use by emergency personnel, enhancing the information flow and coordination of fire-rescue, emergency medical, and local emergency response teams. All of these potential uses require both initial virtual design and user testing as well as the capability for end-user tailored training that can adapt to changing equipment, local conditions, and evolving mission requirements. The work projected here should lead to marketable and critically needed capability of creating embedded training scenarios for projected wearable computer systems supporting augmented reality. This embedded training capability would in turn, further support the expanded use of such systems and ease the adaptation of the systems to changing equipment and task environments.
1) (Dec. 2001) Army Seeks Help from Industry to Transform the Warfighter, U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center Public Affairs Office NATIC, retrieved Jan 25 2002, from www.amc.army.mil/Approval.nsf/aede4a1ea743de4e852566b20063bdaf/689ab43dcb20bd1d85256b2000710788?OpenDocument.
2) (Sept. 2001). Objective Force Warrior, retrieved Sept. 24, 2001 from www.natick.army.mil/warrior/01/sepoct/revchange.htm.
3) (March. 2002). On-Demand Interactive Simulation Centered Training, retrieved Mar. 28, 2002 from //btl.usc.edu/OIST.
4) Andrews, A. M. (June, 2001) Opening Statements to House Armed Services Committee, retrieved Jan 25, 2002 from www.house.gov/hasc/openingstatementsandpressreleases/107thcongress/01-06-26andrews.html.
5) Brown, F. J. (1999). Developing digitized light formations. In S. E. Graham, & M. D. Matthews, (Eds.), Infantry situation awareness, (pp.129-138). Alexandria, VA: U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
6) Ford, P. J. (1999). Group 4 summary: Situation awareness requirements for future infantry teams. In S. E. Graham, & M. D. Matthews, (Eds.), Infantry situation awareness, (pp.145-160). Alexandria, VA: U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
7) Klinker, G., Stricker, D., & Reiners, D. (2001). Augmented reality for exterior construction applications. In W. Barfield & T. Caudell (Eds.), Fundamentals of wearable computers and augmented reality, (pp.379-428). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
8) Mizell, D. (2001). Boeing's wire bundle assembly project. In W. Barfield & T. Caudell (Eds.), Fundamentals of wearable computers and augmented reality, (pp.447-470). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
9) Satava, R. M., & Jones, S. B. (2001). Medical applications for wearable computing. In W. Barfield & T. Caudell (Eds.), Fundamentals of wearable computers and augmented reality, (pp.649-662). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
10) Tappert, C. C., Rucco, A. S., Langdorf, K. A., Mabry, F. J., Heinman, K. J., Brick, T. A., Cross, D. M., Pellissier, S. V., & Kaste, R. C. (2001). Military applications of wearable computers and augmented reality. In W. Barfield & T. Caudell (Eds.), Fundamentals of wearable computers and augmented reality, (pp.625-648). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
KEYWORDS: Land Warrior, Objective Force Warrior, Virtual Environments, Augmented Reality, Embedded Training, Sustainment Training.
A02-025 TITLE: Identifying and Assessing Interaction Knowledges, Skills, and Aptitudes for Objective Force Soldiers
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Training Developments & Analysis Dir, TRADOC
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research is to identify interpersonal and social interaction knowledges, skills, and aptitudes (KSAs) and adapt or develop innovative and technologically sophisticated personnel selection and training need assessment techniques for these KSAs. The interaction assessment techniques should address KSAs crucial for Objective Force mission completion. Interpersonal and interaction KSAs should be construed to include a general ability to socially interact with peers, supervisors, and subordinates as well as more specific aspects of interaction such as cultural tolerance/sensitivity and teamwork. These techniques should be validated against performance criteria and recommendations made for identifying personnel with training needs and for training implementation.
DESCRIPTION: The Army is transforming, changing to meet the diverse missions with which it is tasked. This transformation is capitalizing on available materiel technological advances but mission diversity requires personnel changes as well. According to the Army Vision, "Soldiers - not equipment - are the centerpiece of our formation." Objective Force soldiers will require interpersonal skills far superior to the current soldiers' skill levels. Interpersonal skills are one of seven critical skills for Objective Force soldiers (Cox, DeRoche, & Leibrecht, 2001). Interaction skills are important KSAs for current and future non-commissioned officers (i.e., 2010 - 2025) according to Army subject matter experts and personnel researchers (Ford, Knapp, Campbell, Campbell, and Walker, 1999). Identifying personnel with interaction deficiencies and quantifying these deficiencies will allow for a targeted training response.
Interaction skills are critical for soldier performance in a multitude of Objective Force environments. First, demographic projections for the Army suggest an increasingly heterogeneous population in the Objective Force (Heffner & Legree, 2001). Cultural diversity in the Army will require cultural sensitivity and broader interaction skills for enlisted personnel and officers. Second, U.S. soldiers are fighting as one component of multicultural NATO forces. Vision 2010 lists 12 Army deployments between Dec 89 and Feb 95 requiring joint multicultural operations. It is unlikely this number of engagements will decrease in the next two decades. Third, training for Objective Force missions emphasizes the criticality of human intelligence gathering to battlefield superiority. At the extreme, covert operations require soldiers to blend in with the indigenous population. Fourth, non-traditional missions, such as disaster relief or peacekeeping, require soldiers to interact with indigenous people and multinational forces. All of these environments will require Objective Force soldiers who are able to interact with other soldiers - enlisted personnel and officers - as well as civilians in the most productive ways in highly diverse environments.
Assessment techniques to determine the degree of a soldier's interaction KSAs and identify training needs are critical to seamless operations for all of the above reasons. The current effort would use the insufficient, and often dated, existing research on interpersonal and interaction KSA measurement as a foundation to identify the critical KSAs and the measurement techniques to assess these KSAs (e.g., Nicholas, 1989). Interaction KSAs (e.g., Hanson & Ramos, 1996; Zazanis, Zaccaro, & Kilcullen, 2001) are the ability to interact with others while respecting cultural differences (e.g., Haines, 1965; Zinser, 1966), teamwork (e.g., Brannick, Salas, & Prince, 1997; Wiener, Kanki, & Helmreich, 1993), and so forth. The assessment tools resulting from this work should identify soldiers who possess exceptional interaction KSAs as well as those soldiers who would benefit from training or developmental exercises.
PHASE I: The Phase I effort will provide the proof-of-concept for the research objective and description. The researchers will identify the interpersonal and interaction KSAs necessary to meet the Army's personnel selection, training, and performance needs for the Objective Force. As interaction KSAs are identified, the available assessment measures and techniques should be scrutinized and innovative assessment techniques should be adapted, adopted, or developed to capitalize on currently available techniques and technologies. Proposals should include a balanced combination of self- and other-assessment techniques, pencil and paper measures, and behavioral techniques (e.g., simulation, role play, naturalistic observation). These assessment techniques should focus on identifying strengths as well as areas for development. The products from Phase I will be a representation of the projected important interaction KSAs, a critique of the traditional assessment measures, and prototype assessment techniques for these KSAs.
PHASE II: The Phase II effort will investigate the reliability and validity of the interpersonal and interaction KSA assessment techniques and technologies using established experimental methods. One primary product for Phase II will be empirically validated interaction KSA assessment tools for the Objective Force. Other primary products for Phase II are techniques for determining soldiers who may benefit from training and training implementation recommendations. Secondary products include revised interaction KSA assessment tools and a revised interaction KSA representation.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The interaction KSAs needed for soldiers are similar to those needed by civilian employees. It follows that future soldier KSAs differ very little from future civilian KSAs in these environments (c.f. Howard, 1995; Wass de Czege & Biever, 2000). Assessment tools are an accepted approach for selection, training, and promotion in civilian and military settings. The assessment tools resulting from this project could help both civilian and military organizations take a proactive stance to prepare their organizations for future changes.
1) Brannick, M. T., Salas, E., & Prince, C. (1997). Team performance assessment and measurement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
2) Cox, J. A., DeRoche, L. M., & Leibrecht, B. C. (2001). Training Horizontal Teams in the First Interim Brigade Combat Team: Lessons Learned for the Objective Force. Draft Technical Report (Contract No. DASW01-99-D-0013) prepared for the U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
3) Ford, L. A., Knapp, D. J., Campbell, J. P., Campbell, R. C., & Walker, C. B. (2000). 21st Century Soldiers and Noncommissioned Officers: Critical Predictors of Performance (Contract No. DASW01-98-D-0047). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
4) Haines, D. B. (1965). Training for culture-contact and interaction skills. U.S. Air force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories Tech Report No. 64-109.
5) Hanson, M. A., & Ramos, R. A. (1996). Situational judgment tests. In R.S. Barrett (Ed.), Fair employment strategies in human resource management. Westport, CA: Quorum Books.
6) Heffner, T. S., & Legree, P. J. (2001). Army Science Board special study: Manpower and personnel for the soldier systems in the Objective Force. Manuscript in preparation.
7) Howard, A. (1995). A framework for work change. In A. Howard (Ed.), The changing nature of work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
8) Nicholas, J. M. (1989). Interpersonal and group-behavior skills training for crews on space station. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 60, 603-608.
9) U.S. Army Vision. (n.d.) Retrieved 1 Oct 2001, from http://www.army.mil/vision/default.htm
10) U.S. Army Vision 2010. (n.d.) Retrieved 1 Oct 2001, from http://www.army.mil/2010/geostrategic_environment.htm
11) Wass de Czege, H., & Biever, J. (1998). Optimizing future battle command technologies.
Military Review, 78, 15-21.
12) Wiener, E. L., Kanki, B. G., & Helmreich, R. L. (1993). Cockpit resources management. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
13) Zazanis, M. M., Zaccaro, S. J., & Kilcullen, R. N. (2001). Identifying motivation and interpersonal performance using peer evaluations. Military Psychology, 13, 73-88.
14) Zinser, O. (1966). Imitation, Modeling, and Cross-cultural training. U.S. Air Force HRD Technical Report No 66-88. Air Force Systems/Materiel Command.
KEYWORDS: Interaction skills, Interpersonal skills, Selection, Personnel, Assessment, Objective Force
A02-026 TITLE: Planning Exercise System to Promote Shared Mental Models
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Battle Command Battle Lab
OBJECTIVE: To create and evaluate an Army operations/project planning exercise system that actively develops, through a process of concept exchange and inquiry, a shared mental model of the operation by all those involved in the planning. The shared mental model will not be limited to a common understanding of the situation and the details of the operation. The system will actively develop a shared understanding of the goals, intent, desired end state, beliefs and assumptions that are the conceptual foundation of the operation and the relationship of these concepts to the plan itself. The system will have four goals: 1) To develop skills within command groups and staffs in testing the assumptions and rationale behind their own concepts and the concepts of others; 2) To develop, through case-based group training, a common understanding within a command group and staff of terms and concepts and the thought processes of each other; 3) To improve the efficiency, rationality, and creativity of the command group/staff planning process; 4) To promote ownership (i.e., ‘buy-in’) of plans within the planning group based on participation and shared mental models. The heart of the exercise system is the facilitation and systematizing of concept exchange and inquiry to promote the rational development of shared mental models within a command group and staff. It is expected that the resulting system will include digital support where appropriate.
DESCRIPTION: The dispersion and possible rapid, autonomous decision making by Objective Force units will require a thorough, shared understanding of the operation among all units involved. The proposed exercise system is intended as a means to develop and promote these shared understandings. The system also will promote a transformational leadership style by encouraging individual and organizational growth in a vital mission area through intellectual stimulation. (FM 22-100, pg. 3-17)
Mental models are our internal pictures of how the world works. They determine how we interpret the things we experience. Two people with different mental models can observe the same thing yet describe it quite differently based on their preconceived models. Mental models are typically based on assumptions arising from limited experience or teaching. When these assumptions are wrong, outdated, or do not apply to the event under consideration, acting upon them can produce grave results. A further problem is that most of the mental models that affect our behavior are applied without conscious reasoning; we must bring them into conscious thought before we can examine and correct them. A proven effective way of correcting these misconceptions is in a group setting using relevant case scenarios to surface and challenge ineffective mental models. Skills both in reflection into ones own thinking and inquiry into the thinking of others are enhanced as well as the development of effective shared mental models. (Senge, 1990).
This procedure may be considered as a form of negotiation. Research into the dynamics of negotiation has increased considerably over the past decade and several insights useful for the design of this exercise system might be gleaned from a review of this literature (Bazerman, 2000). Among the problems the system needs to overcome are common egocentrism and advocacy of one’s own opinions that can greatly diminish the effectiveness of such an exercise (Senge, 1990; Thompson & Loewenstein, 1992) and the complexity added to the system by having more than two ‘negotiators’ involved (Kramer, 1991). Another useful line of inquiry is research into human dialogue and how types of dialogue affect argumentation and negotiation (van Eemeren & Grootendorst, 1992; Walton, 1998).
PHASE I: Develop a conceptual model of the exercise system. The relationship of the principles, methods and procedures described in the model must be tied to the relevant research literature. In Phase I, the contractor will describe how they would implement the system in Phase I, the primary risks involved, and a general concept for evaluating its effectiveness.
PHASE II: A prototype of the exercise system will be developed and demonstrations provided as required. A detailed evaluation plan will be developed, implemented, and the results documented. A user’s guide will be developed.
PHASE III: The staff exercise system would have wide application in any organization that performs multiple projects, needs to train its managers and staffs in reflection and inquiry in project planning, and requires a shared mental model of critical aspects of projects.
1) FM 22-100 (1999). Army Leadership. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, Department of the Army, June, 1999.
2) Bazerman, Max H. (2000). Negotiation. Annual Review of Psychology.
3) Kramer, R. M. (1991). The more the merrier? Social psychological aspects of multiparty negotiations in organizations. In Bies, et. al. (eds). Research on Negotiation in Organizations, Vol. 3. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
4) Senge, Peter M. (1990). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. Chapter 10: Mental models. New York: Doubleday/Currency.
5) Van Eemeren, F.H. & Grootendorst, R. (1992). Argumentation, Communication, and Fallacies: A pragma-dialectical perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbram Associated, Inc.
6) Walton, D.N. (1998). The New Dialectic: Conversational Context of Argument. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
KEYWORDS: Shared Mental Models, Negotiation, Team Training, Dialogue Theory, Transformational Leadership.
A02-027 TITLE: Training Rapid Decision-Making Processes Required by the Dismounted Objective Force Leader
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Dismounted Battlespace Battle Lab
OBJECTIVE: Develop interactive computer-based methods to train the rapid decision-making processes needed by dismounted Objective Force leaders in an information-rich, electronic environment.
DESCRIPTION: The Army’s Objective Force concept exploits the enormous opportunities made possible by advances in our capacity to quickly gather, organize, and distribute battlespace information. Electronic information systems will be developed and fielded to process and display critical features of the data available from multiple sensor and database systems. If the lessons being learned about aircraft pilot cognition and decision making in the electronic cockpit are transferable to a dismounted small-unit leader in an electronic battlefield, changes will occur in the nature of the cognitive processes currently required to achieve decision-making competence in conventional environments. Evidence suggests that the nature of cognitive tasks of the small-unit leader in the future electronic battlefield will shift from that which is largely intuitive to that which is increasingly analytical. Measures of proficiency of decision-making performance will shift from those that reflect success in the leader’s ability to accurately recognize and respond to multiple probabilistic cues in the real-world environment to those that indicate an ability to maintain logical consistency in highly reliable and accurate information available through the electronic media (Mosier, 2001). These are quite different types of cognitive abilities. Consequently, proficiency in one does not ensure proficiency in the other, and training methods appropriate to achieve proficiency in one may not be appropriate to achieve proficiency in the other.
Currently, the more promising strategies for training small unit leaders to make sound rapid decisions in conventional environments stress the need to “get inside the head” of experts to determine how they process information and make decisions in those environments. Methods are then developed to train the novice leader to acquire and use cognitive processes similar to those used by the expert (Phillips et al, 1998). There are no experts for making decisions in an electronic battlefield. There are, however, documents that describe the required operating capabilities of future electronic information systems and several such systems in various stages of development.
What is needed is a method that will identify, for each of various dismounted military operations, the information that will be available to decision makers from the electronic information systems as well as the functional relationships among various types and sources of information contained in these systems that are associated with good decision outcomes. This method must furthermore permit comparisons between the conventional and electronic battlefield environments of implications for training decision-making proficiency of dismounted small-unit leaders. The ultimate objective of this research topic is the development and evaluation of interactive computer-based methods for training rapid decision-making proficiency of small unit leaders that takes into consideration various combinations of conventional and electronic battlefield environments.
- Summarize information that identifies, compares, and contrasts critical decision-making requirements of both conventional and electronic military environments for a common set of dismounted infantry operations.
- Develop a comprehensive description of the training implications of the critical decision-making requirements identified for the conventional and electronic military environments, highlighting, in particular, conditions in which the decision-making requirements and the decision-making training implications for these two environments are identical, complementary, conflicting, and independent.
- Describe how an interactive computer-based decision-making training methodology can be developed to serve both the conventional and electronic dismounted infantry environments and how the efficacy of this methodology can be evaluated.
- Document the Phase I work in a research report.
PHASE II: Based on the planning accomplished in Phase I, develop and evaluate interactive computer-based methods for training rapid decision-making proficiency of dismounted small-unit leaders that takes into account various combinations of conventional and electronic environments for each of several types of tactical operations.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The contractor shall tailor the interactive computer-based training methods to be applicable to conventional and electronic operating environments in the private and public sectors. The application of the products of this research topic are most closely linked to police, firefighting, emergency medical services, and homeland/civil defense operations. Another dual-use benefit of the product of this research will be a metric, based on the training impact of proposed electronic information and decision support systems, which can be used during the development of more effective and useful systems.
OPERATING AND SUPPORT COST (OSCR) REDUCTION: Beginning now to develop strategies for training the cognitive processes required to successfully use future electronic information systems will assure that the training programs necessary to use these systems will be developed in parallel with the systems themselves. Consequently, users can be trained to use the systems as the systems are being fielded. In addition, lessons learned in developing methods for training decision-making proficiency of an electronic information system should influence the development of hardware, software, and organizational components of the system, closing the loop in what should become a successful application of spiral development.
1) Alberts, D. S. (2001). C4ISR initiatives brief, Website, http://www.dodccrp.org/
2) Bjorkman, E. (2001). Smart sensor web overview brief, Website, http://www.sainc.com/ssw
3) Dyer, J. L. (2000, October). Lessons learned from land warrior (LW). A briefing presented to the Independent Review Team – Objective Force Warrior Technology Assessment.
4) Endsley, M. R., Holder, L. D., Leibrecht, B. C., Garland, D. J., Wampler, R. L., & Mathews, M. D. (2000). Modeling and measuring situational awareness in the infantry operational environment (Research Report 1753). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
5) Mosier, K. (2001). Cognition in the automated cockpit: A coherence perspective. Proceedings of the 45th annual meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Minneapolis/Saint Paul, MN, 68-72.
6) Phillips, J., McDermott, P. L., Thordsen, M., McCloskey, M. & Klein, G. (1998). Cognitive requirements for small unit leaders in military operations in urban terrain (Research Report 1728). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
7) Pleban, R. J., Eakin, D. E., Salter, M. S., & Mathews, M. D. (2001). Training and assessment of decision-making skills in virtual environments (Research Report 1767). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
8) Urzi, D., & Cameron, J. A. (2001, July). Preview of the literature-based findings regarding HS and IS collaboration. Paper prepared for a workshop, Facilitating cooperation between the human systems (HS) and information system (IS) communities: A human systems IAC workshop, Lincoln Laboratories, Boston, MA.
KEYWORDS: Objective Force Warrior, Small Unit Leaders, Training, Information Unitization, Decision Making
A02-028 TITLE: Defining and Developing Interpersonal Performance for Objective Force Soldiers
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Special Operations Command
OBJECTIVE: This research will develop an innovative model for defining skill levels and standards in the domain of interpersonal performance and provide validated methods for assessing and developing deficiencies in this area that can be used within a work setting. These research findings will provide a foundation for the development of a program that uses web-based technology to guide Objective Force leaders in administering corrective training to soldiers within their unit who demonstrate weaknesses in interpersonal performance. This program would include a leader’s handbook, innovative developmental tools and exercises, and technologically sophisticated performance assessment and tracking forms.
DESCRIPTION: As the global involvement of U.S. Army forces continues to increase, both in conflicts as well as Peacekeeping and other Stability and Support Operations, soldiers confront complex cultural and political situations and are often in delicate and potentially explosive positions. Often interpersonal performance is a critical component of success in these situations. Interpersonal skills are listed as one of the seven critical skills for Objective Force soldiers (Cox, DeRoche, & Leibrecht, 2001), and interpersonal performance is extremely important for success in special operations specialties such as Special Forces (see Russell, Crafts, & Tagliarini, McCloy, & Barkley, 1996), as well as for success in leadership positions (FM 22-100; Zaccaro & Klimoski, 2001).
When a soldier demonstrates weakness in an area of performance, noncommissioned officers or officers provide the soldier with counseling, which includes describing the required standard and what will happen if he or she does not meet the standard. In addition, it is critical that leaders provide guidance on how to improve through a corrective training program. This enables the soldier to work toward specific developmental goals and enables both the soldier and leader to document progress or lack of progress.
Developing a corrective training program for tactical or technical skills presents a relatively unambiguous task. Required skill levels are clear and methods to improve are known and available. However, establishing a corrective training program that focuses on interpersonal performance is more ambiguous. Required skill levels are not established, no tools are readily available and it is difficult for leaders to know how to help a soldier improve. It is also difficult to document success or failure to improve.
Existing research describes programs in the civilian sector to improve interpersonal skills (e.g., Bordone, 2000; Rabinowitz, Feiner, & Ribak, 1994; Bailey & Butcher, 1983). These typically use behavioral training such as role playing and modeling. Some research suggests computer-based role-playing may also be effective (Holsbrink-Engels, 1997). These programs typically do not take place within the work setting, however, and skills acquired during these programs do not necessarily transfer to the work setting (e.g., Rabinowitz et al., 1994; May & Kahnweiler, 2000).
For these reasons, it is important to create an innovative approach to defining and developing interpersonal performance that can be executed from within the work setting. The foundation of this is a model that will allow us to define skill levels and standards for interpersonal performance.
PHASE I: The Phase I effort will integrate existing knowledge about the development of interpersonal performance to provide a proof-of-concept for the research objective and description. Researchers will use one military occupational specialty (MOS) as a target performance domain to develop and validate a model for defining skill levels and standards in interpersonal performance.
