AIR FORCE

SBIR 06.1 Proposal Submission Instructions

 

 

The Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is responsible for the implementation and management of the Air Force SBIR Program.

 

The Air Force Program Manager is Mr. Steve Guilfoos, 1-800-222-0336.  For general inquires or problems with the electronic submission, contact the DoD Help Desk at 1-866-724-7457 (1-866-SBIRHLP) (8am to 5pm EST).  For technical questions about the topic during the pre-solicitation period (1 Nov through 12 Dec 05 ), contact the Topic Authors listed for each topic on the website.  For information on obtaining answers to your technical questions during the formal solicitation period (13 Dec 05 through 13 Jan 06), go to http://www.dodsbir.net/sitis/.

 

The Air Force SBIR Program is a mission-oriented program that integrates the needs and requirements of the Air Force through R&D topics that have military and commercial potential.  Information can be found at the following website:  http://www.afrl.af.mil/sbir/index.htm.

 

 

PHASE I PROPOSAL SUBMISSION

 

Read the DoD  program solicitation at www.dodsbir.net/solicitation for detailed instructions on proposal format and program requirements.  When you prepare your proposal, keep in mind that Phase I should address the feasibility of a solution to the topic.  For the Air Force, the contract period of performance for Phase I shall be nine (9) months, and the award shall not exceed $100,000.  We will accept only one cost proposal per topic proposal and it must address the entire nine-month contract period of performance.

 

The Phase I award winners must accomplish the majority of their primary research during the first six months of the contract.  Each Air Force organization may request Phase II proposals prior to the completion of the first six months of the contract based upon an evaluation of the contractor’s technical progress and review by the Air Force Technical point of contact utilizing the criteria in section 4.3 of the DoD solicitation    The last three months of the nine-month Phase I contract will provide project continuity for all Phase II award winners so no modification to the Phase I contract should be necessary.  Phase I proposals have a 25 page-limit (excluding Company Commercialization Report).  The Air Force will evaluate and select Phase I proposals using review criteria based upon technical merit, principal investigator qualifications, and commercialization potential as discussed in this solicitation document.

 

 

  ALL PROPOSAL SUBMISSIONS TO THE AIR FORCE PROGRAM MUST BE SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY.

 

 

It is mandatory that the complete proposal submission -- DoD Proposal Cover Sheet, entire Technical Proposal with any appendices, Cost Proposal, and the Company Commercialization Report -- be submitted electronically through the DoD SBIR website at http://www.dodsbir.net/submission. Each of these documents is to be submitted separately through the website. Your complete proposal must  be submitted via the submissions site on or before the 6:00am EST, 13 January 2006 deadline.  A hardcopy will not be accepted.  Signatures are not required at proposal submission when submitting electronically.  If you have any questions or problems with electronic submission, contact the DoD SBIR Help Desk at 1-866-724-7457 (8am to 5pm EST).

 

Acceptable Format for On-Line Submission:  All technical proposal files must be in Portable Document Format (PDF) for evaluation purposes.  The Technical Proposal should include all graphics and attachments but should not include the Cover Sheet or Company Commercialization Report (as these items are completed separately).  Cost Proposal information should be provided by completing the on-line Cost Proposal form and including the itemized listing (a-h) specified in the Cost Proposal section later in these instructions.  This itemized listing should be placed as the last page(s) of the Technical Proposal Upload.  (Note:  Only one file can be uploaded to the DoD Submission Site.  Ensure that this single file includes your complete Technical Proposal and the additional cost proposal information.)

 

Technical Proposals should conform to the limitations on margins and number of pages specified in the front section of this DoD solicitation.  However, your cost proposal will only count as one page and your Cover Sheet will only count as two, no matter how they print out after being converted.  Most proposals will be printed out on black and white printers so make sure all graphics are distinguishable in black and white.  It is strongly encouraged that you perform a virus check on each submission to avoid complications or delays in submitting your Technical Proposal.  To verify that your proposal has been received, click on the “Check Upload” icon to view your proposal.  Typically, your uploaded file will be virus checked and converted to PDF within the hour.  However, if your proposal does not appear after an hour, please contact the DoD Help Desk.

 

 

The Air Force recommends that you complete your submission early, as computer traffic gets heavy near the solicitation closing and could slow down the system.  Do not wait until the last minute.  The Air Force will not be responsible for proposals being denied due to servers being “down” or inaccessible.  Please assure that your e-mail address listed in your proposal is current and accurate.   By the end of January, you will receive an e-mail serving as our acknowledgement that we have received your proposal. The Air Force is not responsible for notifying companies that change their mailing address, their e-mail address, or company official after proposal submission.

 

 

 

AIR FORCE SBIR/STTR VIRTUAL SHOPPING MALL

 

As a means of drawing greater attention to SBIR accomplishments, the Air Force has developed a Virtual Shopping Mall at  http://www.sbirsttrmall.com.  Along with being an information resource concerning SBIR policies and procedures, the Shopping Mall is designed to help facilitate the Phase III transition process. In this regard, the Shopping Mall features: (a) SBIR Impact / Success Stories written by the Air Force; and (b) Phase I and Phase II summary reports that are written and submitted by SBIR companies. Since summary reports are intended for public viewing via the Internet, they should not contain classified, sensitive, or proprietary information. Submission of a Phase I Final Summary Report is a mandatory requirement for any company awarded a Phase I contract in response to this solicitation.

 

 

PHASE I PROPOSAL SUBMISSION CHECKLIST

 

Failure to meet any of the criteria will result in your proposal being REJECTED and the Air Force will not evaluate your proposal.

 

1) The Air Force Phase I proposal shall be a nine month effort and the cost shall not exceed $100,000.

 

2) The Air Force will accept only those proposals submitted electronically via the DoD SBIR website (www.dodsbir.net/submission).

 

3) You must submit your Company Commercialization Report electronically via the DoD SBIR website (www.dodsbir.net/submission).

 

 

 

NOTE:  Even if your company has had no previous Phase I or II awards, you must submit a Company Commercialization Report.  Your proposal will not be penalized in the evaluation process if your company has never had any SBIR Phase Is or IIs in the past.

 

 

 

 

Key Personnel

 

Identify in the technical proposal key personnel who will be involved in this project, including information on directly related education and experience. A resume of the principle investigator, including a list of publications, if any, must be included. Resumes of proposed consultants, if any, are also useful. Consultant resumes may be abbreviated. Please identify any foreign nationals you expect to be involved in this project, as a direct employee, subcontractor, or consultant. Please provide resumes, country of origin and an explanation of the individual’s involvement.

 

Phase I Work Plan Outline

 

 

NOTE:   PROPRIETARY INFORMATION SHALL NOT BE INCLUDED IN THE WORK PLAN OUTLINE

At the beginning of your proposal work plan section, include an outline of the work plan in the following format:

1)       Scope

List the major requirements and specifications of the effort.

2)       Task Outline

Provide a brief outline of the work to be accomplished over the span of the Phase I effort.

3)       Milestone Schedule

4)       Deliverables

a.        Kickoff meeting within 30 days of contract start

b.       Progress reports

c.        Technical review within 6 months

d.       Final report with SF 298

 

 

 

 

Cost Proposal

The on-line cost proposal is part of your proposal’s 25 page limit and must be at a level of detail that would enable Air Force personnel to determine the purpose, necessity and reasonability of each cost element. Provide sufficient information (a through h) on how funds will be used if the contract is awarded. Include any additional cost proposal information as an appendix  in your technical proposal.  The additional cost proposal information will not count against the 25 page limit.

 

      a. Special Tooling and Test Equipment and Material:  The inclusion of equipment and materials will be carefully reviewed relative to need and appropriateness of the work proposed. The purchase of special tooling and test equipment must, in the opinion of the Contracting Officer, be advantageous to the government and relate directly to the specific effort. They may include such items as innovative instrumentation and / or automatic test equipment.

 

      b. Direct Cost Materials: Justify costs for materials, parts, and supplies with an itemized list containing types, quantities, and price and where appropriate, purposes.