PHASE II: The Phase II effort will use this model to develop procedures for administering developmental training in interpersonal performance and evaluate the effectiveness of the program for the target MOS. Researchers will provide web-based technology for assessing and developing deficiencies in this area that can be used by leaders for soldiers within their unit. Products from Phase II would include a web-based leader guidance program that provides step-by-step instructions, innovative developmental tools and exercises, and performance assessment and tracking forms.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Interpersonal performance is critically important to success in many civilian jobs, both for networking with other organizations as well as smooth functioning within work units and project teams in the organization (e.g., Cannon-Bowers, Tannenbaum, Salas, & Volpe, 1995). Some researchers have also suggested the growing importance of teams in organizations (Kozlowski, Gully, Nason, & Smith, 1999). Both the methodology and tools developed in this research could therefore be readily applied to organizations outside of the Army.
1) Bailey, C. T., & Butcher, D. J. (1983). Interpersonal skills training: I. The nature of skill acquisition and its implications for training design and management. Management Education & Development, 14, 48-54.
2) Bordone, R. C. (2000). Teaching interpersonal skills for negotiation and for life. Negotiation Journal, 16, 377-385.
3) Cannon-Bowers, J. A., Tannenbaum, S. I., Salas, E. & Volpe, C. E. (1995). Defining competencies and establishing team training requirements. In R.A. Guzzo, E.Salas & Associates (Eds.), Team Effectiveness and Decision Making (pp.333-380). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
4) Cox, J. A., DeRoche, L. M., & Leibrecht, B. C. (2001). Training Horizontal Teams in the First Interim Brigade Combat Team: Lessons Learned for the Objective Force. Draft Technical Report (Contract No. DASW01-99-0013) prepared for the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
5) FM 22-100 (1999, August). Army Leadership: Be, Know, Do. (Field Manual No. 22-100). Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army.
6) Holsbrink-Engels, G.A. (1997). Computer-based role-playing for interpersonal skills training. Simulation & Gaming, 28, 164-180.
7) Kozlowski, S. W., Gully, S. M., Nason, E. R., & Smith, E. M. (1999). Developing adaptive teams: A theory of compilation and performance across levels and time. In Ilgen D. R., and Pulakos, E. D. (eds.), The Changing Nature of Performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
8) May, G.L., & Kahnweiler, W.M. (2000). The effect of a mastery practice design on learning and transfer in behavior modeling training. Personnel Psychology, 53, 353-373.
9) Rabinowitz, S., Feiner, M., & Ribak, J. (1994). Teaching interpersonal skills to occupational and environmental health professionals. Psychological Reports, 74, 1299-1306.
10) Russell, T. L., Crafts, J. L., Tagliareni, F. A., McCloy, R. A., & Barkley, P. (1996). Job analysis of Special Forces jobs (ARI Research Note 96-76). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. (AD A324 584)
11) Zaccaro, S. J., & Klimoski, R. J. (Eds.). (2001). The nature of organizational leadership: Understanding the performance imperatives confronting today’s leaders. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.
KEYWORDS: Interpersonal performance, interpersonal skills, personnel development, Objective Force, Special Operations
A02-029 TITLE: Cost-Effective, Realistic Measures of Job Performance
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems
OBJECTIVE: Provide methodology for developing cost-effective, realistic measures of job performance.
DESCRIPTION: Measures of job performance are needed in the Army for multiple purposes. These include: developmental feedback, individual assessment for evaluation and promotion decisions, and criteria for assessing personnel selection tools.
The challenge is to develop measures for multiple jobs which are both cost-effective and realistic. In the U.S. Army there are over 200 entry-level jobs, many of which involve hundreds of discrete job components known as tasks. To develop comprehensive measures of all tasks in all jobs would be highly expensive. Further, it is difficult to measure task performance in a realistic manner. Breaking a job into discrete components, and evaluating performance on each component in an artificial testing situation may not provide an accurate assessment of how an individual performs in the complex day-to-day environment, when performance may not be so easily divided into separate components. Some alternative approach which can provide the information needed in an efficient manner is needed.
PHASE I: Describe in full detail the approach to be used and develop a comprehensive plan for using this approach to measure performance on multiple jobs. Explain how this approach will provide realistic assessment of performance in a cost-effective manner. Describe how it represents an advance over traditional methods of measuring performance.
PHASE II: Develop a detailed methodology based on the approach developed in Phase I and apply it to the development of measures of performance in five jobs. Follow all steps in the developmental process, including job analysis of the selected jobs. Demonstrate how these measures meet the criteria of realism and cost-effectiveness, and how they encompass the most critical components of the selected jobs.
PHASE III APPLICATIONS: The development of a cost-effective performance measurement methodology will have substantial military and commercial applications. It can be used to develop assessment tools to evaluate training effectiveness, for personnel management functions such as selection and promotion, and to facilitate comparison of performance across several job series.
1) Campbell, J. P., & Knapp, D. J. (2001). Exploring the limits in personnel selection and classification. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
2) Ford, L. A., Campbell, R. C., Campbell, J. P., Knapp, D. J., & Walker, C. B.
(2000). 21st century soldiers and noncommissioned officers: Critical predictors of performance (Technical Rep. No. 1102). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
KEYWORDS: Performance; Skill Qualification Test; Selection; Training; Cost-effectiveness; Simulations; High Fidelity; Effectiveness; Measures
A02-030 TITLE: Developing New Predictors of Stress Resilience for the Objective Force
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Training and Doctrine Command
OBJECTIVE: This research will develop and validate new measures of stress resilience that predict soldier performance in combat situations. Potential applications include selection, assessment, and training and development.
DESCRIPTION: The recent attack on the United States underscores the importance of military readiness and hastens the Army’s goal of developing the Objective Force to meet new demands. Conventional methods of waging war are becoming obsolete as the world changes and as new threats come to the forefront. As the means of engagement evolve, the characteristics that distinguish effective soldiers also evolve. Soldiers in the Objective Force must adapt quickly to new adversaries, environments, technologies, and modes of conflict. The dynamic nature of Objective Force operations places additional pressure on soldiers; change itself is stressful for many individuals. Soldiers need to be adaptive to change, resilient to external pressures, and able to perform effectively amidst stressful conditions in order to achieve the tactical, operational, and strategic objectives of the Army.
Empirical research clearly documents the adverse effects of stress, which include performance deficits, illness, absenteeism, and turnover (Tett, Meyer, & Roese, 1994). However, there are individual differences in responses to stressful stimuli (National Institute of Mental Health, 1996). Studies indicate that individual characteristics often influence individuals’ ability to perform under stress and to avoid the negative consequences of stress. Similar results have been found in military settings as well (Bartone, 2000; Balson, Howard, Manning & Mathison, 1986). Findings such as these prompted researchers tasked by the Manpower and Personnel Research Division to recommend the development of measures that predict individuals’ resilience to stress in order to improve selection and classification for stressful military jobs (Heslegrave & Colvin, 1998). This project will focus on producing tests of resilience for the purpose of selection and assessment of combat soldiers. A major benefit of tests of resilience is that they allow users to select in candidates that are most likely to succeed in stressful occupations, whereas tests of susceptibility are useful for selecting out those that are likely to fail. Also, this study will employ innovative approaches to stress conceptualization and measurement, such as the use of physiological indicators.
PHASE I: Propose a model of the impact of stress on performance in combat-related jobs and similarly stressful jobs outside of the military. Define the concept of resilience, including the individual characteristics (i.e., cognitive, personality, physical, and background) that are associated with resistance to stress, and how they mitigate the effects of stress. Based on the model, develop a taxonomy of resilience constructs to be investigated and identify potential measures of the constructs.
PHASE II: Develop a research plan for testing resilience to stress and provide a rationale for the given approach. Specify the methodology that will be used to evaluate the validity of the resilience measures and the sample population that will be tested. Determine whether job analyses need to be conducted or whether sufficient job information is available for the population. Describe the relevant aspects of the job and how performance will be measured. Conduct pilot tests to refine instruments and finalize administration procedures. Execute testing program, collect performance data, and examine the validity of the resilience instruments by comparing performance on the tests to performance on the job.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: This technology would be useful for selection and assessment in other stressful, non-military jobs, particularly those in which successful performance is critical. For example, tests of stress resilience could be used to select emergency workers, including police, firefighters, and emergency medical technicians. The aviation industry is another potential application; these instruments could be used to evaluate pilots, sky marshals, and airport security personnel for performance effectiveness under pressure.
1) Balson, P. M., Howard, N. S., Manning, D. T., & Mathison, J. (1986). The psychophysiologic study of stress in military populations. Military Medicine, 151, 144-153.
2) Bartone, P. T. (2000). Hardiness as a resiliency factor for United States forces in the Gulf War. In J. M. Violanti, D. Paton et al. (Eds.), Posttraumatic stress interventions: Challenges, issues and perspectives (pp. 115-133). Springfield, IL: Charles S. Thomas.
3) Heslegrave, R. J. & Colvin, C. (1998). Selection of personnel for stressful operations: The potential utility of psychophysiological measures as selection tools. Human Performance in Extreme Environments, 3, 121-139.
4) National Institute of Mental Health (1996). Basic behavioral science research for mental health: Vulnerability and resilience. American Psychologist, 51, 22-28.
5) Tett, R. P., Meyer, J. P., & Roese, N. J. (1994). Applications of meta-analysis: 1987-1992. In C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Eds.) International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 71-112). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
KEYWORDS: Selection, Stress, Resilience, Adaptation, Objective Force, Combat
A02-031 TITLE: Research in Intrusion Detection Systems for Insider Attacks
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, DoD High Performance Computing Modernization
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to conduct research into Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) to address the insider threat within an enterprise system.
DESCRIPTION: Military information systems and communication technologies are used as force multipliers. Systems reliability, availability, and data integrity are critical readiness elements. There has been an emphasis in research and development of network based intrusion detection systems, which focus on the monitoring, detecting, and analysis of data traffic into and out of enterprise systems, but little work has focused on the problem of the insider threat. How does the enterprise monitor, detect, analyze and respond to both malicious and unintended aberrant behavior by those within the borders of the firewall or IDS sensor boundaries? An enterprise level intrusion detection system focused on user-computer system interaction system-system interaction, and data interactions within the system is needed to supplement network intrusion detection systems currently deployed within the DoD and commercial environments. The problem is difficult and is further complicated as some of this traffic may be encrypted. Target and attacker profiling, and data fusion between network and host intrusion detection systems, are of interest.
PHASE I: Investigate current insider threat techniques/tools/methodologies to identify promising methods, e.g., signature, user anomaly, system anomaly, etc., that can rapidly extract and classify small signals from massive quantities of data. Data may be user or systems generated. Develop a systems design that includes sensor specifications, techniques for feature extraction and classification, AI/data mining if applicable, and operation.
PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype system in a realistic environment. Conduct testing to prove feasibility over extended operating conditions.
PHASE III: Using the information and experience developed in Phases I and II, refine and extend the research criteria so the program leads to deployable products. The product could be used in a broad range of military and civilian computer security applications where monitoring, detection, analysis and response are necessary -- for example, in military commands, organizations, etc., or in enhancing security in the banking/financial industry.
1) R. L. Grossman, C. Kamath, P. Kegelmeyer, V. Kumar, and R. Namburu (Eds.) Data Mining for Scientific and Engineering Applications, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2001.
2) R. Agarwal and V. Joshi Mahesh. "Pnrule: A New Framework for Learning Classifier Models in Data Mining (A Case Study in Network Intrusion Detection)", Technical Report TR 00-015, Department of Computer Science, University of Minnesota, 2000.
3) Mukkamala, R., J. Gagnon, and S. Jajodia. 2000. Integrting data mining techniques with intrusion detection methods. In Research Advances in Database and Infomration Systems Security, Vijay Atluri and John Hale, editors, Kluwer Publishers, Boston, MA 33-46.
4) State of the Practice of Intrusion Detection Technologies, downloaded from http://www.sei.cmu.edu/publications/documents/99.reports/99tr028/ 99tr028chap02.html
5) State of the Practice of Intrusion Detection Technologies, downloaded from http://www.sei.cmu.edu/publications/documents/99.reports/99tr028/ 99tr028chap03.html
KEYWORDS: Security, detection, anomalous behavior, computer attacks, hacking, data mining, artificial intelligence, data integrity, and authentication.
A02-032 TITLE: Joining Metals and Ceramics that Exhibit a Large Mismatch in Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Ballistic Protection for FCS
OBJECTIVE: Joining high performance armor ceramics to low density metals where the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is large (typical difference in excess of 5.0 x 10-6/K). Solution should be a cost effective, scalable process able to join large plates of ceramic to metal (4"x4" minimum). An example system is silicon carbide (SiC) joined to titanium or an alloy such as Ti-6Al-4V. The final product must exhibit a substantial improvement in bond strength (shear and bending) over epoxy joining and be suitable for both production and field repair.
DESCRIPTION: Advanced ceramics (such as SiC) are candidate materials for lightweight armor applications because of their high hardness and compressive strength. However, these materials must be used in conjunction with metals as a package (encapsulation or lamination) because of their inherent brittle nature. For most armor applications a strong bond, throughout the substrate surfaces, is desirable for transferring load. Current options for joining (attaching) ceramics to metals are limited because of the extreme differences in material properties such as melting point, chemical reactivity, and CTE. The most common option used today is adhesive or epoxy joining. This method is performed near room temperature, done in air, and adheres to most materials when the proper epoxy is chosen. The drawbacks to epoxy joining are low strength, weak bonding, and low elastic modulus that directly relates to a substantial mismatch in elastic impedance between the two materials.
Active joining has addressed many of the issues involving differences in material properties by incorporating an active element (such as titanium) to chemically react or bond with most ceramics and metals. However, active brazes usage is limited where large sample sizes and large CTE mismatches are involved. The relatively high joining temperatures (> 700ºC) achieved during active brazing can cause catastrophic strains (stresses) during cooling.
Future military applications for this technology include the production of armor packages, incorporating dissimilar materials, for both aircraft and ground vehicles.
PHASE I: Demonstrate joining a ceramic (SiC) to a metal (titanium alloy: Ti-6Al-4V) of reasonable size (4"x4" ceramic to 6"x6" metal). Demonstrate minimum 50% improvement in bond strength (shear or bending) over best epoxy joints. Plan for production and field repair.
PHASE II: Demonstrate joining an array of ceramics (SiC) to a single metal (titanium alloy: Ti-6Al-4V) plate (4"x4" ceramic). Demonstrate field repair. Plan for industrial metal-ceramic bonding, including other ceramics (such as Al2O3, TiB2, B4C, and WC) and metals (steels, superalloys, etc.).
PHASE III: Commericialization of this technology will allow further implementation of increased sized semiconductors, transparent materials for sensors, and ceramic material insertion into engines. These are all areas which could be later inserted back into defense systems. Commercialization of the metal-ceramic joining process.
1) H. Mizuhara and K. Mally, "Ceramic-to-Metal Joining with Active Brazing Filler Metal," Welding Journal, 64  pp. 27-32 (1985).
2) H. Mizuhara and E. Heubel, "Joining Ceramic to Metal with Ductile Active Filler Metal," Welding Journal, 65  pp. 43-51 (1985).
3) N.D. Tinsley, J. Huddleston, and M.R. Lacey, "The Reduction of Residual Stress Generated in Metal-Ceramic Joining," Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 13  pp. 491-504 (1998).
KEYWORDS: ceramic, metal, joining, coefficient of thermal expansion, bond strength
A02-033 TITLE: Low-Cost, Mine-Blast-Resistant Crew Seat for Interim Armored Vehicle (IAV) and Future Combat System (FCS) Ground Vehicles of the Objective Force
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Future Combat System & Interim Armored Vehicle
OBJECTIVE: To develop design(s) for a low-cost, low-weight, modular crew seat for ground vehicles, which can absorb and significantly attenuate the vertical acceleration values to levels below the injury limit. Creative and innovative designs for shock resistance, material, mechanical or hydraulic damping devices and structures (like honeycomb) should all be studied. The cost, weight, system simplicity and modularity features, must be kept in mind during all phases of the study. Although intended for new vehicles, design considerations should also be given for aspects that lend themselves for application to retrofit existing vehicles with current seats. Considerable attention must be given to the short insult duration (fraction of a milli-second) and the very short dynamic shock response time (few milli-seconds) for the seated passenger.
DESCRIPTION: The seat design should provide a measured vertical dynamic response of a constant acceleration of no more than 20 g's (644. ft/s2) corresponding to a peak acceleration of a half sine wave curve of 31.4 g's (1011. ft/s2) of duration no longer than 7 (seven) ms, at the seat surface (including any additional seat padding used) contacting the seat pants of the seated passenger. The corresponding vertical displacement of the passenger should be as small as possible. The vehicle floor is expected to have a vertical constant acceleration impulse of 1,840 g's over 0.32 ms (corresponding to an acceleration sine wave curve peak of 2,890 g's). The vehicle floor shall have an estimated initial vertical velocity of 10 ft/s, due to the mine explosion. The fully equipped passenger weight may be considered as 200 lb. The passenger is restraint by a four-point harness (belt) system attached to the seat frame.
PHASE I: To perform studies, analyses, and design set ups, for a generic vehicle seat subjected to a vertical acceleration impulse, with the intended objective to have the belt-restrained passenger subjected to much lower acceleration values, below the injury limit given. Many possible mechanical, hydraulic, structural, material, energy absorbing and damping methods, both novel or conventional should be examined. Engineering codes and models for the shock absorption and attenuation should guide the designs. At least two designs to be submitted with their attributes of weight, acceleration-reduction effectiveness, and estimated cost.
PHASE II: To produce and deliver a prototype of a complete seat arrangement selected derived from the two designs produced in Phase I. A scaled-down model should have been tested in a shock/vibration laboratory to indicate the response of a simulated passenger strapped to the seat to measure the response at the seat of the pants for the passenger. Weight and cost estimates per copy should be given.
PHASE III: Considerations for large commercialization or dual use applications. Consideration for design modifications to the seat arrangement to suit retrofitting or modification of existing non shock-resistant seats in other military combat vehicles or civilian non combat vehicles which might be a target for such impulse loading (United Nations (UN) Patrol cars/vans and humanitarian relief aid trucks). Simplification or alteration of the seat design to reflect lower threat values for these cases should be considered. Knowledge gained, methodologies and devices used or developed, may be considered for improving even the regular seatings of civilian passenger cars not subjected to the high impulse loading applied in this study.
1) Eiband, M., " Human Tolerance to Rapidly Applied Acceleration: A summary of the literature," NASA Memo 5-19-59E, June 1959.
2) Alem, N., and Strawn, G., "Evaluation of Energy Absorbing Truck Seat for
Increased Protection from Landmine Blasts," USAARL 96-06, U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Lab., Jan. 1996.
KEYWORDS: FCS, IAV, vehicle, crew, seat, landmine, blast, body acceleration, injury, survivability, impulse loading, acceleration transmission reduction
A02-034 TITLE: Development of a Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) Module for a Small Robotic Platform
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Soldier Systems
OBJECTIVE: To develop a reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) module for a small robotic platform, as part of the Objective Force, including the Future Combat System (FCS) and the Objective Force Warrior programs. The RSTA module shall be capable of conducting RSTA from a small, man-portable, (i.e., less than 50 lbs.) robotic platform. We envision a modular package that can be incorporated into a small robotic platform that uses visible, infrared, acoustic, and other sensors, along with on-board processing, to transmit an alert to a remote operator of a target of interest (i.e, human, vehicle).
DESCRIPTION: Physical agents, such as robotic platforms, will be ubiquitous on the future battlefield, significantly lowering the risks to our soldiers. These robots must be able to not only collaborate amongst themselves but also with their manned partners. Their roles will range from scout missions, performing reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition, to urban warfare or urban rescue. The human/robot interaction with these agents must be highly efficient and minimally intrusive. The interaction with the robots must not encumber the soldiers. Additionally, communications between the robot and soldier must be minimized to reduce bandwidth. Therefore, an RSTA module is necessary on small robotic platforms that can sense targets of interest autonomously, and send only the required amount of information to the operator.
A modular design is required to facilitate changing mission payloads of the robot and to accommodate different types of robotic platforms. The proposed RSTA module design needs to consider tradeoffs between processing capability, multiple current and future RSTA sensors, power from the host robot, and mission duration. Additionally, navigation and mobility tasks versus RSTA tasks need to be explored to optimize the overall system architecture. The physical interaction and mobility constraints with existing small robotic platforms must also be considered.
It is anticipated that this module and a small robotic platform will be utilized with existing Land Warrior Systems for experimentation, therefore compatibility with the Land Warrior System and its components is required. The Land Warrior System (PM Soldier Systems) will be the primary interface the soldier has to the proposed RSTA module. To facilitate this, the host robot should provide power, wireless communications, and an interface to the robot's host computer.
Additional modular sensors that are desired, but not required, in the proposed module include small chemical and/or biological sensors, small weather sensors, other types of imagers, or other sensors that could be utilized in RSTA missions by soldiers.
Prospective candidates should address the following RSTA module design features: 1) proposed sensors, 2) proposed processing hardware, 3) mechanical and electrical design characteristics such as physical size, power consumption, mission duration, and interface with a small robotic platform, and 4) human to RSTA module interaction.
PHASE I: Conduct engineering design phase in which all components for the RSTA module are identified. This should include the physical layout of the module and its interaction with the host small robotic platform and with the human, processing component specifications, and sensor specifications. Additionally, the power requirements, the processing capabilities, and how the module might affect other robot functions should be addressed.
PHASE II: Develop and build a fully functional prototype RSTA module that is operational with a small robotic platform.
PHASE III: Urban search and rescue is the most natural dual-use application for this technology. A small robotic platform outfitted with an RSTA module would be most useful in a collapsed building environment for search and rescue. Before the area is secure enough for humans, a robot that not only has visible, IR, and acoustic sensing capabilities, but also processing capabilities could see or hear victims and alert rescuers as to their location. Another application is for use by police units during sniper and hostage incidents. The small robot with an RSTA module could identify the location of a sniper in a building, or the location of hostages and their assailants. Upon completion, the prototype module and robot will undergo a test (non-destructive) and evaluation process, with Land Warrior equipped soldiers in which the functionality/utility of the RSTA module is established.
1) "Robotic vehicle uses acoustic array for detection and localization in urban environments," S. Young and M. Scanlon, published in the Proceedings of SPIE, Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology III, Vol. 4364, Orlando, USA, 16-17 April 2001.
2) "Battlefield Agent Collaboration," P. Budulas, S. Young, and P. Emmerman, published in the Proceedings of SPIE, Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology III, Vol. 4364, Orlando, USA, 16-17 April 2001.
KEYWORDS: robotics, RSTA, FCS, Objective Force Warrior, Land Warrior
A02-035 TITLE: Development of a Human/Robot Control Interface
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Soldier Systems
OBJECTIVE: To develop a human/robot interface that allows a soldier to control and task a small robotic platform, as part of the Objective Force, including the Future Combat System (FCS) and the Objective Force Warrior programs. The interface shall be capable of controlling a small robot and its functions without causing unnecessary additional weight, and without the addition of bulky add-ons to the Land Warrior Infantry Soldier System (Program Manager for Soldier Systems). We envision an interface that can uses speech, gesture, tactile gloves, or gaze to control and task a semi-autonomous robot from a Land Warrior system. Additionally, the human/robot interface must display information from the robot to the Soldier's Land Warrior system.
DESCRIPTION: Physical agents, such as robotic platforms, will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the Objective Force, significantly lowering the risks to our soldiers. These robots must be able to not only collaborate amongst themselves but also with their manned partners. Their roles will range from scout missions, to urban warfare or urban rescue, to mules (carrying the soldier's equipment). The human/robot interaction with these agents must be highly efficient and minimally intrusive. The interaction with the robots must not encumber the soldiers. Additionally, communications between the robot and soldier must be minimized to reduce bandwidth. Therefore, a human/robot control interface is necessary to control all of the functions of the robot without overburdening the soldier with extra equipment or extra tasks.
A human/robot control interface is required to control the robot, which may be sent out ahead of the soldier as a scout or pointman, or may be programmed to follow behind and carry the soldier's equipment. The control of the robot may be teleoperated, programmed using waypoint designation on a map, or may be more autonomous. The human/robot control interface must allow the soldier to task the robot in any manner and perform any of its functions without additional bulky equipment, and without taking his full attention off of other mission tasks.
The human/robot interface must not only provide for input to the robot from the soldier, but must also convey the information to the soldier via his heads-up display, his computer tablet, or by some other means.
It is anticipated that this human/robot control interface and a small robotic platform will be utilized with existing Land Warrior systems for experimentation, therefore compatibility and integration with the Land Warrior System and its components is required.
Prospective candidates should address the following human/robot control interface design features: 1) proposed input hardware and modalities, 2) proposed display integration, 3) proposed integration into existing Land Warrior hardware and software, 4) software, mechanical, and electrical design characteristics such as physical size, power consumption, mission duration, and interface with a small robotic platform.
PHASE I: Conduct engineering design phase in which all components for human/robot control interface are identified. This should include the input hardware and software, its display of information from the robot, and its interaction with the host small robotic platform.
PHASE II: Develop and build a fully functional prototype human/robot control interface that is operational with a Land Warrior system and a small robotic platform. Upon completion, the interface and robot will undergo a test (non-destructive) and evaluation process, with Land Warrior equipped soldiers in which the functionality/utility of the human/robot control interface is established.
PHASE III: Urban search and rescue is the most natural dual-use application for this technology. A robust and reliable human/robot control interface could be used by fire and rescue personnel, police, and other agents to control small robotic platforms in collapsed building environments, sniper situations, fires, and chemical contamination environments.
1) "Robotic vehicle uses acoustic array for detection and localization in urban environments," S. Young and M. Scanlon, published in the Proceedings of SPIE, Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology III, Vol. 4364, Orlando, USA, 16-17 April 2001.
2) "Battlefield Agent Collaboration," P. Budulas, S. Young, and P. Emmerman, published in the Proceedings of SPIE, Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology III, Vol. 4364, Orlando, USA, 16-17 April 2001.
KEYWORDS: robotics, human machine interface, Objective Force Warrior, Land Warrior, FCS
A02-036 TITLE: Active Infrared Multi-Spectral Sensor
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO for Tactical Missiles and Smart Munitions
OBJECTIVE: Develop an active infrared (IR) multi-spectral sensor that can provide rapid spectral tuning and 3D sensing in a compact platform. The sensor shall not require cooling. Resultant on-board spectral data will be reduced in a format conducive to candidate sensors in the objective Force. The sensor will be man-portable (less than 50 pounds) and will be designed for incorporation into unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and robotics.
DESCRIPTION: There is a requirement to rapidly locate, identify and track targets in a cluttered environment. There are currently deficiencies in the manner in which spectral and spatial sensors acquire threat signature information. This impacts target detection and kill assessment capabilities. It is anticipated that the Objective Force sensors must be able to scan a sector, out to line of sight limits (or estimated 6 km, whichever is limiting value) within limited time constraints and discern the number of discrete objects that satisfy target-like conditions. Many targets, including vehicles and facilities have unique spectral signatures (IR, chemical, spectral). There is a need for such sensors to rapidly scan through a spectral range of several hundred nanometers in the mid-infrared (3.0 - 5.0 microns). Spectral scanning rates must be at micro-Hertz rates. 3D laser radar sensing issues related to detection bandwidth and spatial resolution in the mid-infrared must be addressed.
PHASE I: Assemble and demonstrate the basic system components in a bench-top prototype design of a pulsed active IR multi-spectral sensor.
PHASE II: Provide design of a fieldable (less than 50 pounds, battery included) sensor system. Demonstrate spectral tenability, image discrimination and rapid data reduction.
PHASE III: Remote detection and rapid (real time) identification and location of targets or environmental concerns. Military applications include detection and identification of targets concealed by camouflage or foliage, detection of chemical agent production and storage facilities, agent releases into the atmosphere. This sensor could be integrated into existing UAV, airborne platforms or unmanned ground vehicle systems for tests and evaluations of Military systems. Commercial applications include remote detection and mapping of chemical agents and volatile chemical compounds associated with base remediation, environmental incidents (chemical spills), illegal dumping and environmental monitoring.
1) K. Johnson, et al, "Adaptive LADAR receiver for Multispectral Imaging", SPIE Conference, Ladar Radar Technology and Applications VI Session, Orlando FL, 17-19 April 2001.
2) R. Warren, et al, "Sequential Detection and Concentration Estimation of Chemical Vapors using Range-resolved Lidar with Frequency-Agile Lasers", Chemical and Biological Sensing Conference, Oralndo FL, 24-25 April 2000.
3) D. Schaack, et al., "Laser Radar Technology and Applications V", Orlando FL, 26-28 April 2000.
4) E. Degtiarev, et al., "Compact Dual Wavelength 3.30-3.47 micrometer DIAL Lidar", SPIE Conference on Remote Sensing, Toulouse FR, September 2001.
5) E. Degtiarev, et al., "Electronically Tuned Ti:Sapphire Laser", Optics Letters, vol. 81, no. 10) pp 731-733, May 15, 1996.
KEYWORDS: Multi-spectral IR sensors, remote sensing, Objective Force, laser radar.
A02-037 TITLE: Explosive Detection System
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
INTRODUCTION: Various technologies have been demonstrated to detect explosive materials. However, challenges remain to make the explosive detection technology reliable and efficient. This is due to the fact that the sensor must be able to detect a very small signature (perhaps in the parts per billion) in varying environmental conditions. Thus, current systems often have a very slow area coverage rate due to limited range capability and/or an extended dwell time required to acquire concealed chemical signatures.
OBJECTIVE: Design and build a portable, lightweight explosive detection system. The system must include an efficient means to sample and analyze suspected contaminated areas in-situ with minimal dwell times. A goal should be to develop a system that can sample and analyze an area at the speed of a walking person.
DESCRIPTION: Numerous techniques have been explored to detect the presence of explosives. For example, trained dogs are being used because they can reliably detect the presence of concealed explosive materials. Investigators have tried to determine what the dogs are sensing to develop an “electronic nose” to perform the same function. Investigators also have explored the use of an intermediate medium such as bacteria or a synthetic polymer that would fluoresce in the presences of explosive compounds. Others are investigating the potential to cause the explosive materials to fluoresce by exciting them with an external source. Finally, an approach that has not received as much attention is the potential to locate the presence of explosive materials due to the affect they may have on the vegetation above and around the buried explosive.
An explosive detection system could be used to detect buried landmines and unexploded ordnance for environmental remediation. It could also be used for counter-terrorist activities. This program will develop a system to detect concealed explosives to be used by an operator with minimal training. The proposed technology must specifically detect the chemical compounds found in explosives. That is, technologies such as metal detectors that detect the casings that hold the explosive will not be considered in this program. The proposed technology should be able to differentiate between the various explosive materials that may be found in landmines and unexploded ordnance (e.g., RDX, TNT). The proposed technology should also be capable of providing an indication of the concentration levels of the detected explosive material.
PHASE I: Develop overall system design for a lightweight, portable, explosive detection system.
PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype explosive detection system in a realistic environment.
PHASE III: Incorporate design attributes to make the system lighter. Reduce system response time and/or increase the minimum operating distance to increase the speed of the system to that of a walking person.
Dual use application: Due to the closing of many military bases over the last few years, there is an increasing requirement to turn these military installations back over to the public. However, there are many unexploded ordnances present at these installations. Since there are very few records of where all of the ordnance is located on the installations, locating and removing the unexploded ordnance has become a very costly endeavor. The proposed system could be used for detection of unexploded ordnance for environmental remediation.
1) D. Hannum, J. Parmeter, "Survey of Commercially Available Explosives Detection Technologies and Equipment", Sandia National Laboratories, September 1998.
2) A. M. Rouhi, “Landmines: Horrors Begging for Solutions”, Chemical & Engineering News, March 10, 1997.
3) M. S. Freund and N. S. Lewis, "A Chemically Diverse Conducting Polymer-Based Electronic Nose", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 2652 (1995).
4) S. Kercel, et al, “Novel Methods for Detecting Buried Explosive Devices”, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 3079, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets II, pp. 467- 477.
5) N. Lewis et al, “Array-based Vapor Sensing Using Chemically Sensitive, Carbon Black-Polymer Resistors”, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 3079, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets II, pp. 660-670.
KEYWORDS: sensors, explosive detection, chemical detection
A02-038 TITLE: Translation of Foreign Road Signs Using a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems
OBJECTIVE: To develop a hand-held device for capturing and translating foreign road signs in order to aid military missions in foreign lands.
DESCRIPTION: We are soliciting proposals for the development of a hand-held system for capturing and translating text on road signs in foreign countries. Such a system would be based on Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) components, including a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) and plug in camera module. Software developed for this system would support capture of road sign images, correct for skew between the camera and the face of the road sign, identify foreign language text within the image, convert the foreign language text to English, and display the resulting text on the PDA screen - preferably as an overlay over the original image. Processing of a road sign image should be completed quickly so that it does not detract from the soldier's mission. User interfaces should be simple and intuitive, permitting operation by dismounted or mounted soldiers. All proposals should address technologies to be used, maximum possible operating distance between user and sign based on a given text size, maximum permissible skew of road sign to camera image plane, and novel and innovative techniques to be researched and developed for image capture, recognition of text within the image, and machine translation on a PDA.
PHASE I: Develop or identify suitable algorithms or research areas to support the desired functionality within the constraints of the PDA processing environment. Demonstrate the feasibility of these design concepts through modeling, simulation, development, or other means in order to show the validity of the chosen research areas or algorithms.
PHASE II: Develop a working prototype of the system through the implementation of the research and algorithm development identified in Phase I of this effort. Test and evaluation of the prototype system, to include human factors evaluation.
PHASE III: The same benefits provided by this device for soldiers are directly applicable to tourists. The ability to identify directional signs, identification signs, and warning signs would be of assistance to visitors to foreign lands that are unable to read the local language. Note that with the addition of support for English to foreign language conversion this system is equally applicable to foreign visitors to the USA, including NATO forces working within U.S. military enclaves.
KEYWORDS: machine translation, character recognition, personal digital assistant (PDA)
A02-039 TITLE: Production of Non-Traditional Optical Surfaces for Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Guidance
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Enhanced Night Vision Goggle
OBJECTIVE: Provide technology capable of producing low cost, high performance optics that require precise surface tolerances on the inside of tight radius optics, cylindrical, torodial, ogive, etc. and other conformal shapes. These areas are often difficult or impossible to access with traditional optical polishing processes.
DESCRIPTION: The SBIR will seek out novel approaches to this challenge. The combination of ultra-precise surface shapes and difficult to work materials are often required to increase performance of next generation surveillance, reconnaissance, and target acquisition systems while at the same time demanding lower cost than for traditional high performance optics. These optics will impact everything from sensors, fire control systems, to photolithographic equipment for the fabrication of electronics at ever smaller line width and pitch.
PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of an approach to affordably (target cost equal to the cost of polishing a hemispheric dome made from the same material) polish the inside surface of a 3.0 inch diameter ogive-shaped optical dome with a fineness ratio of 1.0 to 1.5. The ogive dome shall be produced from suitable IR and multispectral transmitting materials to an optical surface figure better than l/20 p-v (l = 3 microns), having an rms surface finish of 25 angstroms or less.
PHASE II: Produce a prototype machine that will demonstrate this same surface figure and finish capability over a variety of optical surfaces (aspheric, toroidal, cylindrical, conical, etc.) and suitable IR and multispectral transmitting materials.
PHASE III: Produce a commercial machine or added capability that can be used for both military and commercial applications that require ultra-fine surface finishes such as silicon substrates, composite mirror materials, optics for extreme ultraviolet stepper lenses, and photoblank substrates. Military applications will be precision optical components with conformal shapes for target acquisition, surveillance, and guidance. These components are found on UAVs, missile/rockets, helicopters, and ground systems with varying materials and performance requirements.
1) Defense Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond - Meeting the Changing Needs of National Defense, National Research Council, pg 7-8.
2) DARPA Technology Reinvestment Program - Asphere Manufacturing Program.
3) Texas Instruments Missile Application Assessment Report ? DARPA Physical Optics Program.
4) Boeing Aircraft Application Assessment Report - DARPA Physical Optics Program.
5) Defense Technology Area Plan, 1997.
6) US Patent #5,706,136.
KEYWORDS: Optics, polishing, computer-controlled optical polishing
A02-040 TITLE: Complex Obstacle Traversing Suspension System for Wheeled Ground Vehicles
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO Aviation
OBJECTIVE: Design, build and demonstrate an advanced suspension system for wheeled vehicles for rapid traversment of complex obstacles in urban and rural environments.
DESCRIPTION: Future military wheeled ground vehicles require equal or superior mobility at greater speeds than achievable with current tracked vehicles. Neither natural (e.g., ditches and boulders) nor man-made (e.g., downed telephone poles, building rubble or burned cars) impediments should restrict the forces operational tempo. Improvements in wheel/tire technology can improve soft terrain mobility but has insufficient impact on traversing complex obstacles. Suspension system motion in concert with precise wheel propulsion control (rotation and/or wheel locking) is deemed the crux for traversing complex obstacles typical of those found in urban and rural settings.
Considerable laboratory research has been conducted over the past two decades on robotic walking/crawling devices. An excellent starting point on walking and climbing robots can be obtained from References 1 - 3. These robots exhibit mobility of thre snakes, spiders, bugs, lizards, dogs, fish and humans, to name a few, demonstrating the capability to swim, crawl, walk, run, jump and climb. It is now time to utilize the basic principles behind these robotic creations and develop practical suspension systems for wheeled ground vehicles to facilitate rapid traversing of complex obstacles.
The Army Research Laboratory Vehicle Technology Directorate has a high mobility hybrid electric drive vehicle (Mongrel) under development. Mongrel, a 3700 lb vehicle, has an approximately 130-inch wheelbase, utilizes a common swing arm suspension at all four suspension locations on the vehicle with an actively controlled strut controlling the suspension system motion. In-the-wheel motors are located at the end of each swing arm providing individual wheel propulsion. Steering is accomplished by differential wheel speed control.
It is the objective of the proposed research topic to develop a suspension system common to all wheel positions on a vehicle and the necessary control logic that facilitates the rapid crossing of complex obstacles. The proposed suspension system MUST operate in concert with the wheels. This suspension must provide superior mobility and speed in traversing these obstacles than tracked vehicles while still functioning as a conventional suspension system on normal surfaces. The complex obstacle traversing suspension system must accommodate all existing mobility functions without increasing the occupant-absorbed power or decreasing vehicle maneuverability. The suspension system should be mechanically simple in design and should minimize the volume of space beneath the vehicle's body. Hydraulic and electrical power is available to the suspension and it is permissible to incorporate additional sensors on the vehicle to facilitate the suspension systems operation. The suspension system may ultimately be integrated onto the Army's Mongrel vehicle during Phase II and must accommodate its in-the-wheel motors for propulsion.
The offeror's proposal shall present a potential suspension concept and the control logic for crossing complex obstacles. The offeror shall present a series of candidate obstacles, representative of natural and man-made, and discuss how their suspension concept and control logic would be employed to cross these obstacles. A performance comparison relative to other high mobility vehicles is desirable.
PHASE I: The contractor shall define a suspension concept. The contractor shall define a series of obstacles that they propose to use to design and evaluate their suspension system. Using validated analytical tools, the contractor shall demonstrate the vehicle traversing the obstacles and conduct suspension trade studies to refine their suspension concept. The contractor shall perform a preliminary mechanical design of the suspension and how the suspension will be integrated onto the Mongrel vehicle. The Government will supply geometric and interface information on Mongrel to the contractor.
PHASE II: The contractor shall conduct a detail design and fabricate a prototype suspension unit. The contractor shall conduct extensive simulation of the suspension unit including the control logic. The prototype suspension unit shall be demonstrated on a test stand using the proposed obstacles.
PHASE III: Future Military wheeled vehicles will require the aforementioned mobility capability creating a large and continuing market. Commercial sport utility vehicle owners will benefit from these suspensions, representing an even larger market. Other applications for these suspensions are mining, forestry and agricultural. The contractor shall refine the suspension system for commercialization.
1) Walking Machine Catalogue: http://www.fzi.de/ipt/WMC/walking_machines_katalog/walking_machines_katalog.html
2) Walking Machines: http://mozu.mes.titech.ac.jp/research/walk/walk.html
3) Climbing Robots: http://www2.ee.port.ac.uk/~robotwww/mech.html
KEYWORDS: Advanced suspensions, complex obstacles, hybrid electric drive, increased mobility
A02-041 TITLE: Laser Shock Peening Technology for Army Vehicle Life Extension
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO, Aviation - Concurrent Eng
OBJECTIVE: To develop laser shock peening technology for Army vehicle applications, including helicopters and ground vehicles, to extend the service life of components limited by fatigue failure, enable the use of lighter weight designs, and increase maintenance cycle time. While there are many possible applications, those of special interest are drive train and engine components.
DESCRIPTION: Laser Shock Peening (LSP) is an emerging surface enhancement technology that develops deep compressive residual stresses through the propagation of a high amplitude shock wave of short duration into the surface of a material to increase fatigue strength and fatigue life. The shock wave is developed by a confined-plasma pressure pulse produced on the part surface through the interaction of a laser beam with the surface. To date, research efforts have focused on the development of LSP for use on 6Al4V titanium for compressor blades in gas turbine engines where it has significantly increased fatigue resistance related to foreign object damage. However, the mechanism involved in the formation of the compressive stress state within the material subjected to LSP requires further research to determine its potential for other materials and military applications. Unlike conventional shot peening, predictive models do not exist for LSP and are essential for widespread acceptance of this process for use in Army rotorcraft and other critical applications. To illustrate this concern further, conventional shot peening typically results in 20-35% cold working at the surface. X-ray diffraction peak broadening values indicate that the same material processed by LSP only results in approximately 1.5-2% cold working. It has been shown with conventional shot peening that the build up of dislocations formed by cold working induce the compressive stresses into a material. However, this relationship has not been adequately investigated with LSP and would require x-ray diffraction studies coupled with microstructural analysis to determine the mechanism responsible for the compressive stresses. Research must also be performed to understand the effects that the propogating shock wave has on carbides, grain boundaries and other inherent microconstituents within the material. There are many potential applications for LSP including gears in transmissions and differentials, drive shafts, transmission shafts, universal joints, crankshafts, connecting rods and others. These parts have significant differences from the titanium parts that are being laser shock peened for aircraft turbine engines. The parts are steel, and often have surface areas subject to high stress or wear and may be heat treated to high hardness by induction heating, carburizing or similar treatments. In these applications, the surface areas of interest for life extension treatments include both surface hardened areas and non-surface hardened areas. Where surface hardening is used, the high hardness surface layers overlay a softer, tougher core material, representing a very different materials combination compared to turbine engine blades. In addition, the surface and part geometry of these parts is often significantly different from blades, requiring different processing approaches to be developed for cost effective, high throughput laser shock peening. The result of these differences between engine and drive train parts and turbine engine blades requires a different processing approach to laser peening these parts and a determination of the magnitude of the property benefits which can be derived by laser shock peening.
In addition to process development for these types of parts, modeling of the process is of interest. The depth and magnitude of the compressive residual stresses produced in the surface layer of a part by laser shock peening is dependent on the material properties, surface contour, and part geometry, in addition to the laser shock peening parameters. The shock wave propagation through a surface hardened layer into a softer underlying material will require a different approach to optimizing the process for large, deep compressive residual stresses, compared to materials that are not surface hardened.
PHASE I: Demonstrate an improvement in fatigue life for carburized Pyrowear 53, carburized AISI 9310 and carburized X-2M by laser shock peening and investigate the mechanism responsible for the formation of the compressive stress state. Propose a model to predict compressive stress magnitude and depth for the LSP process.
PHASE II: Identify one or more Army vehicle or helicopter engine or drive train gears fabricated from the materials investigated in Phase I for laser shock peening to increase fatigue life. The gear(s) should have a history of being fatigue limited in service, and would benefit substantially from surface treatment to increase fatigue life. Develop and optimize the laser shock peening parameters for the part and refine the proposed LSP model to predict compressive stress magnitude and depth. Develop a prototype production laser shock peening system to process the part. The system should emphasize affordable laser shock peening of the part, with emphasis on low cost, high throughput and high reliability.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Successful development of a production laser shock peening system for an engine and power train component for Army vehicles and helicopters will have significant potential for expanding the application of laser shock peening to many other components. This would have the benefit of increasing the reliability and maintainability of the vehicles using these components. There would be a huge market in the civilian automotive and helicopter industry for this process.
1) A. H. Clauer and D. F. Lahrman, "Laser Shock Peening as a Surface Enhancement Process", Proceedings of Symposium on Surface Durability, Trans-Tech Publications, Switzerland, 2000.
2) W. Cowie, S. Mannava and T. Compton, "Development of Laser Shock Peening of Airfoil Leading Edges for Single engine Weapon Systems", Proceedings of the 1997 USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program Conference, San Antonio, TX, December, 1997.