 

      c. Other Direct Costs: This category of costs includes specialized services such as machining or milling, special testing or analysis, costs incurred in obtaining temporary use of specialized equipment. Proposals, which include leased hardware, must provide an adequate lease vs. purchase justification or rational.

 

      d. Direct Labor: Identify key personnel by name if possible or by labor category if specific names are not available. The number of hours, labor overhead and / or fringe benefits and actual hourly rates for each individual are also necessary.

 

      e. Travel: Travel costs must relate to the needs of the project. Break out travel cost by trip, with the number of travelers, airfare, per diem, lodging, etc. The number of trips required, as well as the destination and purpose of each trip. Recommend budgeting at least one (1) trip to the Air Force location managing the contract.

 

       f. Cost Sharing: Cost sharing is permitted. However, cost sharing is not required, nor will it be an evaluation factor in the consideration of a proposal. Please note that cost share contracts do not allow fees.

 

      g. Subcontracts: Involvement of university or other consultants in the planning and / or research stages of the project may be appropriate. If the offeror intends such involvement, described in detail and include information in the cost proposal. The proposed total of all consultant fees, facility leases or usage fees and other subcontract or purchase agreements may not exceed one-third of the total contract price or cost, unless otherwise approved in writing by the contracting officer.

 

(NOTE): The Small Business Administration has issued the following guidance:

     “ Agencies  participating in the SBIR Program will not issue SBIR contracts to small business firms that include provisions for subcontracting any portion of that contract award back to the originating agency or any other Federal Government agency.”  See Section 2.6 of the DoD program solicitation for more details.

 

      Support subcontract costs with copies of the subcontract agreements. The supporting agreement documents must adequately describe the work to be performed (i.e. cost proposal). At the very least, a statement of work with a corresponding detailed cost proposal for each planned subcontract.

 

      h. Consultants: Provide a separate agreement letter for each consultant. The letter should briefly state what service or assistance will be provided, the number of hours required and hourly rate.

 

PHASE II PROPOSAL SUBMISSIONS

 

Phase II is the demonstration of the technology that was found feasible in Phase I.  Only those Phase I awardees that are invited to submit a Phase II proposal and all FAST TRACK applicants will be eligible to submit a Phase II proposal.  The awarding Air Force organization will send detailed Phase II proposal instructions to the appropriate small businesses.  Phase II efforts are typically two (2) years in duration and do not exceed $750,000. (NOTE) All Phase II awardees must have a Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) approved accounting system. Get your DCAA accounting system in place prior to the AF Phase II award timeframe. If you do not have a DCAA approved accounting system this will delay / prevent Phase II contract award. If you have questions regarding this matter, please discuss with your Phase I contracting officer.

 

All Phase II proposals must have a complete electronic submission.  Complete electronic submission includes the submission of the Cover Sheet, Cost Proposal, Company Commercialization Report, the ENTIRE technical proposal with any appendices via the DoD submission site.  The DoD proposal submission site at http://www.dodsbir.net/submission will lead you through the process for submitting your technical proposal and all of the sections electronically.  Your proposal must be submitted via the submission site on or before the Air Force activity specified deadline.  Phase II Technical  proposal   is limited to 75 pages.  Phase II Cost Proposal information should be provided by completing the on-line Cost Proposal form and including the itemized listing (a-h) specified in the Cost Proposal section earlier in these instructions.  The commercialization report, any advocacy letters, and the additional cost proposal itemized listing (a through h) will not count against the 75 page limitation and should be placed as the last  pages   of the Technical Proposal file that is uploaded.  (Note:  Only one file can be uploaded to the DoD Submission Site.  Ensure that this single file includes your complete Technical Proposal and the additional cost proposal information.)

 

AIR FORCE PROPOSAL EVALUATIONS

 

Evaluation of the primary research effort and the proposal will be based on the scientific review criteria factors (i.e., technical merit, principal investigator (and team), and commercialization plan).  Please note that where technical evaluations are essentially equal in merit, and as cost and/or price is a substantial factor, cost to the government will be considered in determining the successful offeror. The Air Force anticipates that pricing will be based on adequate price competition. The next tie-breaker on essentially equal proposals will be the inclusion of manufacturing technology considerations.

 

The Air Force will utilize the Phase I evaluation criteria in section 4.2 of the DoD solicitation in descending order of importance with technical merit being most important, followed by the qualifications of the principal investigator (and team), and followed by commercialization plan.  The Air Force will use the phase II evaluation criteria in section 4.3 of the DoD solicitation with technical merit being most important, followed by the commercialization plan, and then qualifications of the principal investigator (and team).      

 

 

 

NOTICE:  Only government personnel and technical personnel from Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Mitre Corporation and Aerospace Corporation, working under contract to provide technical support to Air Force product  centers   (Electronic Systems Center and Space and Missiles Center respectively), may evaluate proposals.  All FFRDC employees at the product centers have non-disclosure requirements as part of their contracts with the centers.  In addition, Air Force support contractors may be used to administratively process or monitor contract performance and testing.  Contractors receiving awards where support contractors will be utilized for performance monitoring may be required to execute separate non-disclosure agreements with the support contractors.

 

 

On-Line Proposal Status and Debriefings

 

The Air Force has implemented on-line proposal status updates and debriefings ( for   proposals not selected for an Air Force award ) for small businesses submitting proposals against Air Force topics. At the close of the Phase I Solicitation – and following the submission of a Phase II via the DoD SBIR / STTR Submission Site ( https://www.dodsbir.net/submission ) - small business can track the progress of their proposal submission by logging into the Small Business Area of the Air Force SBIR / STTR Virtual Shopping Mall  (http://www.sbirsttrmall.com). The Small Business Area (http://www.sbirsttrmall.com/Firm/login.aspx) is password protected and uses the same login information as the DoD SBIR / STTR Submission Site. Small Businesses can view information for their company only.

 

To receive a status update of a proposal submission, click the “ Proposal   Status / Debriefings ”  link at the top of the page in the Small Business Area ( after logging in ). A listing of proposal submissions to the Air Force within the last 12 months is displayed. Status update intervals are: Proposal Received, Evaluation Started, Evaluation Completed, Selection Started, and Selection Completed. A date will be displayed in the appropriate column indicating when this stage has been completed. If no date is present, the proposal submission has not completed this stage. Small businesses are encouraged to check this site often as it is updated in real - time and provide the most up - to- date information available for all proposal submissions. Once the “ Selection Completed “ date is visible, it could still be a few weeks ( or more ) before you are contacted by the Air Force with a notification of selection or non – selection.  The Air Force receives thousands of proposals during each solicitation and the notification process requires specific steps to be completed prior to a Contracting Officer distributing this information to small business.

 

The Principal Investigator (PI ) and Corporate Official ( CO ) indicated on the Proposal Coversheet will be notified by Email regarding proposal selection or non - selection.  The Email will include a link to a secure Internet page to be accessed which contains the appropriate information. If your proposal is tentatively selected to receive an Air Force award, the PI and CO will receive a single notification. If your proposal is not selected for an Air Force award, the PI and CO may receive up to two messages. The first message will notify the small business that the proposal has not been selected for an Air Force award and provide information regarding the availability of a proposal debriefing. The notification will either indicate that the debriefing is ready for review and include instructions to proceed to the “ Proposal Status / Debriefings “ area of the Air Force SBIR / STTR Virtual Shopping Mall or it may state that the debriefing is not currently available but will be within 90 days. If the initial notification indicates the debriefing will be available within 90 days, the PI and CO will receive a follow – up notification once the debriefing is available on - line. All proposals not selected for an Air Force award will have an on – line debriefing available for review. Available debriefings can be viewed by clicking on the “ Debriefing “ link, located on the right of the Proposal Title, in the “ Proposal Status / Debriefings “  section of the Small Business Area of the Air Force SBIR / STTR Virtual Shopping Mall.  Small Businesses will receive a notification for each proposal submitted. Please read each notification carefully and note the proposal number and topic number referenced. Also observe the status of the debriefing as availability may differ between submissions (e.g., one may state the debriefing is currently available while another may indicate the debriefing will be available within 90 days ).