3) A. H. Clauer, J. K. Lee, S. A. Noll, A. Gilat, R. A. Brockman and W. R. Braisted, "Modeling Residual Stresses from Laser Shock Peening", 5th National Turbine Engine High Cycle Fatigue Conference, Chandler, AZ, 7-9 March, 2000.
KEYWORDS: Fatigue, Turbine Engines, Residual Stress, Surface Treatments, Laser Shock Peening
A02-042 TITLE: Position and Orientation for Distributed Sensors
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM for Mines, Counter Mines and Demolitions (PM-MCD)
OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate novel devices capable of robustly and automatically determining the position and orientation of future deep/randomly deployed networked Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) relative to other randomly deployed UGS that also contain this novel device. The developed device should be able to work when no Global Positioning System (GPS) coverage is available, such as inside buildings and caves and under dense foliage. This device must be able to be manufactured at extremely low cost, draw very little power and be extremely small in order to be compatible with future microsensor based UGS systems. This device could be used in many military applications such as UGS, next generation mine fields, robotics, soldier locating systems for Military Operation Urban Terrain (MOUT), etc.
DESCRIPTION: Future UGS will be automatically deployed up to 60km forward of the Forward Line of Own Troops (FLOT) from various airborne platforms or missiles. UGS sensors deployed in this manner will land on the ground in random orientations and positions. The effectiveness and performance of a UGS sensor field is greatly diminished when the location and orientation of the individual sensors are not accurately determined. These microsensor based UGS systems are envisioned to employ bistatic radars, acoustics, seismic, magnetic, radios, optical devices, chemical sniffers and other sensing technologies. The spacing between individual UGS sensors in a sensor field ranges from 30 meters to nearly 500 meters. The individual UGS sensors may not have a line of sight (los) to any of its neighboring UGS sensors. This SBIR proposal addresses the specific problem of automatically mapping a field of UGS in a timely fashion. Some current methods either rely on soldiers to hand emplace the sensors (not practical for forward deployed sensors in most cases) or GPS (not robust in many areas such as mountains, urban, and jungles). Currently no device exits that meet the accuracy, size, power, weight, cost and robustness constraints required for an orientation and location device to be compatible with the next generation of microsensor based UGS systems. Innovative concepts can include (but not required or limited to): (1) self-calibration techniques, (2) low power acoustic or RF based timing techniques, (3) communications link based techniques, and (4) low cost imager based techniques. The developed devices will be evaluated using simulations and during field experiments. This device will enable low cost deep deployed microsensor based UGS to provide accurate targeting information to the warfighter in areas where other national assets are blind.
PHASE I: Develop the concept for an orientation and location determining system and demonstrate that the concept has the ability to determine the relative orientation and location of a group of randomly deployed sensors. The technique shall work when no GPS signal is present. The concept shall be demonstrated using simulations and laboratory hardware. Determine if the concept has the capability to meet the power, size, accuracy and cost goals.
PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype localization and orientation system in a realistic environment where GPS is unavailable. Conduct testing to prove feasibility of the device to meet the power, size, accuracy and cost goals in various environments.
PHASE III: The devices developed could be used for any application that requires the locating of objects or people without GPS. This device could be used to locate firefighters in a burning building. It also could be used to locate low cost biosensors that could warn officials of a biological threat in a building. Other possible applications are locating hikers in the woods or in caves, search and rescue, object tracking and other sports activities to name a few. This device would have application to APL-A and Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the objective force. This device also has application in the military for bistatic radars, unattended ground sensors, mines/mine replacements, chemical sensors, etc.
1) “Self-organizing distributed networks”, L. P. Clare, G. P. Pottie and J. R. Agre, Proc. SPIE, vol. 3713, Mar. 1999, pp. 229-237.
2) “Next century challenges: scalable coordination in sensor networks”, D. Estrin, Proc. Mobicom, 1999, pp. 483-492.
3) “Self-calibration of unattended ground sensor networks”, R. Moses et al, Proceeding Advanced Sensor Consortium, ARL Federated Laboratory 5th Annual Symposium, Mar 2001, pp 63-70.
4) “Callaborative Information Processing”, IEEE Signal Processing magazine, March 2002.
KEYWORDS: Position, Orientation, location, Self Mapping, Microsensors, Deployment, Communications, Unattended Ground Sensors, Mines
A02-043 TITLE: Novel Display Devices
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics
OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate new devices, which can provide True Three Dimensional viewing, or Direct View and Head Mounted Displays with ultra-high efficiency and resolution (information content). True Three Dimensional viewing is distinguished from current Three Dimensional projections using Two Dimensional displays in that a virtual image is created which may be viewed and interacted with from any perspective. These display devices would be used in a number of military applications including: command post, simulation, the individual soldier, sensor analysis, mission planning, and remotely piloted vehicles.
DESCRIPTION: Advances in sensors and computing are providing more information that the war fighter needs to view and assimilate in order to fight and win. This information transfer is accomplished via a number of different types of displays. Each implementation has different requirements based on the application. True Three Dimensional displays will provide the war fighter with new capabilities for mission planning, command post, simulation, and battle space management. Direct view and head mounted displays have a wide range of applications, which encompass all types of military systems including the soldier, avionics, and simulation. The issues with these displays are the amount of information that can be displayed, efficiency, luminance, bandwidth, ruggedness and lifetime. Orders of magnitude increases in the amount of information displayed are needed. Innovative technology solutions for Three Dimensional and very high resolution and efficient displays have to be developed. The data transfer rate and for the technology developed has to be taken into account. Evolutionary advances on existing technology solutions will not be considered.
PHASE I: Develop a display concept and demonstrate the basic technology in a moderate resolution. Determine if technology has the capability of meeting goals for resolution, efficiency, and environmental ruggedness from measurements on test devices. The novel display devices must exceed the current state of the art in one or more areas.
PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype display system in a realistic environment. Conduct testing to prove feasibility over extended operating conditions.
PHASE III: The display devices develop could be used in a broad range of military and civilian display applications. By their nature, displays have dual use. True Three Dimensional Displays may be used by the military for battlespace management and squad urban assault planning. The commercial analog for these applications is Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) air traffic control and engineering or modeling using three-dimensional visualization. Head mounted displays are required for avionics applications and Land Warrior, Future Combat Systems (FCS), and the Objective Force. A large commercial application is video games. For direct view displays the military and commercial applications are the same.
1) Review of defense display research programs, SPIE. 2001
2) "Active optoelectronics using thin-film organic semiconductors" S.R.Forrest IEEE Jour of Selected Topics in Quan Elect. 6 (6): 1072-1083 NOV-DEC 2000
3) "Organic Based Light Emitting Devices", E. W. Forsythe and A. J. Campbell, SID Seminar Series, San Jose CA (2001).
4) "Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware" G. Favalora, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, M. Giovinco, J. Napoli, Proc. of SPIE V 4297A, SPIE at Photonics West in San Jose CA (Jan. 2001).
KEYWORDS: display, true three dimensional, resolution, efficiency.
A02-044 TITLE: Development of a Field Portable Acousto-Optical Ultrasonic Evaluation System
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
OBJECTIVE: Develop, demonstrate and deliver a field portable acousto-optical (A-O) ultrasonic evaluation system employing a next generation, real-time, large field of view, flexible, acousto-optic sensor to assess damage/degradation of advanced materials (i.e., metals, composites, ceramics and adhesives) used on a variety of US Army platforms. The new A-O inspection system shall be nondestructive and non-intrusive, and have the capability of single-side evaluation. Thus able to assess complex shapes and structures, such as rocket and missile motor cases, launch tubes, mortars, spar and tail sections of helicopter rotor blades, small arms protective inserts (SAPI) used in body armor, sandwich structures and vehicle integral armor systems. Due to its versatility, the A-O inspection system shall be able to perform equally well in the field and on a process production line for the quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of fabricated parts/components.
DESCRIPTION: Acoustography is a vast improvement over conventional ultrasonic techniques, although further exploration and development of the technology is needed. A-O sensors are produced with a mesophase material sandwiched between glass plates. This makes the sensor fragile, heavy, rigid and limited in size. In addition, current A-O ultrasonic inspection systems still need to employ a water medium to transfer ultrasound to the part, to retrieve data, and are only near real-time. This effort would expand the technological development of A-O sensors to be incorporated with a flexible polymer material, making them low cost, lightweight, and durable for field assessment. The resulting inspection system would contact the part (single-side inspection), thus excluding the use of an immersion tank, and provide a wide area (ft2), real-time, full-field ultrasonic image. The system shall also include an automated archival system to increase reliability and efficiency. Quick assessment of the part's integrity over prolonged use could be conducted. Overcoming the technical barriers are challenging. Though, successful for a flat rigid parallel sensor, a flexible A-O sensor poses several technical challenges, such as amplitude and/or visual loss through the polymer, maintainability of ultrasonic resolution and sensitivity during bending, and the differentiation and elimination of birefringence response from bending and flexing. A new type of mesophase material may need to be developed. Thus, the technical risk for this endeavor is high. This work will advance the acousto-optic sensor technology for acoustography, and develop a new generation of highly portable, low-cost and efficient nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tools for ultrasonic inspection of produced, fielded and aged structures.
PHASE I: The Phase I effort will concentrate on developing a flexible and rugged acousto-optic sensors suitable for ultrasonic inspection in the field and address technical barriers. The emphasis will be on showing the feasibility of the acousto-optic sensor to provide simple, compact, low-cost, and hand portable acoustography-based tools for the ultrasonic evaluation of damaged and aging structures in the field.
PHASE II: The Phase II effort will refine the acousto-optic sensors further and extend the Phase I feasibility concept and develop a prototype flexible A-O ultrasonic evaluation system suitable for inspection of damaged and aging structures. The emphasis will be to develop acoustography-based methodology for detecting and quantifying anomalies such as cracks, corrosion, disbonds and delaminations that compromise structure integrity. Comparison tests with conventional ultrasonic techniques will be performed to determine relative efficiency and performance levels of the new A-O inspection system.
PHASE III: Develop an automated A-O ultrasonic evaluation system suitable for marketing; employing and enhancing the technology gains in Phase II.
COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL: The system will be well suited for application to commercial aerospace, transportation and automotive industries, as well as use in the medical fields.
1) A.Bond Thorley, H. Wang, and J. S. Sandhu, "Application of Acoustography for the Ultrasonic NDE of Aerospace Composites," in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Materials and Composites IV, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3993, p 23, March 2000.
2) J. S. Sandhu, H. Wang, W. J. Popek, "Acoustography for Rapid Ultrasonic Iinspection of Composites." Proceedings SPIE conference on NDE, Az, Dec. 1996.
3) J. S. Sandhu, H. Wang, W. J. Popek, "Recent Progress on Ultrasonic NDE Using Acoustography" Proceedings Second NTIAC Conference on NDE Applied to Process Control of Composite Fabrication, St. Louis, MO, 1996.
KEYWORDS: Acousto-Optical, Ultrasonic, Nondestructive, Evaluation, Field Portable
A02-045 TITLE: Oil-Free Thrust Bearings for Army Turboshaft Engines
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform
OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative lightweight, high load capacity, and compact Oil-Free thrust bearings for foil air bearing supported gas turbine engine shafts in a size class suitable for application to Army air and ground vehicles.
DESCRIPTION: This topic seeks innovative Oil-Free thrust bearing technology for foil air bearing supported gas turbine engine rotors. Recent developments in journal foil air bearing rotor support technology enable Oil-Free gas turbine systems. However, Oil-Free thrust bearing technology requires further development to enable support of rotor axial loads anticipated in Army gas turbine engine propulsion systems. This topic seeks innovative concepts for lightweight, high load capacity, and compact Oil-Free thrust bearings to realize a completely Oil-Free gas turbine engine.
The proposed research must push Oil-Free thrust bearing technology beyond the current state-of-the-art level into higher load capacities and higher temperature environment applications relevant to turbine engine requirements of Army vehicle systems. Proposers are encouraged to conceive and explore any relevant Oil-Free thrust bearing technologies. Innovative solutions involving hydrostatic pressure balancing, electromagnetic, passive magnetic, compliant foil, combination hybrid approaches or other new concepts are anticipated. The proposed innovation must feature lightweight characteristics for the complete thrust bearing system including any engine parasitic secondary airflow or electrical power draws.
The proposal must identify the critical technology barriers that the proposed research effort must overcome to succeed in developing, applying and commercializing the technology. The proposal must discuss the innovation and technical risks involved in overcoming the critical technology barriers and present a reasonable basis, approach, and timeline for success. The proposal must address anticipated benefits of the technology (such as efficiency, cost, power density, reliability, and maintainability) to the vehicle system. The proposal must include information on potential spin-off military applications and commercial dual-use applications.
Research emphasis under this topic must focus on Oil-Free thrust bearing technology including integration of the technology within the geometrical constraints of a gas turbine system. For purposes of laboratory technology demonstration, two configuration examples (A-Small and B-Large) are given below with minimum continuous steady-state operating parameters.
Configuration "A" - Small Thrust Bearing:
- Shaft diameter = 2.0 inches; Cavity diameter = 4.0 inches; Cavity length = 2.0 inches
- Idle Condition: Thrust load = 400 lbs; Shaft speed = 25,000 rpm; Ambient temperature 500 F; Secondary air flow 0 lbm/s; Electrical power = 0 Watts
- Maximum Condition: Thrust load = 1,000 lbs; Shaft speed = 50,000 rpm; Ambient temperature 700 F; Secondary air flow 0 lbm/s; Electrical power = 0 Watts
Configuration "B" - Large Thrust Bearing:
- Shaft diameter = 3.0 inches; Cavity diameter = 7.0 inches; Cavity length = 3.5 inches
- Idle Condition: Thrust load = 400 lbs; Shaft speed = 15,000 rpm; Ambient temperature 500 F; Secondary air flow 0 lbm/s; Electrical power = 0 Watts
- Maximum Condition: Thrust load = 3,000 lbs; Shaft speed = 25,000 rpm; Ambient temperature 700 F; Secondary air flow 0 lbm/s; Electrical power = 0 Watts
Emphasis is placed on lightweight, high load capacity and compact design. For comparison and evaluation, the estimated weight of proposed innovative Oil-Free thrust bearings must be presented. Weight estimates include all hardware (rotating and static) in the cavity space including the shaft. If electrical power is required, the power conditioning, controllers and wiring harnesses may exist outside the cavity but the weights must be included in the weight estimate. Secondary air flow, electrical power and cavity length requirements beyond the conditions specified in the above configurations are considered integration penalties and for comparison purposes must be factored as follows:
Secondary Air Flow (at 300 F, 25 psi): 30 lbs of weight per pound mass per second of air flow needed
Electrical Power: 3 lbs of weight per kilowatt of electrical power needed
Cavity Length: 15 lbs of weight per inch of cavity length needed beyond cavity length specified above
PHASE I: Through experimental testing and/or analytical modeling the Phase I research results must show feasibility of the proposed innovation by demonstrating progress in overcoming the identified critical technology barriers. Prepare a Phase II research plan.
PHASE II: Demonstrate (in a laboratory setting) the Oil-Free thrust bearing technology at an appropriate scale relevant to an Army vehicle system application and in a relevant operating environment (speeds, temperatures, and thrust loads).
PHASE III: This technology is applicable to virtually all military and commercial aircraft, helicopter, and UAV gas turbine engines, auxiliary power units, personal mobile power generators, and stationary gas turbine power generators.
1) Agrawal, G. L.; "Foil Gas Bearings for Turbomachinery", Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE Paper 901236, 20th Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, Williamsburg VA, 9-12 July 1990.
2) DellaCorte, C.; and Valco, M.; "Load Capacity Estimation of Foil Air Journal Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery Applications", NASA/TM-2000-209782, ARL-TR-2334, October 2000.
3) Emerson, T. P.; "The Applications of Foil Air Bearing Turbomachinery in Aircraft Environmental Control Systems", ASME 78-ENAS-18, 1978.
4) Heshmat, Hooshang, "Role of Foil Bearings in Advancement and Development of High-Speed Turbomachinery", Presented at the Second Pumping Machinery Symposium, Washington D.C., 20-24 June 1992.
5) Heshmat, H.; Walowit, J.; and Pinkus, O.; "Analysis of Gas-Lubricated Compliant Thrust Bearings", ASME Journal of Lubrication Technology, Vol. 105, pp. 646-655, 1983.
6) Iordanoff, I.; "Analysis of an Aerodynamic Compliant Foil Thrust Bearing: Method for a Rapid Design", ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 121, pp. 816-822, 1999.
7) Licht, L.; "Foil Bearings for Axial and Radial Support of High Speed Rotors - Design, Development, and Determination of Operating Characteristics", NASA CR-2940, January 1978.
8) Walton, James F.; Heshmat, Hooshang; "Application of Foil Bearings to Turbomachinery Including Vertical Operation", ASME, 1999.Keywords: Oil-Free, foil bearing, thrust bearing, gas turbine, auxiliary power unit, power generation, turbomachinery
KEYWORDS: Oil-Free, foil bearing, thrust bearing, gas turbine, auxiliary power unit, power generation, turbomachinery
A02-046 TITLE: Advanced High Energy Batteries
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Soldier
OBJECTIVE: Synthesize/identify new materials and chemistries for electrochemical power sources for communications, munitions, vehicles and other Army applications
1) Rechargeable Batteries - Improved Li-Ion or Li battery chemistries are being sought for energy storage for electronic equipment, small electrical equipment and for use in hybrid power for robotic platforms and future lightweight vehicles. Operation over the full military temperature range (-40o to 70o C) is required. The highest possible energy and power densities, minimal degradation and maximal charge retention in storage is being sought. We are seeking new (including nanophase) electrode materials and new electrolytes (including polymeric electrolytes) to achieve desired improvements over the present state of art. Of interest also, are new all-temperature battery formulations that would allow packaging of cells in soft plastic by dint of high chemical stability of cell components and the absence of gas production during use and storage.
2) Batteries for Smart Munitions - Munitions applications require a battery shelf life of up to 20 years with storage and use over the full military temperature range. and must activate and perform over the full military temperature range. Suitable batteries must withstand the high acceleration, shock and spin of munitions launchers. Oxyhalide liquid reserve batteries are often used for this purpose, but present formulations and designs are difficult to produce in cylindrical battery designs less than ¼"high x ¼" diameter. This is so partially because of the limited number of chemically stable constructional materials that can be used for electrolyte reservoirs. New less corrosive battery chemistries and designs that will provide fast activation and high power and energy in small liquid reserve configuration are being sought.
Alternatives to conventional liquid reserve batteries are also being sought, as the latter are relatively expensive and provide only a small fraction of the intrinsic energy of the battery couples due to the space that must be allotted to mechanical parts which serve to contain the electrolyte and release/distribute it under impact-spin conditions. Power density requirements are greater than 50 W/l. Possibilities include:
a) The development of an "active" battery chemistry with a shelf life greater than 10 years. The use of relatively expensive, high purity materials is permissible.
b) The development of novel activation methods. Such methods would release a highly conducting electrolyte within milliseconds after gun launch with 15,000 to 30,000 setback and 45-500 rps spin. The methods could include phase change, the use of a container material which pulverizes on impact, the use of frangible microencapsulated electrolyte, etc.
3) Lithium/Air Batteries - Lithium/air batteries could provide the relatively high energy densities required for future "soldier systems". New concepts and materials are being sought to cope with anticipated problems of slow oxygen reduction kinetics, atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide contamination, user safety, etc. As Li/air batteries would probably be used primarily to recharge more conventional lithium batteries, moderate power densities (< 40 W/kg), operation in a higher range of internal temperatures and delayed start could be tolerated.
PHASE I: Phase I should result in the identification/synthesis of at least one of the major cell components for a chemistry which could provide performance exceeding the present stare-of-art.
PHASE II: Phase II will provide for further exploration of cell components and for the formulation and demonstration of a complete prototype cell or battery.
PHASE III: The energy storage components under consideration here are of great potential value for use with cellular phones, laptop computers, camcorders, many other commercial electronic equipment and for civilian electric-drive vehicles.
OPERATING AND SUPPORT COST (OSCR) REDUCTION: The new primary batteries (for use in combat) being sought are to be "dual use" as compared with present Li/SO2 primaries which are not. The commercial base is expected to foster competition and reduced costs. The new rechargeable batteries (to be used mainly for training) could provide power for a fraction of the operating cost of primary batteries. The substitution of active for reserve batteries could provide power for smart munitions applications at a fraction of the cost of the latter power source.
1) Wolfenstine, M. Shictman, D. Foster, J. Read, and W. K. Behl, J. Power Sources, 91, 118 (2000).
2) Wolfenstine and W. Behl, J. Power Sources, 96, 277 (2001).
KEYWORDS: batteries, reserve batteries, anodes, cathodes, electrolytes
A02-047 TITLE: Antenna Array Architectures that Accommodate Polarization Diversity and Beam-Spoiling Architecture
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: ACS, PEO-Intelligence, Electronic Warfare & Sensor
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort is to design and develop a low profile, inexpensive, antenna array topology that is amenable to vertical, horizontal, and circular polarization in the millimeter wave region of the frequency spectrum. In addition, it should support a beam-spoiling mode (adaptive beam broadening) for multifunction adaptability.
DESCRIPTION: A multi-function RF sensor for the Army's Future Combat System (FCS) will have the potential of providing for radar and communication needs. A key component of such a system will be an Electrically Scanned Antenna (ESA), which incorporates polarization diversity into its design. The radar and communication requirements of a potential FCS MMW sensor will benefit in performance with the addition of a planar aperture which supports polarization diversity. The goal of this effort is to be able to change from vertical to horizontal linear rapidley as well as right and left circular polarization's while minimizing feed structure losses. We are also interested in feed structures and apertures that can adaptively spoil its beam from one that is highly directive (i.e., 2º x 2º) to that which is broader (i.e., 10º x 10º) for a covered sector (i.e, 120º). Further enhancements include being able to generate multiple (simultaneous) beams.
PHASE I: Using computer simulation models, demonstrate the feasibility of an array (8 X 32) architecture (e.g., a patch array feed network) that will accommodate vertical, horizontal, and circular polarization. The computer simulations should demonstrate the performance of the array from the standpoint of return loss (at least 10% at the -10 dB points), beamwidth, and scanning (+/- 45 Degrees). Computer simulations should also predict mutual coupling effects. Separate simulations for transmit and receive arrays are acceptable. Conceptually demonstrate that the array is expandable to a 128 X 128 element array.