 

IMPORTANT: Proposals submitted to the Air Force are received and evaluated by different offices within the Air Force and handled on a topic - by- topic basis. Each office operates within their own schedule for proposal evaluation and selection. Updates and notification timeframes will vary by office and topic. If your company is contacted regarding a proposal submission, it is not necessary to contact the Air Force to inquire about additional submissions.  Check the Small Business Area of the Air Force SBIR / STTR Virtual Shopping Mall for a current update. Additional notifications regarding your other submissions will be forthcoming

 

We anticipate having all the proposals evaluated and our Phase I contract decisions by mid-May.  All questions concerning the evaluation and selection process should be directed to the local awarding organization SBIR Program Manager.  Organizations and their Topic numbers are listed  later in this section (before the Air Force Topic descriptions).

 

 

FAST TRACK

 

Detailed instructions on the Air Force Phase II program and notification of the opportunity to submit a FAST TRACK application will be forwarded with all AF Phase I selection E-Mail notifications.  The Air Force encourages businesses to consider a FAST TRACK application when they can attract outside funding and the technology is mature enough to be ready for application following successful completion of the Phase II contract.

 

NOTE:

1)       Fast Track applications must be submitted  Not   Later Than 150 days after the start of the Phase I contract.

2)       Fast Track phase II proposals must be submitted Not Later Than  180  days after the start of the Phase I contract.

3)     The Air Force does not provide interim funding for Fast Track applications.  If selected for a phase II award, we will match only the outside funding for Phase II.

 

For FAST TRACK applicants, should the outside funding not become available by the time designated by the awarding Air Force activity, the offeror will not be considered for any Phase II award.  FAST TRACK applicants may submit a Phase II proposal prior to receiving a formal invitation letter.  The Air Force will select Phase II winners based solely upon the merits of the proposal submitted, including FAST TRACK applicants.

 

 

AIR FORCE PHASE II ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM

 

On active Phase II awards, the Air Force will select a limited number of Phase II awardees for the Enhancement Program to address new unforeseen technology barriers that were discovered during the Phase II work.  The selected enhancements will extend the existing Phase II contract award for up to one year and the Air Force will match dollar-for-dollar up to $500,000 of non-SBIR  government   matching funds.  Contact the local awarding organization SBIR Manager for more information. (See Air Force SBIR Organization Listing)

 

 

AIR FORCE SBIR PROGRAM MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS

 

The Air Force reserves the right to modify the Phase II submission requirements.  Should the requirements change, all Phase I awardees that are invited to submit Phase II proposals will be notified.  The Air Force also reserves the right to change any administrative procedures at any time that will improve management of the Air Force SBIR Program.

 

 

PHASE I SUMMARY REPORTS

 

All Phase I award winners must submit a Phase I Final Summary Report at the end of their Phase I project. The Phase I summary report is an unclassified, non-sensitive, and non-proprietary summation of Phase I results that is intended for public viewing on the Air Force SBIR / STTR Virtual Shopping Mall. A summary report should not exceed 700 words, and should include the technology description and anticipated applications / benefits for government and / or private sector use. It should require minimal work from the contractor because most of this information is required in the final technical report. The Phase I summary report shall be submitted in accordance with the format and instructions posted on the Virtual Shopping Mall website at http://www.sbirsttrmall.com.

 

 

AIR FORCE SUBMISSION OF FINAL REPORTS

 

All final reports will be submitted to the awarding Air Force organization in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL).  Companies should not submit final reports directly to the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC).

 




Topic Number

Activity

Program Manager

Contracting Authority

 

 

 

( for contract

 

 

 

question only )

 

 

 

 

AF06-001 thru AF06-011

Directed Energy Directorate

Ardeth Walker

Ernestine Stewart

 

AFRL / DE

(505) 846-4418

(505) 846-0150

 

3600 Hamilton Ave. SE

 

 

 

Kirtland AFB NM 87117-5776

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-015 thru AF06-045

Human Effectiveness Directorate

Sabrina Davis

LeeAnn Haughton

 

AFRL / HE

(937) 255-2423 Ex 226

(937) 656-9032

 

2610 Seventh Street, Bldg. 441 Rm 216

 

 

 

Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-7901

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-047 thru AF06-077

Information  Directorate

Janis Norelli

Lori Smith

 

AFRL / IF

(315) 330-3311

(315) 330-1955

 

26 Electronic Parkway

 

 

 

Rome NY 13441-4514

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-079 thru AF06-121

Materials & Mfg. Directorate

Marvin Gale

Terry Rogers

 

AFRL / ML

(937) 255-4839

(937) 656-9001

 

2977 Hobson Way, Rm 406

 

 

 

Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7746

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-123 thru AF06-153

Munitions Directorate

Jill Barfield

Judie Jacobson

 

AFRL / MN

(850) 882-3920

(850) 882-2674

 

101 West Eglin Blvd. Suite 143

 

 

 

Eglin AFB, FL 32542-6810

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-162 thru AF06-189

Propulsion Directorate

Laurie Regazzi

Susan L. Day

 

AFRL / PR

(937) 255-1465

(937) 255-5499

 

1950 Fifth Street

 

 

 

Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7251

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-190 thru AF06-196

Propulsion Directorate

Chanda Smith

Melissa Petter

 

AFRL / PRO

(661) 275-5930

(661) 277-9553

 

5 Pollux Drive

 

 

 

Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7033

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Topic Number

Activity

Program Manager

Contracting Authority

 

 

 

( for contract

 

 

 

question only )

 

 

 

 

AF05-197 thru AF06-223

Sensors Directorate

Marleen Fannin

Sharon Hall

 

AFRL / SN

(937) 255-5285 Ex 4117

(937) 656-9828

 

2241 Avionics Circle, Rm N2S24

 

 

 

Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7320

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-231 thru AF06-244

Air Vehicles Directorate

Madie Tillman

Douglas Harris

 

AFRL / VA

(937) 255-5066

(937) 255-3427

 

2130 Eighth Street

Larry Byram

 

 

Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7542

(937) 904-8169

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-245 thru AF06-284

Space Vehicles Directorate

Danielle Lythgoe

Francisco Tapia

 

AFRL / VS

(505) 853-7947

(505) 846-5021

 

3600 Hamilton Ave SE

 

 

 

Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-292 thru AF06-294

Air Armament Center

Ramsey Sallman

Vicki Keider

 

46 TW / XPXR

(850) 883-0537

(850) 882-0170

 

101 West D Avenue Bldg. 1 Rm 210

 

 

 

Eglin AFB, FL 93524-6843

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-297 thru AF06-306

Arnold Engineering Development Center

Ron Bishel

Kathy Swanson

 

AEDC / DOT

(931) 454-7734

(931) 454-4409

 

1099 Avenue C

 

 

 

Arnold AFB, TN 37389-9011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-311 thru AF06-320

Air Force Flight Test Center

Abraham Atachbarian

Lisa Jackson

 

AFFTC / XPDT

(661) 277-5946

(661) 277-7708

 

307 East Popson Ave, Bldg.1400

 

 

 

Edwards AFB, CA 93524-6843

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-325 thru AF06-332

Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center

Becky Roberts

Joe Starzenski

 

OC-ALC / ENET

(405) 736-2158

(405) 739-5510

 

3001 Staff Drive, Suite 2AG70A

 

 

 

Tinker AFB, OK 73145-3040

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Topic Number

Activity

Program Manager

Contracting Authority

 

 

 

( for contract

 

 

 

question only )

 

 

 

 

AF06-338 thru AF06-347

Ogden Air Logistic Center

Craig Shaw

Mark McInnis

 

OO-ALC / LHH

(801) 586-2721

(801) 775-2377

 

6021 Gum Lane

 

 

 

Hill AFB, UT 84056-2721

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF06-350 thru AF06-356

Warner Robins Air Logistic Center

Greg Sutton

Nita Steinmetz

 

WR-ALC / ENES

(478) 926-1132

(478) 926-3695

 

450 Third Street, Bldg. 323

 

 

 

Robins AFB, GA 31098-1654

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


AirForce SBIR 06.1 Topic Index

 

 

AF06-001               High Power Optical Amplifier

AF06-002               Spatial Resolution and Conformal Boundaries Within EM-PIC Simulations