PHASE II: Build, test, and deliver two 8 X 32 element arrays - one for transmit and one for receive. The arrays do not need to scan, but should validate the computer models transmitting/receiving vertically, horizontally, and circularly polarized signals. Testing should include measured S-parameter data (return loss and mutual coupling measurements), radiation patterns, and antenna gain.
PHASE III: Address commercialization and dual use for novel planar structurers. Particular applications would include point-to-point communications in urban enviroments as well as applications to the intelligent highway systems of the future (e.g., toll collection, collision avoidance, etc.). As the present frequency allocation for mobile applications becomes more and more congested, an upward shift in the frequency band will become imperative so that greater bandwidths can be exploited. When this reallocation occurs, the ESA will be a strong candidate for such applications. As an example, commercial satellite communications will be required to meet market demands for applications ranging from monitoring positioning systems to cell phone communications. Again, this antenna (with its ability to scan and stay focused on a target) would be ideal for such an application - particulary when mounted on a moving vehicle.
1) David M. Pozar and Daniel H. Schaubert, Microstrip Antennas, Piscataway, NJ, IEEE Press, 1995.
2) S. Weiss, E. Adler, W. Wiebach, R. Dahlstrom, E. Burke, "An Electronic Scanning Concept for Future Combat Systems", Army Science Conference, December 2000.
KEYWORDS: Electronic Scanned Antenna, polarization, beam-spoiling
A02-048 TITLE: Lightning Effects Mitigation
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Battlespace
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Integrated Meteorological System (IMETS),
OBJECTIVE: Develop a suite of sensors and a data processing for tactical detection, location and mitigation of lightning strike hazards.
DESCRIPTION: A number of systems for detection of lightning on both large and small scales exist and have been deployed in advanced nations. These resources are usually not available in tactical situations. Some of the information that could potentially be available is based on large scale meteorology, for example, the location and intensity of thunderstorm activity. Other aspects, for example the local potential changes immediately preceding a lightning strike, are intrinsically local and have very short warning windows. Both circumstances require a tactical solution, the first because of the need to formulate and communicate the appropriate information to the tactical system, and the second because the necessary measurements need to be done in situ. This opportunity solicits the development of a compact portable system which would include detectors, including detectors which would use electric potential changes to predict imminent strikes. In addition, the systems should have the capability to integrate local and other available data, including data from large scale and satellite detection networks into a warning and display system.
PHASE I: Develop a system design that includes specification of lightning detectors and locators, an imminent strike detector, and a data processing and display system.
PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a compact, portable, prototype system in a realistic environment.
PHASE III: Both military and civilian systems and operations are threatened by lightning. The capability to determine lightning strike threat, and especially imminent lightning strike threat would have widespread application to sporting events, outdoor entertainment, and anywhere large numbers of people are assembled or vulnerable electronic systems are deployed out of doors. A compact, portable system for monitoring the threat should find many civilian as well as military applications.
1) Hodanish, Stephen, "Integration of Lightning Detection Systems in a Modernized National Weather Service Office," and references therein, http://www.srh.noaa.gov/mlb/hoepub.html, no date given.
KEYWORDS: lightning, sensors, threat display
A02-049 TITLE: Methanol Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid for the Individual Soldier
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Soldier
OBJECTIVE: Development of components for an extremely compact 15W, 12/24 V direct methanol fuel cell-powered battery charger for individual soldier applications.
DESCRIPTION: A simple, lightweight, low cost power source is required to meet the power needs of the individual soldier for missions lasting upwards of 72 hours. This might be accomplished by hybridization of a direct methanol fuel cell with a rechargeable Li-Ion battery. Technology already exists for a direct methanol/PEM fuel cell that utilizes a relatively dilute (2-3 molar) methanol at the anode. To eliminate the logistic burden of carrying a large volume of dilution water, one requirement is the development of a subsystem capable of utilizing pure methanol to avoid the logistics burden of carrying a large quantity of dilution water. The subsystem, in turn requires the development of a methanol concentration sensor, a compact pump for delivering recirculated water and a circuit for feedback and control of the methanol concentration in the anode compartment. Other required components include a compact and efficient blower/compressor for delivering atmospheric oxygen to the cathode, a very compact and inexpensive fuel cell stack and a battery charging circuit.
PHASE I: Development of a methanol feed subsystem and the development of a design for a 15 W, 12/24 V fuel cell powered battery charger.
PHASE II: Development of a laboratory prototype fuel cell-powered battery charger.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Small methanol fuel cell systems are of great potential value for use with cellular phones, laptop computers, camcorders, portable tools and many other commercial electronic and electrical equipment.
1) R. Jiang and D. Chu, J. Electrochem. Soc., 147 (12), 4605, Dec. 2000; 3.
2) D. Chu and R. Jiang, J. Power Sources, 96 June (2001).
KEYWORDS: Methanol fuel cell system; fuel cells, methanol/PEM fuel cells
A02-050 TITLE: Low-cost Alternatives to Titanium Plate Production
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Crusader
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this call for proposals is to encourage the development of new and innovative methods for producing inexpensive titanium alloy plate for use in U.S. Army combat vehicles. The goal is to produce titanium armor plate (preferably ASTM Grade 5 Ti 6Al-4V) at less than $9.00 per pound.
DESCRIPTION: Starting with standard titanium ore (rutile, titanium dioxide), develop a process that will result in the production of titanium alloy armor plate in thickness up to two inches and over 16 square feet in area at a cost of less than $9 per pound.
PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of making commercially pure titanium at the laboratory scale level through a process that avoids the traditional Kroll process. Indicate how the process could be modified to produce titanium alloy (in particular, ASTM Grade 5 Ti 6Al-4V). If possible, show how the process could produce powder directly. Support an estimate of the final production cost of titanium armor plate and titanium bar stock using the new process with current economic data. (Target cost is less than $9 per pound for the finished part).
PHASE II: Demonstrate the modified process capable of producing a Grade 5 titanium alloy at laboratory scale. Indicate how the process could be scaled up for commercial application in addition to providing the Army a source of titanium alloy armor plate. Provide additional production estimates supporting the possibility of achieving the cost goal.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Produce a pilot plant capable of manufacturing approximately 200kg of alloy per month. Partnership with current titanium producer should be sought so that commercial markets can be exploited.
1) "Titanium Process Technologies," by Steven J. Gerdemann, Advanced Materials and Processes, July 2001, pp.41-43
2) Army MTO Write-up: Improved Manufacturing Methods for Titanium in Ultra-Lightweight Armament and Ground Systems
3) "The Solid-State Spray Forming of Low-Oxide Titanium Components," by Ralph M. Tapphorn and Howard Gabel, Journal of Metals, September 1998, pp 45-46, 76.
4) "The Mechanical and Ballistic Properties of an Electron Beam Single Melt of Ti-6Al-4V Plate," ARL MR 515, May 2001, by Matthew Burkins, Martin Wells, John Fanning, and Brijmohan Roopchand
5) "Fabrication and Evaluation of Welded Ti-6Al-4V Tests Sections," ARL TR 2533, June 2001, by Scott Grendahl, Daniel Snoha, and Brijmohan Roopchand
KEYWORDS: rutile, Kroll process, titanium extraction, titanium forming, low-cost titanium
A02-051 TITLE: System for Radio Communication and Sound Exposure Monitoring
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM Crusader
OBJECTIVE: Develop a system that simultaneously provides full duplex voice communication while monitoring sound exposure to the ear. The system must be compatible with existing infantry headgear.
DESRIPTION: There is a need for a communication system that can be used in high-level noise environments and has the additional capability of quantifying the individual noise exposure experienced by the communication system user. The system will allow effective speech communication in high-level continuous and impulse-type noise environments by users wearing single and double hearing protection systems. The wearing of hearing protection is mandatory with existing and new military weapon systems and heavy machinery. The most cost effective method of preventing hearing loss is dependent on personal hearing protectors for limiting individual noise exposure. Effectiveness of such approach is problematic since the performance of hearing protection devices (HPD) varies widely across individuals. The attenuation provided by hearing protectors to individuals in the field is impossible to predict using any laboratory measurement. Overall individual attenuation is affected by many factors, including the type of HPD, the quality of the fitting, and the duration it is worn during the noise exposure. In case of high-intensity impulse noise, such as artillery rounds, the intensity and temporal envelope of an impulse may also affect effective attenuation provided by HPD. Therefore, there is a need for a comprehensive HPD attenuation measurement system that is easy to implement in the field and not a burden on the soldier. The system will also allow the users and soldier systems developers to monitor actual sound exposure levels in the field without relying on inherently inaccurate laboratory measurements of hearing protector performance. When sound exposure exceeds predefined safety levels, the soldier will be warned that no future exposure is safe. Such a system would be especially useful for testing new military vehicles and weapon systems where the exposure limits are not yet established and communication among crewmembers is required.
The solicited system should facilitate radio communication through a standard military radio system including both short range (team radio) and long-range communication. The hearing protection/communication system should accommodate earplugs, earmuffs, and double hearing protection. It should provide sensory (auditory, visual, or vibratory) warning when specific level of sound exposure in either ear has been exceeded. The system should be able to monitor right ear and left ear exposure independently.
PHASE I: Develop and provide a prototype duplex communication system that has the capability of measuring individual sound exposure of HPD users. The system should result in speech intelligibility better than 91% in each of the operational environments. The Modified Rhyme Test should be used for testing. The system will have to push the state of art in microphone design in order to accommodate processing of impulse noise. Warning signal should be triggered when the sound exposure level exceeds predefined level. Sound exposure to continuous noise should be measured in percent daily dose, which is the quantity that is directly related to the potential of noise-induced hearing loss. Dose parameters, including exchange rate and threshold values, shall be easily adjustable to allow for varying calculation methods.
PHASE II: Refine the system to produce accurate waveform recording of impulse noise (185 dB or greater) to be able to serve as a front end of impulse noise dose meters (development of impulse noise hazard criteria is not a part of this solicitation). Test and field demonstrate the communication/sound exposure monitoring system using single and double hearing protection system and variety of noise sources. Robust 2-way communication capabilities shall be demonstrated in typical military noise environments. Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) scores of 91% or better should be demonstrated for continuous noise exposure up to 120 dB A. Accurate individual noise exposure measurements shall be performed in a variety of typical military noise exposures including continuous and impact noises. The system should also produce accurate waveform recording of impulse noise (185 dB or greater) to accommodate various impulse noise dose criteria. The specifications and limitations of the measurement system shall be explicitly defined. The unit shall be demonstrated to be rugged and practical for use on a daily basis.
PHASE III: Produce and market the communication/noise monitoring system. The manufacturer shall develop a line of compatible muff-type and insert-type hearing protection devices that can be integrated with the communication/noise monitoring system. Intended users are Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines and private industry.
COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL: There is a need in the military and in general industry individual noise exposure measurement system. If this quantity can be established for hearing protector wearers, the potential for noise-induced hearing loss can be monitored on a daily basis. Studies indicate that conventional hearing protection is sufficient for a vast majority of typical noise exposures if it is worn effectively. If safe levels are documented, the noise exposure measurement system can assist the military and private industry in limiting legal responsibility for hearing loss compensation. Combining the noise measurement system with communication capabilities enhances the system for use in high-level noise environments.
1) Rash, C., Mozo, B. T., McEntire, B. J., & Licina (1996). RAH-66 Comanche health hazard and performance issues for the helmet integrated display and sighting system. US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Report No. 97.
2) Patterson, J. H. (1997). Proposed new procedure for estimating allowable number of rounds for blast overpressure hazard assessment. US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, No. 98-03.
3) Chung, D. Y., Hardie, R., Gannon, R. P. (1983). The performance of circumaural hearing protectors by dosimetry. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 25 (9), 679-682.
4) Starck, J., Toppila, E., Laitinen, H., Suvorov, G., Haritonov, V. & Grishina, T. (2002). The attenuation of hearing protectors against high-level industrial impulse noise; comparison of predicted.
KEYWORDS: noise dosimetry, radio communication, hearing protection
A02-052 TITLE: Maintenance Modeling for Reducing the Maintenance Footprint
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Tank Automotive Cmd-Armament Research & Dev Cmd
OBJECTIVE : Today's maintenance in the Army is dollar and manpower intensive. Army transformation objectives to reduce the logistic footprint will impact the soldier through MOS consolidations, reduction to two level maintenance, increased use of enablers and enhancers, and shifting of maintenance tasks to an operator or maintainer. In order to adequately assess future combat systems maintenance concepts, maintenance manpower and capacity planning modeling and simulation will be essential to enable early trade-off analyses of maintenance footprint issues for the Objective Force. The research objective will be to develop a generalized maintenance modeling and simulation tool that factors in variability in the operational tempo (optempo), failure rates, age of equipment, battlefield damage, scheduled maintenance, cannibalization, technology enhancers, and human performance variables that affect maintenance performance (e.g., skill level, experience, training). Research will examine the potential to incorporate advanced technologies in optimization, data mining, and data visualization to automatically characterize critical performance variables and optimize the maintenance process model to minimize the "Repair Cycle Time".
DESCRIPTION: The modeling and simulation tool will model the maintenance business processes associated with current and Future Combat Systems using industry standard Unified Modeling Language (UML) compliant domain model generation. Manufacturer equipment specification as well as field-collected data, will be used to quantify relevant performance variables and to characterize human performance variables in the model that effect maintenance performance. Model simulation will be used to conduct what-if and trade-off analyses of maintenance footprint issues by changing variable conditions and examining the impact on "Repair Cycle Time" flow.
PHASE I: Research will be conducted and data collected to define and characterize the variables that affect maintenance performance on "Repair Cycle Time". A "brass board" maintenance-modeling tool will be built. The modeling tool will be used to construct UML compliant models. Research on data mining techniques will be explored for automatic extraction of data parameters for model variables. Advanced optimizing techniques will be examined as to the viability to optimize maintenance processes that minimizes the "Repair Cycle Time" flow in the model. As a proof of concept, this "brass board" tool will demonstrate the ability to build a model of the maintenance processes for a maintenance unit that provides direct support to an operationally fielded unit. The maintenance data should consider both scheduled and unscheduled maintenance events. An example of a direct support maintenance type unit would be the Forward Support Battalion (FSB) Maintenance Company. This organization, its operations, and types of support are described in the Army Field Manuals listed in the reference section of the proposal.
PHASE II: The Phase I modeling tool will be extended and generalized to allow modeling of other maintenance units. Simulation modeling will be incorporated into the tool to allow what-if and trade-off analyses of maintenance footprint issues by changing variable conditions within the model. If research in Phase I proves viable, automatic data extraction features will be added to the model generation process to set appropriate variable conditions in the model. Optimization techniques will be added to the modeling tool to provide a capability to find an optimal set of maintenance procedural processes that minimizes repair cycle time.
The Phase II effort will conclude with the building of UML models for an aviation type unit and a ground maintenance unit both providing direct support type maintenance. These units are described in detail in the Army field manuals listed in the reference section. All models will be validated and include simulation capability for conducting analyses.
a. This tool could be extended to look at Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps maintenance issues. The approach developed could be extended to military electronic, fuel pumping and water processing systems maintenance issues.
b. Maintenance issues in the service have direct counter parts in the commercial side of the house. Examples of some industries would be automotive, rail, air, truck transportation companies, and heavy equipment construction companies. FCS like issues are more prevalent in the commercial world where new equipment designs, capacities and capabilities are put in corporate inventory at a much faster rate than in the DoD. The maintenance-modeling tool proposed here has high commercial market potential.
1) Army FM 4-30.3, Army FM 63-20
KEYWORDS: Maintenance, Logistics, Modeling, Simulation
A02-053 TITLE: Decision Support for Rapid Deployment Planning at Air Ports of Embarkation
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems
OBJECTIVE: The military and homeland security maintains and will maintain rapid deployment force packages for quick reactions. The material for these forces will be pre-packaged and ready for rapid loading and deployment. Both exercise and deployment operations have shown that delays and bottlenecks develop due to a combination of plane scheduling problems, airport infrastructure layouts, and pre-positioned cargo. This problem becomes particularly acute during periods of high security and airport infrastructure renovations. As the Army transforms to rapidly deployable combat teams, the need to develop additional rapid deployment operational capabilities at other air bases will be required. Similar issues are being addressed at commercial airports due to the rapid changes in infrastructure and cargo processing procedures to meet Homeland security objectives.
The goal of this project is to research, identify, and characterize those variables and processes that are part of and/or effect cargo loading operations at airports. To develop a decision support simulation modeling tool based on those variables and processes that will allow the construction of a simulation model that accurately reflects the cargo loading operations onto an air frame for a real or conceptual airport. Provide the ability to conduct what-if analyses to assess the impact of changes to variables and/or processes in the simulation model. The tool will be applicable to the military, homeland security, and commercial sectors.
DESCRIPTION: The decision support tool will provide, a generic model building palette interface, model building functions representative of the processes and variables identified from research, manual as well as automatic data feeds to draw relevant information from appropriate databases (e.g., aircraft availability and estimated arrival times, equipment availability, and personnel) to construct an accurate simulation model of cargo loading operations at an airport. The tool will be robust enough to conduct what-if analyses to assess the impact of changes to airport infrastructure and/or operational procedures. The simulation will visually recreate events and operations that show resource conflicts, bottlenecks, and delays in times/queue sizes. The tool will be capable of multiple iterative analyses while varying critical parameters to evaluate the implications of changes or the impact of limited resources of one type or another. For example, what is the time required to load air platforms based on the available personnel and vehicles? Or, given multiple vehicles, what is the optimum number of vehicles needed to accomplish the task? The tool will assist in identifying opportunities for more efficient resource utilization.
PHASE I: Conduct research to identify the operational processes and define the process variables involved in cargo loading operations on to air platforms. Efforts will be made to capture field operational data that will allow the development of statistically based performance metrics that accurately recreate the real-time operating conditions (movement times, delays, etc.) in the simulation model. Data and research results will be used to define a basic model of cargo loading operations onto an airframe.
PHASE II: Extend research efforts and expand the basic modeling effort to a generalized simulation modeling tool for cargo loading operations at airports of embarkation (APOE). The generalized tool will be capable of modeling the infrastructure characteristic of the airport, material handling equipment capabilities, schedule priorities, inspection procedures, and other identified processes to visually and accurately portray cargo loading operations on a variety of air platforms. The model will be robust and generalized enough to allow the modeling of cargo loading operations at a real or hypothetical airport with hypothetical infrastructure supporting cargo loading operations. The tool will perform what-if analyses allowing changes to be made to conditions in the model with the ability to visually and analytically assess the impact on efficiencies, identify potential bottlenecks, and address safety concerns.
a. Successful Phase II effort will provide a simulation modeling tool that could provide rapid and accurate modeling and simulation of rapid response type loading operations at departure points, to examine the effects of changes in facilities, MHE, and personnel to resolve bottlenecks in the loading operation before any new facilities are added or changed. From a military perspective, this technology could be extended to function for any number of staging areas such as seaports, marshaling areas, and as a natural extension, to look at deployment operations at airports of debarkation.
b. Because the effort here is to look at infrastructure, equipment and personnel resources in the loading of aircraft, the technology developed is easily extended to commercial airports. This technology may be used to look at the processing and loading of passengers onto commercial aircraft. The technology may allow commercial airports to look at the effects of security procedures and facility changes to find an optimal design to minimize inspection and loading queues at check-in and boarding gates prior to implementation. Something that is now a prime issue at all commercial airports. In fact, this could be extended to look at other mass transit systems and boarder crossing areas around the United States.
KEYWORDS: Rapid Deployment, Decision Support, Air Ports of Embarkation, Interim Brigade Combat Team
A02-054 TITLE: Novel Techniques for Thermal Load Management
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO for Tactical Missiles and Smart Munitions
OBJECTIVE: Presently all mechanical cooling systems utilize heat conduction processes such as refrigerants, heat pumps, pipes, or similar devices which transfer energy using molecular processes such as conduction and fluid flow. The objective of this effort is to develop a novel active cooling technology that can remove heat from systems that have temperatures ranging from room temperature (300°K) to a few degrees Kelvin, and radiate this heat to a vehicle's exhaust or other location which reduces its detectability to external sensors. This cooling technology will have no moving parts or pumps, be easy to manufacture in various formats, from nano-coolers to macro devices, and be inexpensive (comparable to, or less than thermo-electric systems). The cooling system should be able to conform to any shape in order to utilize volumes in current electronic components and vehicle structures. The heat should be transformed into another radiative medium (electrical, acoustic or optical) for removal. The heat removed should be redirected into the vehicle's exhaust system.
DESCRIPTION: The future of Army systems is being driven by the Objective Force. Future combat systems will rely on small lightweight platforms, ground vehicles, robotics, unmanned aerial vehicles, and a complex network for situational awareness. As such, these vehicles utilize state-of-the-art electronic systems (sensors and high speed computers) and propulsion systems which involve the generation and removal of heat. Residual heat from these systems causes definitive thermal signatures which increases system and operational vulnerability. Current cooling systems are bulky, noisy (both in terms of sound and electrical noise - cryo-cooler junction noise). Therefore, the proposed thermal management technology must remove heat from the confined spaces associated with electronic and detector systems (Q<1 watt to hundreds of watts), yet be scalable in order to directionally (side view) reduce the IR signature associated with propulsion systems (Q=kilowatts). The heat removed should be emitted as radiation in a spectral region in which IR sensors do not operate (3-5 mm for cryo-cooled InSb; or 7.5-13 mm for microbolometers, which can detect temperature differentials as small as 0.1°C, depending on range and pixel size). The technology should use developed manufacturing and production technologies in order to reduce lead time to fieldable systems. The resulting system will be novel in that it has no moving parts, can operate over a wide temperature range, channels the heat in a form that does not use pipes or conductive media, and allows thermal energy to be removed from a low thermal source and diverted into a higher one.
PHASE I: Demonstrate critical technologies for the fabrication of novel thermal management architectures. Design of a nano-cooler capable of cooling DSP or similar devices (Comanche helicopter electronic packaging issues for example). Design of a macro high power thermal management system (Future Combat Systems). Issues addressed will include energy removal and redirectional strategies in these design studies.
PHASE II: Build and demonstrate a fully functional nano-cooler integrated with a sensor system, DSP, or detector. Test system with military hardware in operational environments. Demonstrate scalability by assembling benchtop macro-device (4 in2 modular tile).
PHASE III: Reduction in heat and improvement in system performance for detectors, sensors, processor electronics. Military applications include lightweight nano-cooling for battlefield components and reduction in size and complexity of cooling methodologies and modified IR target signatures. Commercial applications include cooling of microprocessors, very large scale integration (VLSI) circuit cooling, superconducting optical switching circuits, and specialized industrial cooling processes, and automotive AC systems.