AF06-003               Traveling Wave Marx Generator

AF06-004               Radio Frequency Effects on Electronics Algorithm

AF06-005               Transportable Ultrashort Pulsed Laser Systems and Technology

AF06-006               Aero-Optics Research and Development

AF06-007               Increased Range Neutron Response High Explosives Detection

AF06-008               Transient Wave Based Command and Control Systems

AF06-009               Turbulence Inner Scale Sensor

AF06-010               Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser Diagnostics

AF06-011               Synthetic/Sparse Aperture Imaging Techniques

AF06-015               Wearable Computer for Enhanced Situation Awareness

AF06-016               Decision Support Technologies for Weapon System Logistics Investment Decisions

AF06-017               Laser Eye Protection Field Evaluation Device

AF06-018               Network Threat Monitoring, Intrusion Detection and Alert System for Distributed Mission Operations (DMO)

AF06-019               Photosensitive Visor for Flight Helmets

AF06-020               Aircrew Personnel Lowering Device

AF06-022               Next Generation Architecture for Night Vision Imaging

AF06-023               Advanced Sensor to Identify and Quantify Contaminants in Cockpit Air

AF06-024               Enhanced Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) for Distributed Network Applications

AF06-025               Sensor Fusion Tactics Trainer

AF06-026               Linguist’s Ambiguity Tutor and Rehearsal System (LATARS)

AF06-027               Gaming and Training Environment for Counter Space Operations

AF06-029               Untethered Datalinks for Use in Simulation Environments

AF06-030               Knowledge Assessment System for Evaluating Performance in Dynamic Environments

AF06-031               Intelligent Information Decluttering for UAV Displays

AF06-033               Instrumented Anthropomorphic Prototype for Non-Lethal Weapons Effects

AF06-034               3D Image Conversion to Editable Voxelized Anatomical Model

AF06-035               Development of a Deployable Biomarker-Based Health Biomonitor (DBHM)

AF06-036               Remote Personnel Assessment

AF06-037               Quantitative Assessment of Influence Operations

AF06-038               Innovative Tools for Information to Decisions in Biosciences

AF06-039               Desalinator for One-Man Survival Kit

AF06-040               Distributed Methods for Assessing the Readiness of Coalition Workgroups, and Teams

AF06-043               Developing Crew Resource Management (CRM) Skills for Combined Air Operations Center (CAOC) Teams

AF06-044               Immunity from Threat Based on Measured Injury Causation

AF06-045               Networked Electronic Warfare Training System (NEWTS)

AF06-047               Semantic Interoperability of C2 Tools and Technologies

AF06-048               Mission Rehearsal Capability for Feasible Dynamic ISR Tasking in Support of Effects Based Assessment

AF06-049               Real-Time Effects Assessment Management System

AF06-050               Exploiting Dynamic Text Sources (e.g., Chat) for Improved Battlespace Awareness

AF06-051               Track Type Prediction Algorithm

AF06-052               Semantically Correct Interoperability of Executable Architectures

AF06-053               Knowledge-based Technologies to Support Predictive Mission Awareness

AF06-054               Argumentation-based Approaches to Enhance Dynamic Time Critical Decision-Making

AF06-055               Uncertainty Visualization for Modeling and Simulation of Complex Systems

AF06-056               Tri Band Radome Design for Airborne Antennas

AF06-059               Automated Metadata Generation, Indexing and Cataloguing

AF06-060               Enabling Monitoring and Analysis of Concept-Based Event Information in Text.

AF06-061               Multi-INT Ontology Mediation Services

AF06-062               Reprogrammable High Assurance Internet Protocol Encryptor

AF06-063               Asymmetric Adversary Tactics and Strategy Generation

AF06-064               Automated Signal Processing for Information Exploitation

AF06-065               Acquiring Probabilistic Knowledge for Information Fusion

AF06-066               Systems-of-Systems Data Utilization Patterns

AF06-067               Robust Complex Systems

AF06-068               Cyber Operations

AF06-069               Advanced Radio Frequency and Optical Connectivity to support Network-Centric Operations

AF06-070               Innovative Command and Control (C2) Technologies to Enable Force Synchronization for Effect