1) Mungan, et.al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1030 (1997).
2) Laser Ablation: Principles and Applications; Miller J. C., Ed.; Springer-Verlag; Berlin, 1994.
3) Laser Ablation: Mechanisms and Applications - II; Miller, J. C., Geohegan, D. Bi, Eds.; AIP: New Yourk, 1994.
KEYWORDS: Nano-cooling, superconducting, thermal load management
A02-055 TITLE: Software Driven Virtual Minefield
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Mine, Countermine, and Demolitions
OBJECTIVE: Building upon the foundation provided by recent university basic research results, conduct the applied research and development work that is necessary for the creation of a new training simulation capability for land mine detection. This new simulation capability will provide to the operator of handheld landmine detection systems a virtual experience for training that combines a mine field with realistic sensor signals corresponding to actual target signatures in various realistic soil and environmental conditions. The system would provide feedback to the operator for performance enhancement and would support operator training and reorientation to a new environment, as well as experimentation with operator cueing formats. The new capability will require significant research and developmental advances over currently available technology and will involve technical risk.
DESCRIPTION: Recent advances in the understanding of the thought processing by acknowledged expert operators of handheld landmine detector systems, coupled with advances in electro-optic tracking of sensor heads, has opened the opportunity for software driven minefield simulations which provide feedback for the training and reorientation of landmine detector operators. Using these techniques, experiments with laboratory equipment have established that new, inexperienced operators can approach expert performance with minimal training time. (See refs. 1 and 2.) Advances in the ability to analyze Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) signatures provide the capability to identify how the signatures vary with time, frequency, spatial location, soil conditions, and environmental conditions (ref. 3). This effort will combine these capabilities to develop a software driven virtual minefield which will provide feedback to operators in training of how the signatures of specific landmines change with the operator’s sweeping motion of the real or simulated sensor head. The virtual minefield will provide a range of audio cues based on the landmine signature. These cues will include the audio signals from the standard Army issue PSS-12 metal detector: 800-1400 Hz tone, increasing in frequency with the magnitude of the sensor signal above a threshhold, but will include a variety of other audio tones and signals, to allow experimentation with better operator audio coding schemes. Multiple audio channels will be provided to allow signals from multiple sensors or from different features of a single sensor signal to be simulated. Use advanced electromagnetic simulation codes to determine EMI and GPR signatures of a variety of mine and clutter types, experimentally verifying critical examples. Analyze PSS-12 and other common detector types to determine the audible cues which would result from the selection of mines and clutter types. Determine effects on the audible cues due to common soil and environmental conditions. The virtual minefield will be capable of realistically simulating variation in signature due to soil and environmental conditions. It will allow software locations of mines and clutter to be discovered by the operator as he moves through the virtual minefield. The system will turn any piece of available ground, whether over dirt or the deck of an embarked troop ship, into a simulated minefield for operator practice. Artificial intelligence (AI) software will support either individual training or practice, or training under the supervision of teachers with a variety of experience.
PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of the system with separate laboratory equipment items and featuring only standard PSS-12 EMI signatures of a large and a small metallic landmine and one clutter item. Use electromagnetic simulation codes to determine the signatures. Analyze the PSS-12 processing to determine the effect of these signatures on the audible cues. Provide appropriate audible cues in the demonstration system correlated to movement by the operator of a realistic detector head simulant.
PHASE II: Develop a rugged, fieldable system addressing the EMI and GPR signatures of a variety of landmine types, clutter types, under a variety of soil and environmental conditions. Use electromagnetic simulation codes to determine the signatures of mines and clutter types under common soil and environmental conditions. Analyze the processing of common EMI and GPR sensors to determine the effect of these signatures on the audible cues. Provide appropriate audible cues in the demonstration system correlated to movement by the operator of a realistic detector head simulant. Provide AI in the system to provide a structured training program based on operator feedback.
PHASE III: UN experts estimate that there are over 100 million landmines currently scattered through at least 62 countries. There are significantly more items of unexploded ordnance resulting from bombardments by the US and other countries in various foreign interventions. Several hundred people are injured by landmines alone each month. These items of unexploded ordnance are a triple threat to a developing economy: they reduce the pool of young labor available to build the economy, they produce injured and helpless people who absorb resources from the economy, and they reduce the amount of arable land available to agriculture. These landmines are being cleared principally by nonmilitary personnel and agencies, typically using using commercially available sensor technologies, usually electromagnetic detectors. Since the software driven minefield will be able to emulate any common sensor response, it will transition rapidly to the commercial market because it be highly
effective in training the demining personnel on current land mine sensor technologies and will significantly enhance their performance. This commercial market is expected to be an order of magnitude larger than the military market, resulting in a significant dual use capability.
1) J. J. Staszewski and A. Davison, “Mine Detection Based on Expert Skill,” in Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets V, ed. A. C. Dubey, J.F. Harvey, J. T. Broach, and R.E. Dugan,
Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4038 (2000), p. 90.
2) H. Herman, J. McMahill, and G. Kantor, “Training and Performance Assessment of Landmine Detector Operator Using Motion Tracking and Virtual Mine Lane,” in Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets V, ed. A. C. Dubey, J. F. Harvey, J. T. Broach, and R. E. Dugan, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4038 (2000), p. 110.
3) L. Carin, I .J. Won, and D. Keiswetter, “Wideband Frequency- and Time- Domain EMI for Mine Detection,” in Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets V, ed. A. C. Dubey, J. F. Harvey, J. T. Broach, and R. E. Dugan, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3710 (1999), p. 14, and many other papers in this conference series.
KEYWORDS: handheld landmine detector, operator training
A02-056 TITLE: Safe Packaging of Ammonia for Compact Hydrogen Sources
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Soldier Systems
OBJECTIVE: Develop a lightweight, low-cost ammonia adsorbent that when used in a compact storage and delivery system releases ammonia at near-ambient conditions at a sustained maximum rate of 0.12 g/min. Thermal decomposition of 0.12 g/min of ammonia produces sufficient hydrogen to produce 20 W (electric) from a hydrogen/air fuel cell.
DESCRIPTION: The Army has need for high-energy, lightweight power sources for the soldier; for example, one potential scenario would require 20 W (electric) for a three-day mission (1.5 kWh). Hydrogen-air fuel cells are candidates to fill this need, but the source of hydrogen is problematical. Ammonia is a potential solution (1-3) with 18% weight hydrogen. Upon thermal decomposition to hydrogen and nitrogen, ammonia has a theoretical energy density of 5.9 kWh/kg, which translates to a practical electrical energy density of 3 kWhe/kg. Liquid ammonia is not, however, the optimal phase for the fuel since it has a significant vapor pressure and requires storage in a pressure vessel. A leak could produce high concentration of ammonia vapor and unpleasant, and potentially unsafe, conditions. There is need for a lightweight, low-cost material that adsorbs ammonia at high-weight fraction and, when used in a storage-delivery system, releases ammonia at near-ambient conditions at a maximum rate sufficient to power the cell (e.g., approximately 0.12 g/min for a fuel cell producing 20 W).
PHASE I: Identify, develop, and investigate low-cost and lightweight adsorbent materials that release ammonia at near-ambient conditions. Determine ammonia equilibrium uptake on these materials over a range of temperature and pressure that encompasses full behavior of the adsorption isotherm. Measure intrinsic rate of ammonia desorption from the material as a function of temperature and pressure.
PHASE II: Further develop and characterize the most promising adsorbents identified in Phase I, and down-select to the best material. Design, construct, and evaluate a compact and lightweight adsorbent-based ammonia storage/delivery system that stores 0.5 kg of ammonia and releases it at a sustained maximum rate of 0.18 g/min (maximum rate = 150% of design rate) at near-ambient conditions with an overall system energy density greater than 1.5 kWhe/kg.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Developments in safe hydrogen sources for fuel cells will have immediate impact on a wide range of military uses as well as commercial power sources such as computer power, emergency medical power supplies, recreational power, etc.
REFERENCES Continued on Next Page.
1) M. Powell, M. Fountain, and C. Call, "Ammonia-based hydrogen generator for portable fuel cells", Proceedings International Conference on Microreaction Technologies (IMRET 5) 2001.
2) L.R. Arana, S. B. Schaevitz, A.J. Franz, K.F. Jensen, and M.A. Schmidt, "A Microfabricated Suspended-Tube Chemical Reactor for Fuel Processing," Proceedings 15th IEEE International Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Conference, 2002.
3) 3. T. V. Choudhary, C. Sivadinarayana, and D.W. Goodman, "Catalytic ammonia decomposition:COx-free hydrogen production for fuel cell applications," Catalysis Letters, 72, 2001, 197-201.
KEYWORDS: Ammonia, hydrogen, fuel cells, power source
A02-057 TITLE: Hybridized Full Wave – Asymptotic Electromagnetic (EM) Computational Engine for Antenna Computer Aided Design (CAD)
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
OBJECTIVE: Create an EM computing engine which can adaptively address the small features of an antenna/vehicle structure and the large features simultaneously in a coherent, accurate manner and in an optimization and design environment.
DESCRIPTION: Full wave EM simulation codes have been successfully used to analyze and design relatively small (in terms of wavelength) antenna arrays or structures with fine features. Approximate asymptotic codes are used to analyze larger structures such as vehicle mounting the antennas or large reflecting elements, where finer features are ignored or averaged over. This topic requires an integrated, single computational engine which hybridizes the two EM simulation approaches in such a way that finer features or arrays in part of the structure can be treated accurately, while the effects of much larger features can be economically accounted for. This hybridization will enable the integrated treatment of very large antenna arrays, of antennas and arrays mounted on large vehicular structures, of the effects of surrounding vehicles or trees, of fine feed structures with large reflector elements, and of multiple antennas interacting through vehicle and surrounding structures in a cosite interference environment. The resulting simulation engine operate in an optimization and design environment, with appropriate graphical user interface. The code should have a flexible capability for serial or parallel processing at the users option, depending on the computational platforms at his disposal. The codes should be capable of treating conformal arrays on nonplanar structures.
PHASE I: Select candidate full wave and asymptotic computing engines. Demonstrate their compatibility and the feasibility of hybridization using a crude interface between the two. Demonstrate the capability to analyze a simple 5 by 5 element planar array mounted on a simple stylized ground vehicle in a self consistent manner.
PHASE II: Produce a fully integrated, hybridized code operating in a CAD environment for fast optimization as well as analysis of a variety of complex antenna structures. Develop the full capability for nonplanar structures, flexible choice of level of parallel computation, and an interactive graphical user interface supporting antenna design.
PHASE III: The resulting CAD code will have applications in commercial and military markets. The ability to optimize and design antenna elements and arrays in the presence of large objects interacting with the EM field is essential for the inexpensive design of antennas and antenna arrays mounted on vehicles, of antennas which have fine features feeding large reflectors, and of very large arrays in the presence of surrounding objects. Current practice is to design the finer features or a small array in isolation, then to either determine problem areas empirically or to apply an asymptotic calculation to attempt to account for the effects of larger objects. The capability resulting from this topic would allow the entire design process to be accomplished in a single step, saving significant amounts in nonrecurring design costs. Because military systems are usually of smaller sales volume than commercial products, the nonrecurring costs are most critical to military radar, communications, and EW systems. However, commercial SATCOMs, terrestrial communications systems, and cellular systems will also benefit.
1) K. F. Sabet, et al., “Fast Simulation of Large-Scale Planar Circuits using and Object-Oriented Sparse Solver,” 1999 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, p. 373.
2) H.-T. Chou, P. H. Pathak, and R. J. Burkholder, “Novel Gaussian Beam Method for the Rapid Analysis of Large Reflector Antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation 49, p. 880 (June 2001).
KEYWORDS: Hybrid, Full Wave and Asymptotic EM methods
A02-058 TITLE: Anthrax Germination
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense
OBJECTIVE: To identify or develop a safe, non-toxic method for inducing anthrax spore germination.
DESCRIPTION: The potency of anthrax as a pathogen is due to the ability of the anthrax spore to survive in a dormant state under a variety of environmental extremes. The vegetative cell is easily killed by normal methods. However, the molecular signals controlling Bacillus anthracis spore germination are not well understood, and even in the human body the spores germinate over a period of months. Identifying compounds that could be used to induce spore germination both on surfaces and in humans could greatly facilitate cleanup and treatment efforts. Individuals exposed to anthrax could be treated with germination inducing compounds and then take antibiotics for a few days instead of a few months. Surfaces could be easily cleaned and decontaminated once the spores entered the vegetative state. Contaminated areas or buildings could be easily and thoroughly cleared of anthrax. At present there are no safe compounds for inducing germination in the human body, and the problems with removing spores from buildings are readily apparent.
PHASE I: The investigators will begin to investigate what types of compounds can be used to induce Bacillus spore germination. At the end of Phase I the investigators will have either demonstrated significant progress towards identifying new germination compounds, or the investigators will have identified already developed compounds, and demonstrate a new method for use
of this compound that significantly enhances the usability of this compound. This method may involve changes in the delivery system to make the compound more effective and less toxic. The investigators may limit their application to internal human use or external decontamination, if necessary. The Phase I deliverable will be identification of a novel or known compound, a plan for making this compound usable, and data from ongoing research to make the compound more bacteriocidal, and/or less toxic.
PHASE II: The investigators will continue to test compounds for the ability to germinate anthrax spores. Effective compounds will be tested for efficacy and toxicity in cells and animals, and on surfaces. The researchers will investigate toxicity and methods of application and develop this product to a point that the company or a commercial partner would have interest in taking over development at the end of Phase II. The investigators will have demonstrated by the end of Phase II that the product is effective and non-toxic. The Phase II deliverable is a compound ready for commercial production.
PHASE III COMMERCIALIZATION: If successful, this program will lead to either a commercially viable spore germination compound for use in buildings and on other surfaces, or a N in vivo human germination compound. If we had such a compound now, the Hart building and postal equipment decontamination problems would not have occurred - the anthrax spores could have been treated to induce germination and the building could have been treated with a variety of benign agents. If we had such a compound approved for human use, the thousands of people taking Cipro could have been treated for days instead of months. Logistical costs of transporting Cipro for troops or decontaminating Army equipment contaminated with anthrax could be greatly
1) Dixon T C, Fadl A A, Koehler T M, Swanson J A, Hanna P C, 2000, Early Bacillus anthracis-macrophage interactions: intracellular survival survival and escape. Cell Microbiol 2000 Dec; 2 (6): 453-63
2) Dragon D C, Rennie R P, 1995, The ecology of anthrax spores: tough but not invincible. Can Vet J 1995 May ;36 (5): 295-301.
3) Welkos S, Little S, Friedlander A, Fritz D, Fellows P, 2001, The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by anthrax spores. Microbiology 2001 Jun; 147 (Pt 6): 1677-85.
KEYWORDS: Bacillus anthracis, anthrax, spores, germination.
A02-059 TITLE: High Density Optical Data Storage
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics
OBJECTIVE: Develop an optical data storage technology capable of achieving a data density exceeding 1 Terabit/in2 with significant improvements in data access rates over current optical technologies.
DESCRIPTION: The data density of conventional optical storage technologies has been limited by the Rayleigh criterion. However, recently much work is being done in both near-field optics and sub-Rayleigh criterion optics that holds promise for new optical data storage technologies. Employing parallel readout to an array of such optics is another means to increase read/write access time and data throughput and can be readily adapted into this technology. These new technologies will enable new data storage products that will be required as the information content in next generation warfare takes a more prominent role by providing for a more rich data set to be accessed in the field in vehicles, aircraft, and with the soldier. This will also enable the capability of recording large quantities of operational data. The features of this technology that make it particularly useful are ruggedness, lack of susceptibility to electromagnetic fields, and small size and mass.
Current commercial trends for optical storage technology indicate a storage capacity of 50 GB/disk by 2004, with 4-layer adaptive focus layered media and blue lasers . Small business innovative research programs in this topic will provide a means to pursue a new storage technology and perhaps exceed conventional expectations [2,3].
PHASE I: Demonstrate the concept of data-storage using sub-Rayleigh criterion optics. In particular, a proof-of-principle device should be created to demonstrate the ability to read and write, write once-read many (WORM), to an optical medium using sub-Rayleigh criterion optics.
PHASE II: A prototype device should be fabricated and tested to demonstrate the achievement of a data density of at least 1 Terabit/in2, with full read/write (WORM) capability with reliability and compatible with military environments. This will demonstrate the ability of such a device to be used in the field to provide access to rich data sets and record operational data.
PHASE III: Produce a full-scale prototype of high-density optical disk drive including control-read/write electronics and development of compatible optical medium. The media and technology to manufacture such a disk should be clearly studied and demonstrated. The performance of the prototype should be fully characterized.
1) S. Esener, “WTEC High Density Data Storage Study,” 1998, see http://itri.loyala,edu/hdmem/welcome.htm
2) Ebbesen, T. W., Lezec, H.J ., Ghaemi, H. F., Thio, T., and Wolff, P. A., “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays” Nature, Vol 391, 12 February, 1998, pp 667-669.
3) R. Wannemacher, Plasmon-supported transmission of light through nanometric holes in metallic thin films, Optics Communications, August 2001, 195(2001) 107-118.
KEYWORDS: Optical Data Storage, Small Apertures, Rayleigh criterion
A02-060 TITLE: Noninvasive, Real-time Imaging of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) Activation
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical
OBJECTIVE: To develop a transgenic mouse prototype for noninvasive imaging of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activation for use in physiological experiments relevant to combat casualty care issues (e.g., hemorrhage, resuscitation, ischemia/reperfusion, etc.).
DESCRIPTION: Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been demonstrated in a wide variety of pathological states; the resulting increases in nitric oxide (NO) may have profound physiological effects to produce vasodilation and, either directly or indirectly through peroxynitrite formation, tissue injury (1-3). NO formation in this manner has been implicated in contributing to the hypotensive states associated with hemorrhage, sepsis, and anaphylaxis. Because of this, the pathological effects resulting from iNOS activation have been a source of intense inquiry, with the hope that pharmacological manipulations of this enzyme and its product might ultimately provide beneficial effects in patients. Recently, technology has become available for noninvasively imaging luciferase expression markers in vivo; this technology allows repeated visualization of gene activation in real-time within a single animal, thereby improving upon other methodologies for quantifying gene expression that require invasive sampling, such as Northern blots (4). The current effort will develop a transgenic mouse prototype that includes both a luciferase (luc) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) construct under the control of iNOS regulatory elements. In addition to allowing noninvasive visualization via the luciferase expression, GFP will also allow microscopic determination of expression levels in tissues and cells. Requirements for this transgenic mouse prototype include: 1) native iNOS expression must not be disrupted; 2) standard laboratory strains of mice must be used; 3) mice must have viability and fecundity equivalent to the parental strain when homozygous for the iNOS-luc-GFP construct; 4) genetic construct must be stably integrated and inherited with dominant expression; and, 5) construct must include eukaryotic luc genes as well as eukaryotic codon-optimized GFP tag.
PHASE I: Develop iNOS-luc-GFP construct in a shuttle vector and demonstrate inducible expression in a mammalian cell line. Successful completion of Phase I will result in demonstration that iNOS-luc-GFP expression in response to known inducers of iNOS (e.g., cytokines, etc.) temporally matches iNOS mRNA expression.
PHASE II: Develop transgenic mouse prototype that includes a chromosomal insertion of the iNOS-luc-GFP construct described above. Requirements for this transgenic mouse prototype include: 1) native iNOS expression must not be disrupted; 2) standard laboratory strains of mice must be used; 3) mice must have viability and fecundity equivalent to the parental strain when homozygous for the iNOS-luc-GFP construct; 4) genetic construct must be stably integrated and inherited with dominant expression; and, 5) construct must include eukaryotic luc genes as well as eukaryotic codon-optimized GFP tag.
PHASE III POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL MARKET: Because of the high level of interest in iNOS as a potential mediator for physiological and pathological processes, a commercially-available transgenic mouse prototype would be a highly-sought commodity not only for government, commercial, and academic laboratories involved in combat casualty care research, but also for a wide variety of laboratories seeking: 1) to understand the basic physiology underlying such widespread diseases as stroke, myocardial infarction, and sepsis; and, 2) speed the development of new drugs and other treatments for heart disease and stroke, the number 1 and number 3 killers of Americans.
1) Alderton, W. K., C. E. Cooper, and R. G. Knowles. Nitric oxide synthases: structure, function and inhibition. Biochem. J. 367: 593-614, 2001.
2) Szabo, C. and T. R. Billiar. Novel roles of nitric oxide in hemorrhagic shock. Shock 12: 1-9, 1999.
3) Szabo, C. The pathophysiological role of peroxynitrite in shock, inflammation, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Shock 6: 79-88, 1996.
4) Wu, J. C., G. Sundaresan, M. Iyer and S.S. Gambhir. Noninvasive optical imaging of firefly luciferase reporter gene expression in skeletal muscles of living mice. Mol Ther 4: 297-306, 2001.
KEYWORDS: inducible nitric oxide synthase, luciferase, transgenic, mouse
A02-061 TITLE: Terahertz Interferometric Imaging Systems (TIIS) for Detection of Weapons and Explosives
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
OBJECTIVE: To develop and demonstrate a terahertz-frequency imaging array with sufficient spatial and spectral resolution to enable the rapid and effective detection of concealed weapons and explosives. The envisioned sensing system will provide real-time imaging with adequate sensitivity for the short-range remote interrogation of objects and persons that might be concealing either weapons or explosives. Here, a complete source and detector technology will be developed and integrated with spectral data analysis methodologies to enable imaging across the THz frequency band (i.e., ~ 0.3 to 10 THz).
DESCRIPTION: Recent events have explicitly demonstrated the serious threat that terrorist attacks present to both the private and military sectors. Furthermore, these same events have clearly articulated the need for effective measures to screen for both weapons and explosives. Hence, there presently exists a very important need to identify and develop methods for the rapid and effective detection of such threats so as to provide protection to airports, government buildings, military bases, ships, etc. Recent research has demonstrated that the transmission and reflectivity properties of materials within the terahertz (THz) frequency regime are dependent on their microscopic properties and specific chemical makeup. Hence, THz frequency spectroscopy is a potential tool for the wireless interrogation of objects and can provide for the short-range probing of nonconductive containers or clothing. The effective utilization of this detection method will require THz systems that can image with high spatial resolution and a wide field of view to enable an effective contrasting capability. Therefore, there is a strong motivation to develop and demonstrate an interferometric imaging array system that will provide the required spatial and spectral resolution. The envisioned system should be able to resolve objects down to 1 cm in size, have a ranging capacity of a few meters and possess a spectral bandwidth over the approximate frequency range 0.1 to 1 THz. This system should be developed such that it incorporates data analysis algorithms and there should be parallel efforts made to collect signature information for a set of expected targets and concealment materials.
PHASE I: Conduct a comprehensive analysis and design phase of an imaging interferometer array that is capable of the remote measurement of reflection and transmission of target objects at frequencies within the range 0.1 to 1 THz. Develop data analysis algorithms that can be used towards contrasting spectral signatures taken from explosives and metal weapons concealed within nonconductive containers and clothing materials. This work should also include a laboratory-based experimental study of target agents and expected interferent agents for the purpose of developing a database of the required THz-frequency spectral signatures. This initial phase should present a complete system design and report on expected performance for the detection of specific weapons and explosive materials.
PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype imaging interferometer array for the remote imaging of concealed weapons and explosives. Plan, coordinate and execute real-time field testing of the prototype system that test the spatial resolution, sensitivity, and spectral discrimination capability.
PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The technologies developed under this topic will have future applications in the commercial and military markets. The imaging technology developed under this topic will augment and extend existing efforts that utilize THz-frequency spectroscopy for the detection, identification and interrogation of chemical and biological agents. Specifically, the imaging interferometer developed under this program will provide for a new class of imaging spectrometers that can be used to rapidly monitor for chemical/biological agent emission as is needed in many industrial applications. This spectroscopic technique can also be applied for the electromagnetic probing of high-speed processes that occur in materials and devices. This capability will have commercial ramifications in areas such as semiconductor materials characterization and medical diagnostics of cells and tissue. This same technology will have duel use in military applications such as point and standoff detection of chemical and biological agents and contribute to the enhancement of satellite communications and imaging systems.
1) C. Wichaidit, J. R. Peck, L. Zhang, R. J. Hamers, S. C. Hagness, and D. W. van der Weide, "Resonant slot antennas as transducers of DNA hybridization: a computational feasibility study," presented at IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, Phoenix, AZ, 2001.
2) D. W. van der Weide, K. Taylor, J. Peck, C. Wichaidit, S. Hagness, W. Cai, and R. Hamers, "Biomolecular contrast mechanisms and sensing techniques in the terahertz regime," presented at 9th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, Charlottesville, 2001.
3) K. Taylor and D. W. van der Weide, "Microwave assay for detecting protein conformation in solution," presented at Photonics Boston, Boston, 2001.
4) K. Taylor and D. W. van der Weide, "Sensing folding of solution proteins with resonant antennas," presented at 9th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, Charlottesville, 2001.
5) D. W. van der Weide, "Wideband terahertz sensing and spectroscopy with electronic sources and detectors," in Terahertz sources and systems, vol. 27, NATO Science Series, R. E. Miles, P. Harrison, and D. Lippens, Eds. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 301-14.
6) D. W. van der Weide, J. Murakowski, and F. Keilmann, "Gas-absorption spectroscopy with electronic terahertz techniques," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 48, pp. 740-3, 2000.
7) D. W. van der Weide, J. Murakowski, and F. Keilmann, "Spectroscopy with electronic terahertz techniques," presented at EurOpto '99, Munich, 1999.
8) D. W. van der Weide, F. Keilmann, V. Agrawal, and J. Murakowski, "Gas absorption spectroscopy with electronic terahertz techniques," presented at Sixth International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, Leeds, UK, 1998.
KEYWORDS: Terahertz frequency sensing, imaging arrays, explosives and weapons detection
A02-062 TITLE: Portable Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Sensor for Detection of Biological Agents
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense
OBJECTIVE: To develop a portable Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor for detection of various biological agents. A broadband LIBS approach will be utilized for this topic wherein the sensor will capture the full 200-940 nm spectral range per laser microplasma event. This will allow for the possible detection of all biological agents since all constituent elements emit in this spectral range.
DESCRIPTION: The LIBS sensor technology is growing rapidly with an increasing number of military and civilian applications. LIBS has many attributes including: (1) no sample preparation, (2) very high sensitivity (only nanogram or less of sample required to produce usable spectrum), (3) LIBS sensors can be made rugged and field-portable, and (4) LIBS sensors are capable of point, standoff, and remote detection (using optical fibers). Recent developments in LIBS component technology, particularly in the introduction of broadband spectral detector capabilities (e.g., multiple spectrometers, echelle spectrographs) has opened up many new applications for LIBS field analyses where now molecular and biological detection and identification is possible. In fact, since LIBS readily converts the sample into its elemental constituent components, and all elements emit in the 200-940 nanometer range, LIBS is thus, in principle, capable of detecting all unknown samples. LIBS shows the potential as an important component of a multitechnology detector for reliable detection of chemical and biological agents.
PHASE I: The application of LIBS to biological agent detection represents possibly the biggest current challenge for LIBS sensor technology. The most important question that has to be answered is: how unique are the LIBS spectra from different classes of bio agents such as bacteria, viruses, etc.? In the best case scenario, the broadband LIBS sensor can easily and directly distinguish between the various bio agents. However, if this is not achievable, then a secondary approach would be to incorporate a pre-selection step and then to present the product of this step for LIBS analysis. Thus, this latter approach would introduce a step of sample preparation, and therefore would require additional time for the analysis. Nevertheless, if this extra time were minimal, and the sample preparation step was straightforward and added minimal cost, then the overall approach would still be of interest to the US Army. Phase I work will demonstrate and evaluate broadband LIBS for direct biological agent detection, as well as develop new sample preparation strategies and approaches to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the LIBS sensor. Appropriate biological agent simulants should be the focus of the Phase I work. The identification of classes is biological agents is critical with the potential to identify individual species a goal.
PHASE II: In this phase a fully portable LIBS system will be built and tested for bio agent detection. It will include the development of chemometric software for instantaneous analysis of LIBS spectra through comparison with standard spectral tables as well as with a library of laboratory LIBS spectra recorded for a wide range of materials. If it is determined in Phase I that a sample preparation step is necessary, then this approach will be further refined to maximize the field use of the LIBS sensor for bio agent application. The software will provide the means to correct for matrix and temperature effects in order to maximize the quantification of the LIBS sensor. The fully man-portable system will consist of the battery-powered spectral analysis unit combined with the hand-held probe thus allowing for the detection and identification of a wide range of bio agents. Actual biological agent studies will be important in this phase.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Design and development of a fully portable LIBS analyzer system which is optimized for bio agent detection will have broad military and civilian applications for the medical, environmental, and food industries. Homeland defense and military applications include medical diagnostics of pathogens and disease as well as non-medical contamination avoidance sensors for biological warfare agents.
KEYWORDS: Non-destructive, in-situ biological analysis, biological agent detection, detection
A02-063 TITLE: Packaging for Radio Frequency Microelectronic (MEMS) Devices Subjected to Harsh Environments
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics
OBJECTIVE: Develop durable, low cost, Level 1 packaging for RF MEMS devices so that they can withstand extreme loading conditions and the harsh environment of the battlefield. To provide packaging for these devices that will render them more reliable by protecting its components from heat, dust, electromagnetic forces, shock waves, and G-forces.
DESCRIPTION: RF Microelectronic systems are the backbone of many military systems, and their reliable function and mechanical integrity are paramount to mission success. These components are particularly susceptible to damage and failure due to their many connections, and their sensitivity to dust, moisture and electromagnetic forces. This is especially true under harsh loading and environmental conditions of the battlefield. For example, secondary shock waves from a nearby impact or explosion can compromise the hermetic seal, making the device susceptible to moisture and corrosion. Research in nanoscience has yielded new advances in multifunctional materials, and coatings that can provide protective packaging and/or stronger bonding between connections so that electronic components will be resistant to the effects of shock, corrosion, and temperature fluctuations. There is a need to design these components specifically for the extreme loading and environmental conditions required by military applications that include the coupled effects of electromagnetic forces, severe mechanical loading, and environmental conditions.
PHASE I: Identify promising materials and technologies for the design RF MEMs packaging and connections such that they will withstand extreme conditions. Study the feasibility of these materials and technologies through the development of theoretical and computational models to predict the deformation, fracture and failure of the devices subjected to coupled loading conditions (thermo-mechanical-environmental). Investigate fabrication techniques to manufacture the packaging at low cost. Perform component level experiments to validate predictions.
PHASE II: Develop prototype systems that can be used to demonstrate concepts and provide benchmark performance measures versus current technology. Accelerated aging tests should be performed to quantify their performance under thermal cycling and corrosion. In addition, testing should be performed to assess their performance under shock loading.
PHASE III: Prototype designs from Phase II should be specialized for communications or radar applications and a plan for integrating these devices into the system should be developed. Performance, reliability, and durability under realistic environmental and dynamic loading conditions should be assessed to qualify the device along with design methodology and fabrication techniques so that a commercial product can be integrated into an actual military system. Develop methods for the scale-up manufacturing technologies needed for commercialization. Identify and develop new applications based on the results of Phases I and II.
DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: There are a large number of dual use applications. Packaging of electronic components will be useful for a multitude of military and commercial applications. Military applications include communications, radar, missile guidance systems, tank navigation systems, and smart munitions. Non-military applications can extend to consumer electronics, cellular phones, auto, and other industries where electronics and harsh environments interact.
1) Stuart B. Brown, William Van Arsdell, Christopher L. Muhlstein, Materials Reliability in MEMS Devices. 1997 International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, Chicago, June 16-19, 1997.
2) S. L. Miller, M. S. Rodgers, G. LaVigne, J. J. Sniegowski, P. Clews, D. M. Tanner, and K. A. Peterson, "Failure Modes in Surface Micromachined MicroElectroMechanical Actuators", 1998 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings, IRPS 1998, March 31-April 2, 1998, pp. 17-25.
3) "MEMS Reliability: The Challenge and the Promise", William M. Miller, Danelle M. Tanner, Samuel L. Miller, Kenneth A. Peterson, (Invited presentation and paper) 4th Annual "The Reliability Challenge," Dublin, Ireland, May 19, 1998, pp. 4.1-4.7.
KEYWORDS : Sensors, Blast Resistance, Shock, Reliability, Environmental Aging
A02-064 TITLE: Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons In Aqueous Solutions
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense
OBJECTIVE: To develop a process for the catalyzed oxidation of hydrocarbons in water contaminated by washing military vehicles near the front lines.
DESCRIPTION: One of the limiting factors in the forward deployment of military vehicles in a combat zone where there are potential poisonous agents is providing routine re-supply and maintenance. Once a vehicle has a surface contaminated with any of a series of invisible chemical agents (including engine oil, fuel, chemical warfare agents, and mud), biological agents, or radioactive materials, vehicle repair and refurbishment must be completed without incurring additional casualties. Even worse is the creation of an aura of fear on the part of maintenance personnel regarding their potential injury while simply touching a vehicle.
Cleaning the contaminated vehicle surface by effective washing is an obvious solution to this potential of injury to maintenance personnel. The cost and amount of dedicated equipment used to bring fresh water to the front lines for vehicle washing is high. The responsible disposal of diluted chemically or biologically contaminated water created during the washing operation is also time and material intensive. The ability to remove the contaminants from the wash water, making it clean and sterile again, through the use of a simple on-site process which only requires a pump and small heater would greatly benefit the combat capability of the US Army.
Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) has long been groomed for the oxidation of hydrocarbons in aqueous solutions. However, the high temperature and pressure required to operate the process (1500 deg F and 3400 psig) create unacceptable corrosion conditions and solids precipitation problems that the SCWO units require robust designs using exotic alloys. Despite precautions, these extreme operating conditions cause premature equipment failure, complicated operating designs and expensive equipment. Corrosion and solids precipitation problems have prevented the extensive commercialization of the SCWO process.
Chemical catalysis in the petro-chemical industry has a long, proven track record of achieving chemical oxidation of hydrocarbons at far lower temperatures. Lowering the temperature required for the oxidation reaction to take place would reduce corrosion and the problems associated with solids precipitation. Reducing the corrosion environment would manifest itself into lower equipment acquisition costs, extended operating life, more simple designs, less operating power and improve the reliability of such recycling equipment.
PHASE I: Screen available catalysts formulations used in oxidation reactions using a typical wash stream such as is produced during the washing of combat vehicles. The wash stream would include engine oil and fuel components and mud as well as possible simultants for toxic warfare agents. Conversion rate, life expectancy and poisoning potential would be collected on candidate catalysts. A prototype system would be proposed from the results of Phase I.
PHASE II: A prototype recycling vehicle washing system would be constructed and field evaluated. Process and equipment limits would be defined and a final revised design would be presented. Phase II would include the assesment of the systems ability to neutralize and remove biological agents and radioactive materials.
PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The conduct of military operations in a chemical environment requires safe field maintenance and access by military personnel in a timely and economical manner. Entire civilian businesses are being forced into using less effective washing technology due to environmental constraints in the disposal of the wastewater. A successful catalytic oxidation technology would allow the commercial washing industries to again use the more effective cleaning soaps with a simple water recycling process. This process would improve washing while protecting the environment using a simple, robust process for water recycling during military operations.
1) Yu-Chu Yang, James A. Baker, and J. Richard Ward "Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents", Chem. Rev. 1992, 92, 1729-1743.
2) Yu-Chu Yang "Chemical Detoxification of Nerve Agent VX" Acc. Chem. Res. 1999, 32, 109-115.
KEYWORDS: decontamination, washing, catalysis, oxidation
A02-065 TITLE: Chaotic Radio Frequency (RF) Sources for Ranging and Detection (RADAR) Applications
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
OBJECTIVE: Design methods of efficiently generating chaotic radio frequency signals for ranging and detection applications and develop a prototype system
DESCRIPTION: Technical Challenge/Background: Chaotic sources offer a new model for designing versatile, wide bandwidth RF sources for communications and radar applications. As opposed to conventional signal generation approaches that require explicit modulation of rock-stable oscillators, inherently unstable oscillators may offer more flexibility while operating in regimes of better efficiency. The wideband, non-repeating nature of chaotic waveforms makes them ideal for high-accuracy unambiguous ranging with high resistance to jamming as well as low probability of detection. In addition, the deterministic nature of chaos allows auto-synchronization between transmitter-receiver pairs. Exploiting these properties in a complete system is an unexplored arena.
PHASE I: Identify sources of RF chaos that are readily modeled and have potential to be used in ranging and detection systems. It is reasonable to expect that traveling wave tubes (TWT), klystrons, or other standard RF sources may be coaxed into generating chaotic output. The source must exhibit a broadband waveform due to deterministic dynamics, which can be modeled to facilitate controller design and predict performance characteristics. Preference will be given to sources that have regimes of low-dimensional chaos for which a symbolic dynamical description exists. The first phase of this project is intended to be solely theoretical.
Phase II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype system using the most promising chaotic RF source identified in Phase I. Carry out experimental studies of transmission, reception, control, and synchronization in realistic environments by simulation and by physical experiments in a laboratory environment. Identify limitations on the prototype system and on potential follow-on systems. Characterize the level of accuracy/confidence in the system within those limitations.
Phase III: All listed benefits to military applications also apply to commercial uses. The potential low-cost nature of this technology makes it particulary applicable for civilian uses such as automotive collision avoidance systems.
1) Mathematical and Computer Sciences Division, Toward a New Digital Communication Technology Based on Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 1996.
2) A. S. Dimitriev, A. I. Panas, S. O. Starkov, and B. E. Kyarginsky, "Direct chaotic circuits for communications in microwave band", Radiotekhnika i elektronika, 2001, Vol. 46 pp. 224-233 (in Russian), nlin-cd/0110047 (english).
KEYWORDS: Chaos, radar, wide bandwidth
A02-066 TITLE: Non-invasive Device for Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical
OBJECTIVE: The goal is to develop a small hand-held device for noninvasive determination of compartment pressure or suitable correlate in extremities. The device will be used by the combat surgeon to aid in the diagnosis of compartment syndrome. The device must be able to function properly in patients suffering from shock or other conditions that may cause low tissue oxygen saturation on a global level.
DESCRIPTION: Extremity trauma historically constitutes more than of 70% of battlefield injury (Maricevic et al., 1997). Battlefield injuries of the extremities involving blunt trauma, open or closed fractures, vascular injury caused by missile penetration, or circumferential burns often lead to compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability (Mubarak et al., 1989). As the duration and magnitude of interstitial pressure increases, myoneural function is impaired and necrosis of soft tissues eventually develops. Prompt surgical intervention in the form of a fasciotomy, or in the case of circumferential burns, an escharotomy, is required to relieve the pressure. Failure to perform these procedures can lead to the loss of both limb and life. Indeed, it has been reported, among the civilian population, that 75% of amputations of the lower extremities are related to a delay in performing fasciotomy or an incomplete fasciotomy in patients with compartment syndrome (Feliciano, 1988).
There are indirect/noninvasive methods that indicate the presence of compartment syndrome, including, pallor of the extremity, loss of distal pulse, extreme pain of the affected limb, and paralysis. However, the need for surgical intervention is typically indicated by direct measurement of compartment pressure using an indwelling catheter/manometer system. The invasive nature of this method is typically not practical in a combat casualty care environment, thus a noninvasive device that would substitute for conventional invasive methods would be of great benefit to the combat surgeon. Tissue oxygen saturation determined by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to diagnose compartment syndrome with encouraging success (Garr et al., 1999; Giannotti et al., 2000). However, some form of shock, resulting in low tissue oxygen saturation globally, often accompanies combat trauma. This leads to concern that diagnosis of compartment syndrome based on tissue oxygen saturation may be problematic under these conditions, possibly leading to erroneous diagnosis and unnecessary or inappropriate surgical treatment.
PHASE I: Identify a technology the may be used for noninvasive determination of compartment syndrome or a suitable correlate. The approach must compatible with developing a portable system that will operate in a variety of environments, including the battlefield, and be cost-effective. The technology should be demonstrated to verify it has the potential to meet the requirements discussed herein.
PHASE II: Using the results from Phase I, the design of a functioning device will be determined and the system constructed. Performance will be evaluated in a variety of environmental conditions and for a variety of trauma victim conditions. The system will be evaluated and optimized to determine its effectiveness in determining compartment pressure, or suitable correlate, and validate the data against the slit or wick catheter technique in an animal model for compartment syndrome.
PHASE III DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: If successful this program will lead to a commercially viable hand held, rugged, non-invasive device for the determination of extremity compartment pressures in humans. This is critical not only for DoD medical personnel treating injury victims, particularly on the battlefield, but also for the private sector to increase survival for injury victims of traffic accidents, industrial accidents, construction accidents, and crime victims, to name a few.
1) Feliciano, D. V., Cruse-Pamela, A., Spjut-Patrinely, V. Fasciotomy after Trauma to the Extremities. Am. J. Surg. 1988, December, 156 (6), pp. 533-536.
2) Garr, J. L., Gentilello, L. M., Cole, P. A., Mock, C. N., Matsen, F. A. Monitoring for Compartmental Syndrome Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: A Noninvasive, Continuous, Transcutaneous Monitoring Technique. J Trauma, 1999, April, 46 (4), pp. 613-616.
3) Giannotti, G., Cohn, S. M., Brown, M., Varela, J. E., McKenney, M. G., Wiseberg, J. A. Utility of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the Diagnosis of Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome. J Trauma, 2000, March, 48 (3), pp. 396-399.
4) Maricevic, A., Erceg, M., Gekic, K. Primary Wound Closure in War Amputations of the Limbs. International Orthopedics. 1997, 21, pp. 364-366
5) Mubarak, S. J., Pedowitz, R. A., Hargens, A. R. Compartment Syndromes. Curr Orthop. 1989, 3, pp. 36-40.
KEYWORDS: Compartment syndrome; compartment pressure; extremity trauma; non-invasive medical device
A02-067 TITLE: Hybrid Computer-Human Supervision of Complex Discrete-Event Systems
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles
OBJECTIVE: This work is to develop a technology for a hybrid human-computer supervision of complex systems. Computer automation of increasingly complex systems is a reality we are faced with. Yet, as the complexity of the system increases, so does the need to accommodate human involvement in both the system and its supervision. A formal approach to designing and analyzing the behavior of such systems has been developed by the PI and his coworkers and paved the way for its realization. It is proposed here to work on the actual application of the principle.
DESCRIPTION: Supervisory Control Theory (SCT)  and its applications in computer supervision of complex discrete event systems has received much attention in the last decade. Much of the SCT research has dealt with the interaction between the (controlled) plant and the (computer) supervisor. However, in many potential applications for this modeling and control framework, such as FCS, supervision of manufacturing systems, nuclear and conventional power plants, aircraft flight control systems and chemical batch processing systems, a human operator is an integral part of the system. The problem of synthesizing computer supervisors for such systems, taking into consideration the human operator's interaction with them, has not received much attention within this formal framework.
A program of research is desirable that explores, extends and applies the model of current hybrid human-computer supervision systems . Specifically, the following issues and tasks of a multiple user system should be addressed: (a) Satisfying Multiple Objectives: When a human operator and a computer supervisor interact with the same system, each may have different objectives. (b) Priority Sharing Schedules: The current work is mostly based upon a strict sequence of sharing of priority. It is important to allow for additional flexibility in the behavior of the closed loop system under supervision and introduce the notion of "fairness in the average" for such systems. (c) Multiple User Systems: We believe that modeling multi-user systems, i.e., computer supervised systems in which multiple human operators may be simultaneously performing different tasks. Good examples of such systems include power plants, manufacturing systems, air-traffic control, command and coordination in field and military operations, etc. From a theoretical perspective, multiple user systems raise a number of theoretical issues. We hope to be able to address a few of them, for example: (a) How does one compute a supervisor for dealing with multiple users? (b) How does one define a "fairness" measure for users in such a system? How does one guarantee a floor level of this measure during system operation? And (c) Is it possible to guarantee each user that (s)he will at some time in the future be able to reach a goal state (or generate a marked substring)? That is, all the users in the system can complete their tasks, albeit not simultaneously.
PHASE I: Develop the control theory necessary to: (1) satisfactorily treat multiple objectives; (2) incorporate priority sharing schedules including the notion of "fairness" and (3) include multiple users with different tasks incorporating a quantitative measure of "fairness".
PHASE II: Apply the theory completed in Phase I to the development of computer supervisors and hybrid computer-human supervisory environments in the following applications: (a) Manufacturing and Logistic Systems; (b) Shared Environment; (c) Interface Design; (d) Training and Simulation Environments; (e) Multi-Agent Systems Design and Analysis: in the design of multi-agent systems, the problem of agent coordination and control is one that is particularly difficult. This becomes even more critical when multiple users/agents are interacting in some physical space (as in combat) or with a physical plant (as in a power plant). (f) Distributed Command and Coordination Problems: in distributed command and coordination problems, consider the central command setting limits and constraints which a number of field units in an ensemble must satisfy.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Technologies of Supervisory Control for hybrid human-machine systems are of critical importance for both military and civilian applications. Examples of applications are: (a) a power plant under computer supervision while an operator checks the functioning of a turbine, (b) an aircraft under autopilot while a pilot checks the functioning of a linkage or an instrument, (c) an air traffic controller manually routing a plane to a ?safe region? while other planes are being guided by an automated supervisor, etc.
1) P. Ramadge and W. M. Wonham. The control of discrete event systems. Proc. IEEE, 77(1):81-98, 1989.
2) K. Akesson, S. Jain and P. M. Ferreira. Hybrid computer-human supervision of discrete event systems. Submitted for presentation at CDC 2001.
KEYWORDS: Human-Machine Interface, Hybrid human-machine supervisory control, Automated and semi-automated control, Robotics, complex systems, modeling, dynamical systems
A02-068 TITLE: Mobile Multi-spectral Beam Steering Device
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Ground Test, Atlantic Ranges and Facilities
OBJECTIVE: To develop a mobile multi-spectral beam steering device that provides a non-invasive optical interface between an image projector and diverse electro-optical (EO) sensors mounted in a moving turret.
DESCRIPTION: Scene projection technologies, such as the Mobile Infrared Scene Projector (MIRSP) and Infrared Sensor Stimulator (IRSS), are increasingly being employed for testing and evaluating EO sensors. Current scene projector test techniques adopted to test turret-mounted sensors require direct hardware interfaces to the sensor under test (SUT). This invasive procedure requires additional test preparation time to develop proper interfaces and the signal injection models necessary to simulate sensor and vehicle operations. This procedure is burdensome because often each SUT is unique and will require different interfaces and models. In addition, the vehicle/sensor being tested is compromised in some fashion by this hardware interface activity.
The remedy being sought is a non-invasive capability for projecting imagery into a moving turret. Maintaining optical LOS between the projector and SUT is critical to test performance criteria. The desire is to operate the vehicle/sensor just as it does under normal operational conditions. This will eliminate pre-test model and hardware interface developments. Also, unique SUTs will require little or no reconfiguration of the projector system. Ideally, the SUT is placed in front of the projector system and a simple alignment is performed before testing begins.
A critical requirement is for the MMBSD to interface to the existing MIRSP system. Integrating the MMBSD with the MIRSP technologies will make it possible to support the test and development of major systems, both objective and legacy, in the Army transformation plans. This system will be designed to evaluate EO sensors found in both targeting and navigation equipment for both airborne and ground platforms. In particular, the MMBSD/MIRSP system will support testing and development efforts for the RAH-66 Comanche and AH-64 Apache sensors. In addition, the non-invasive methods inherent in the MMBSD and MIRSP arrangement should minimize the number of interfaces that would be required to support the variety of Future Combat Systems (FCS) being proposed. The types of EO sensors found on the Comanche and those proposed for the FCS initiative will necessitate the development of a multi-spectral projection interface capable of accelerated re-configuration and rapid deployment for field testing. By simplifying the UUT to projector interface with a BSD, the ability to perform simultaneous multi-sensor testing across a single vehicle platform is enhanced. The BSD will also promote simultaneously evaluating the functionality of multiple vehicle platforms and how their sensors interact together with a common source database as input.
Combining the MMBSD with EO projector technologies like MIRSP may lead to commercial products for training applications. Stimulating actual weapon sensors and allowing the operator to interact with the sensors from the weapon systems cockpit augments lessons learned in flight trainers and provides mission planning/rehearsal capabilities. The innovative designs to project multi-spectral imagery and track sensor movement may be applied to manned flight simulator developments.
PHASE I: Investigate technology alternatives, approaches or methods available to maintain optical LOS between a multi-spectral EO projector and turreted sensor. Explore non-invasive techniques for accurately defining the position of a moving turret. Develop an integrated design to combine MIRSP technologies with LOS projection and turret tracking techniques to produce a portable semi-closed-loop test capability. Examine designs of gimbaled sensors found on U.S. Army rotary-wing and ground vehicles to incorporate a BSD arrangement that will encompass the alignment, optical interface, and slew rate requirements for the widest variety of sensors.
PHASE II: Construct any optical elements and turret-tracking hardware designed in the Phase I effort. Integrate developed hardware with the MIRSP system. Perform projection and slewing operations to demonstrate the BSD’s capability to track and maintain LOS with a FLIR sensor. Apply a multi-spectral source (TBD) and verify the BSD sufficiently projects broadband radiation.
PHASE III: Enhance the design to encompass the testing of gimbaled sensors located in fixed-wing aircraft and tactical missile weapons. Develop non-invasive technologies to minimize reconfiguration efforts incurred by HWIL laboratories due to new weapon system designs or upgrades.
OPERATING AND SUPPORT COST (OSCR) REDUCTIONS: Closed-loop or HWIL testing can incur months or years of configuration and implementation resources. A semi-closed-loop capability will permit target/acquisition/designation sensor test configuration to be performed in days or weeks. Test cost reductions could potentially be reduced by 30 to 70%.
1) Utilization of a Mobile Infrared Scene Projector for Hardware-in-the-Loop Test and Evaluation of Installed Infrared Imaging Sensors, by Ken Zabel, Rob Stone, Larry Martin, Richard Robinson, and Mark Manzardo, for SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 3697, 1999.
2) Maximizing Operational Effectiveness, and Utility of the Mobile Infrared Scene Projector (MIRSP) During System Integration Laboratory (SIL) Testing, by Ken Zabel, Geoffrey Brooks, and Bruce Owens, for SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 4027, 2000.
KEYWORDS: beam steering device, electro-optical (EO), projection, sensor, hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL), closed-loop testing, gimbal, tracking, infrared (IR) scene projector, line-of-sight (LOS), multi-spectral.
A02-069 TITLE: Precision Metric Zoom Lens
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Army Tactical Missile-BAT Project Engineer
OBJECTIVE: To develop an advanced state-of-the-art versatile metric zoom lens for film cameras and digital sensors. The metric zoom lens will be designed with a remote communications link to control the focus, aperture, and zoom of the lens.
DESCRIPTION: Current weapons system testing frequently requires optical data collection under adverse conditions. In the case of missile testing, the extreme range of target-to-instrument distance (from less than a mile to hundreds of miles) stresses current test operation scenarios. Multiple instruments are required because of the varied and extreme image sizes (which at times causes the loss of critical data) and the variation in focus of the target (which also causes the loss of critical data). At times there are not sufficient instruments available to adequately cover the entire mission trajectory.
PHASE I: In order to overcome these problems, with their resultant loss of data or additional costs, caused by the fact that current imaging systems are fixed focal length and fixed focus, we are proposing the development of a Metric Zoom Lens with auto-zoom, auto-iris and auto-focus that is controlled by an external communications link that would allow a single instrument to adequately cover the entire test mission scenario.
The innovator will develop a metric zoom lens that will accommodate industries 35 mm film format and will also take into account the current largest digital sensor format. The investigator shall determine if a 20 inch focal length should be the initial focal length to resolve images at 3km and up to 150 inch focal length to resolve images at 50km or better. The complexity to develop a zoom lens with various optical elements that are constantly moving through the entire travel of zoom is a challenge in it self, but to acquire images in the field of view through the entire test scenario to measure hit point and miss distance of a target for data reduction will require innovating design techniques to develop the metric zoom lens.
PHASE II: The Phase I conceptual design will be further developed into a pre-prototype manufacturing design. A pre-prototype Metric Zoom Lens will be fabricated, tested and evaluated to determine if requirements were met. Estimates for Phase III pre-production costs and revisions to the design (based on test results) will be developed.
PHASE III: The Metric Zoom Lens is an innovative design that will readily adapt to industry applications. Commercialization will benefit DoD for numerous tracking scenarios. The fabrication of the Metric Zoom Lens will reduce the number of fixed focal lens that the Army must maintain to meet project requirements. Additional units purchased will depend on operational test results and durability in the field. There is great potential to commercialize the metric zoom lens for industry applications such as aviation tracking, real-time sports applications and astronomy. The tri-services Range Commanders Council – Optical Systems Group has determined that this innovative design will eliminate inventories of fixed focal lens.
1) High Frame Rate CMOS cameras for Test Range Instrumentation - Richie Horn White Sands Missile Range Optics division, Dennis Fisher Vice Chairman for Range Commanders Council - Optical Systems Group, Eric Husman DynaCorp.
KEYWORDS: precision, metric lens, auto-zoom, auto-iris, auto-focus, focal length, aperature, remote control, communication link
A02-070 TITLE: Embedded Sensing Capability for Composite Structures
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Comanche
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the conditional structural integrity of composite aircraft structures is an ongoing necessity for Army Aviation. In order to reduce the cost and time associated with this evaluation, a method more efficient than periodic inspection is desired. The objective of this effort is to develop embedded sensing capability to continually monitor the structural integrity and health of composite structural laminates. Years of laboratory research and experimentation in embedded sensing has not resulted in a practical solution. For instance, embedded fiber optic bragg graded sensors have shown great fidelity and promise for distributed strain sensing - but lack of a practical I/O method (connector) has prevented implementation. Various improvements in data synthesis and embedded impedance or conductance measurement have resulted in a new possibility of practical strain measurement of composite structures using the woven fiber of the material. Achieving the objective of affordable, robust embedded strain and structural integrity sensing for continual health assessment will enhance operational readiness and safety, and result in a reduction in maintenance labor, time, and cost.
DESCRIPTION: At present, evaluating the integrity of a composite aircraft structure involves periodic inspection, and this inspection is not driven by the condition of the structure. Embedding sensing capability to monitor the integrity of composite structures will provide real-time data on the condition of the structure, eliminating the need for inspections at arbitrary intervals. For composite structures utilizing graphite fiber, the conductivity of the fiber can be used as a basis for embedded sensing capability, without the weight penalty introduced by the addition of secondary sensors. This makes the composite material multi-functional, serving both as structure and as a sensor. In developing the technology, however, care must be taken to ensure that the methodologies are suitable for practical implementation, such as stiffened skin and joints.
PHASE I: Effort in this phase should consist of developing a methodology for embedded sensing capability in practical composite aircraft structures. This capability should utilize the intrinsic properties of the fibrous composite material. Shortcomings in existing similar approaches, if any, should be identified and addressed. Suitable sub-element test specimens should be designed for proof-of-concept testing.
PHASE II: Effort in this phase should consist primarily of sub-element and component testing. This testing should validate the methodology, developed in the previous phase, for a variety of practical composite aircraft structures.
PHASE III: Effort in this phase should consist of application of the technology. Military aircraft, both rotary-wing and fixed-wing, can benefit from this technology. Furthermore, civilian interests such as the automotive and aviation industries can benefit from the application of this technology.
1) Much of the work that has been done in this area has been internal company research, and thus proprietary, resulting in a lack of published references.
2) SMARTWEAVE is a sensor system for composites manufacturing that uses conductive fibers to monitor and control resin flow through a preformed component. It has been considered for use in monitoring the integrity of composite structures. See http://www.armymantech.com/smweave.htm for more information on SMARTWEAVE.
3) C. A. Calder and J. L. Koury, “Study of Embedded Sensors in Graphite-Epoxy Composites,” Proceedings, 1989 SEM Spring Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Cambridge, MA, May 29-June 1, 1989, pp. 451-456.
KEYWORDS: sensors, embedded sensors, maintenance, composite structures
A02-071 TITLE: Structural Integrity of Bonded Repair
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO Aviation - RAH-66 Comanche PMO
OBJECTIVE: U.S. Army aviation systems include helicopter and fixed wing aircraft utilized to fulfill a variety of missions. These missions include scout and attack, troop movement and resupply, cargo transportation, medical evacuation, etc. Individual aircraft types vary significantly because of these missions. There is no mistaking the differences between an AH-64 Apache and a CH-47 Chinook. However, for all their differences, Army helicopters have one thing in common – that being the potential to incur damage to structural components as a result of service related activities. Bonded repair is a common technique for repairing localized damage in aircraft/helicopter structures. It provides an efficient method of regaining the integrity of the damaged structures. It also offers several advantages over bolted repairs including weight savings, improved fatigue performance, formability to complex shapes, etc. However, the effectiveness of the bonded repair depends heavily upon the integrity of the bonding interface between the repair patch and the host structure. Therefore, inspection of bonded repairs is an essential part of regular maintenance. A cost-effective technique is needed to monitor the bondline integrity and detect additional damage, crack growth, or debonds associated with the repair in an in-service environment.
DESCRIPTION: Current inspection techniques employ a variety of methods ranging from a simple tap test to more complicated ultrasonic techniques. Each of these techniques is limited in accuracy and applicability. The tap test is typically used for cursory inspections, providing only a general idea of the presence and size of the debond with very little accuracy or resolution, especially for thicker repair patches. Ultrasonic techniques can provide much better resolution of the debond, but the resolution typically drops off as the patch thickness is increased. Furthermore, the current techniques rely heavily on human involvement and can be time consuming and very expensive. Because of human involvement, mistakes and error can be introduced in routine maintenance. A technology, based on active sensors, capable of being incorporated into the repair itself (in-situ) is needed to address the shortcomings of current inspection techniques. This system should be able to quantify the initial repair and also characterize the repair area with regards to any new damage initiating at the repair site. The system should be field inspection capable and utilized during regular inspection/maintenance intervals. Accordingly, the proposed technology once developed should offer the following potential advantages: 1) Low cost, 2) Easy maintenance, 3) Reduction of labor, 4) Minimization of human error, 5) Consistent accuracy.
PHASE I: Provide a system methodology, based on active sensors, to demonstrate feasibility of a built-in system to monitor bonded repair. Candidate sensors should be identified with structural diagnostic procedures presented. A sub-scale repair item should be developed as a proof of principal.
PHASE II: Building on the success of Phase I, additional test articles should be fabricated and tested. These articles should incorporate various metallic and composite aerospace grade materials. Diagnostic procedures and equipment (hardware and software) should be further developed to demonstrate feasibility and ease of field use. Laboratory testing should validate the integrity of the bonded repair and provide information on the repair during and after fatigue loading.
PHASE III: It is believed that the technology that results from this SBIR effort will have extensive military and commercial application. Helicopter and fixed wing assets of the Department of Defense continue to age with few new aircraft coming in the future. The B-52 is an excellent example on the longevity of DOD systems. Like their counterparts in the military, the aircraft in the civilian aviation sector also continue to age - knowledge of the structural integrity of repairs is essential to safeguard lives and equipment. Applications are also envisioned for the civilian construction, automotive, energy and maritime industries
1) R. Jones, L. Molent, S. Pitt, Study of multi-site damage of fuselage lap joints, Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 32 (1999), p.81-100.
2) J.-B. Ihn, F.-K. Chang, Built-in diagnostics for crack growth monitoring in aircraft structures, The 3rd Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring (2001), p. 284-295.
3) C. Boller, J.-B. Ihn, W.J . Staszewski, H. Speckmann, Design principles and inspection techniques for long life endurance of aircraft structures, The 3rd Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring (2001), p. 275-283.
4) S. D. Moss, S. C. Galea, I. G. Powlesland, M. Konak, A. Baker, In-situ health monitoring of a bonded composite patch using the strain ratio technique Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2001), v.4235, p.363-374.
KEYWORDS: repair, in-situ sensor, structural integrity, composite
A02-072 TITLE: Light Weight Material for Ballistic Armor
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PM, Comanche Helicopter
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort is to identify promising alternate lightweight ballistic armors and designs for ballistic protection used in rotorcraft, fix wing aircraft, light armour vehicles, high value UAVs, launcher, and launcher platforms. It is known that some ballistic materials are efficient is stopping an armor piercing steel projectile when weight is not a factor. However, current State-of-the-Art designs cannot meet performance requirements given weight constraints of these platforms. An advance in amor State-of-the-Art is desperately needed in order to meet both performance and weight requirements of the developing platforms. The desire is to be able to integrate this technology into current and future Army aircrafts, launcher plateforms, and vehicles.
DESCRIPTION: The US Army uses conventional ballistic armor packages such as ceramics, composite matrix, fabric, and metals. This SBIR will look at alternate materials and designs that could be used as a lightweight ballistic armor package for protection of crew, equipments, and weapons. The intent is to increase the ballistic limit performance of current armors packages and to increase understanding on what materials best defeat threat projectiles.
PHASE I: Phase I effort will consist of identifying candidate materials. Perform research and analysis on how to process and manufacture the raw materials to obtain high hardness, high strength, and high impact energy. Conduct design studies to determine the maximum thickness, weight, and geometry of the armor package. Model the armor using analytical and hydrocode models to optimize ballistic performance.
PHASE II: Raw material purchase, metallurgy, and processing. Manufacture armor packages for ballistic testing. Perform design iterations until the performance of the armor package has a ballistic limit are maximized. The test data will be analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the armor package compared to a baseline. Submit 10 lightweight armor packages to the Government for independent reliability testing.
PHASE III: Phase III objectives are to qualify the ballistic armor package design, identify the means to integrating armor package into a rotary, fixed wing aircraft, light armour vehicles, and launcher and launcher platforms.
DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The resulting technology will be applicable to military, commercial aircraft, automotive, and law enforcement industries and any other market require lightweight material to resist fragments or projectile impacting at high velocity.
OPERATING AND SUPPORT COST (OSCR) REDUCTION: Direct savings would be recognized by reducing the weight of army weapon systems and would enhance the system performance and capability of the systems.
1) "Lightweight Ballistic Amor for COMANCHE Helicopter", Oak Ridge National Laborarty, Hansen, J.
2) "Impact of the 7.62 mm APM Projectile Against the Edge of A Metallic Target, SRI, Anderson, C., Chocron, S., and Crosch, D.
3) "Computational Analysis of Lightweight Ballistic Armor For Helicopter, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, McDonald, A.
4) "Impact of Metalic Projectiles on Ceramic Targets: Transtion Between Interface Defeat and Penetration", FOA, Weapons and Protection Division", Lundberg, P., Renstrom, R., and Lundberg, B.
KEYWORDS: Ballistic Limit, Analytical model, Hydrocode, Ballistic Protection
A02-073 TITLE: High Reduction Ratio Drive System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort is to develop and demonstrate a high reduction ratio drive system for a small UAV. This speed-reducing device must be lightweight, cost efficient, and have a high reliability. The device must also be no larger than 1ft. in diameter, and have an efficiency greater than 98%.
DESCRIPTION: The U. S. military services have utilized small low-cost unmanned air vehicles (UAV’s) for reconnaissance and other important missions. An expanded role for UAV aircraft is projected by DOD sponsored studies and planning activities. Many of the current low-speed UAV aircraft are powered by piston engines of 100 HP or less. Several of these engines drive propellers without the need for a gearbox. These engines burn gasoline, which is not the desired fuel type for DOD vehicles. They also have undesirable vibration characteristics and are difficult to start in cold weather operations. Heavy fuel (JP8) gas turbine engines would make ideal propulsion systems for this type of UAV aircraft. For these reasons, the Army is looking to gas turbine engines that will power small UAV’s. Gas turbine engines present many advantages over piston engines. Not only do they use heavy fuel, but they also weigh significantly less than a piston engine. The problem in using gas turbine engines in small UAV’s is the need for a high reduction ratio drive system. There are current gearbox designs for turboprop engines, but these designs are large and weigh almost as much as the engine itself. Therefore, the Army is seeking innovative techniques to solve this problem.
A speed-reducing device to provide a high reduction ratio is needed for a 100 HP or less gas turbine engine, with an input speed in the range of about 100,000 RPM to 150,000 RPM. To provide an acceptable propeller output speed, a reduction ratio in the range of 25:1 to 30:1 is necessary. To meet with Army needs, this speed-reducing device must be lightweight, cost efficient, and have a high reliability. The device must be small (no larger than 1ft. in diameter), and also have an efficiency greater than 98%.
PHASE I: The objective of Phase I is to conduct small scale evaluations of potential methods to get a reduction ratio of 25:1. These speed-reducing methods must be durable, reliable, cost efficient, lightweight, and be small in size. The results of these evaluations should identify the potential for each method to produce the desired results and allow selection of those that should be pursued in a Phase II effort.
PHASE II: The Phase II objectives are to further develop the selected speed-reducing device for a small UAV. Testing of the selected devices shall be conducted in order to establish the ability of the device.
PHASE III: The resulting technology will be applicable to both military and commercial UAV’s. A high reduction ratio drive system could be applicable to drive systems/transmissions of other aircraft as well.
1) Title: Helicopter Drive System R and M Design Guide.
AD Number: ADA069835. Corporate Author: UNITED TECHNOLOGIES COP STARFORD CT SIKORSKY AIRCRAFT DIV. Personal Author: Cormier, K. R.. Report Date: April 01,1979. Media: 91 Pages. Distribution Code: 01 – APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. Source Code: 323800. From the Collection: TR42.
2) Assessment of the Harmonic Drive as a High Power 80:1 Speed Reduction Gear Box. AD Number: ADB001538. Corporate Author: ROYAL AIRCRAFT ESTABLISHMENT FARNBOROUGH (ENGLAND). Personal Author: Brighton, D. K. Smith, T. R.. Report Date: April 01,1974. Media: 95 Pages. Distribution Code: 16- DOD AND THEIR CONTRACTORS. Source Code: 310450. From the Collection: TR42.
3) Lewenthal, S. H.: Anderson, N.E.; and Nasvytis, A.L.: Performance of a Nasvytis Multiroller Traction Drive. NASA TP-1378, 1978.
4) Hesse, Walter and Mumford, Nicholas. Jet Propulsion for Aerospace Applications, Second Edition. New York: Pitman Publishing Corporation, 1964.
5) Zucrow, M. Aircraft and Missile Propulsion, Volume II. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1958.
KEYWORDS: Drive system, UAV, heavy fuel engines, gears
A02-074 TITLE: Ultra Wideband Network Datalink
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO Aviation, Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this SBIR is to apply Ultra Wideband (UWB) radar technology to develop a wireless network data link capability for Army Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Rotary wing systems.
DESCRIPTION: The use of UAVs in military operations will continue to be more demanding. Multiple UAVs will be operating in the same theater alongside manned aircraft such as helicopters and airplanes.