AF06-071               TACTICAL INFORMATION INTEROPERABILITY & MANAGEMENT (TIIM)

AF06-072               Locating and integrating members for virtual ad-hoc teams

AF06-073               Collaborative Sense Making

AF06-076               Anticipatory Capabilities for Complex, Dynamic Environments

AF06-077               Command Decision Support and Explanation from Fused Structured and Unstructured Information Sources

AF06-079               Data Fusion of Eddy Current, Ultrasonic, and Radiographic Data

AF06-080               Nonfluid Transportable Aircraft Deicing System

AF06-081               Recycling Composite Material

AF06-082               Affordable Manufacturing for Lightweight High Thermal Conductivity Graphite Heat Sinks for Fighter Avionics Modules

AF06-083               Coolanol 25R Replacement for Military Aircraft Radar Cooling Systems

AF06-084               Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Machining Preforms

AF06-085               Nanocomposites for Lightweight Electronic Enclosures

AF06-086               Net Shape Forming of Ceramic Matrix Composites

AF06-087               Warpage/Distortion in Machining 7050-T7451 Alloy Components

AF06-088               Protective Coating for Large-Diameter Bearing Races

AF06-089               Innovative Corrosion Protection via Cold Spray Kinetic Metallization

AF06-090               Clutch Material for Aircraft Vertical Takeoff Systems

AF06-091               Corrosion Modeling and Life Prediction Supporting Structural Prognostic Health Management

AF06-092               Automated Delamination Onset and Growth Prediction in Composite Structures

AF06-093               Techniques for Producing High Strength, Affordable Spinel Windows

AF06-094               High Performance Cage Sensors for Rolling Element Bearing Health Monitoring

AF06-095               Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Structural Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Metallic Components and Component Assemblies

AF06-096               Wear Resistant Coatings for Aluminum and Titanium Alloy Housings and Flanges

AF06-097               Damage Identification Algorithms for Composite Structures

AF06-098               Erosion Resistant Coatings for Polymer Matrix Composites

AF06-099               Methodologies for Integration of Prognostic Health Management Systems with Maintenance Data

AF06-100               Improved Additives for Perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPAE) Lubricants with Silicon Nitride Rolling Elements

AF06-101               Advanced Prognostic Health Management Technologies Using Integrated Detection Techniques with Physics of Failure Mode

AF06-102               Aircraft Damage Locator

AF06-103               Advanced Manufacturing Processes for Reduced Cost of Ceramic Matrix Composite Engine Components

AF06-104               Three-Dimensional Deformation and Life Prediction Methods for Ceramic Matrix Composite Components

AF06-105               Solid Rocket Motor Nozzles Made From Tantalum Carbide Continuous Fiber Composites for Boost Applications

AF06-106               Lightweight Conformal Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding

AF06-107               Air Sensor for Hydraulic Fluid

AF06-108               Integrated Materials for Efficient Airframe Structures

AF06-109               Photo-Electrochemical Generation of Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Operation

AF06-110               Materials for Terahertz Frequencies

AF06-111               Materials for Midinfrared (mid-IR) Laser Sources

AF06-112               Continuous Runway Load-Deflection Evaluation Methodology

AF06-113               Advanced Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)

AF06-114               Improved Manufacturing Technology for Investment Casting Cores

AF06-115               Improved Manufacturing Technologies for Polymer Matrix Composite Engine Components

AF06-116               Corrosion Prediction for Nonchrome Based Coatings Systems

AF06-118               Resistant Coatings for Metal Turbine Blades

AF06-119               High Temperature Sensors for In Situ Interrogation of Damage States in Structural Materials Components

AF06-120               Manufacturing Structures in a Limited Production Environment

AF06-121               Graphical User Interface for Fire Modeling Codes

AF06-123               Analytical Techniques for Complex Logic Devices in Safety-Critical Applications

AF06-124               Air Target Sensor Techniques for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR)

AF06-125               Miniature Wide Band Power Amplifiers for Miniature Munitions

AF06-126               Airframe Materials for Hypersonic Tactical Missiles

AF06-127               Techniques for Remotely/Autonomously Detecting and Destroying Chem/Bio Agents

AF06-128               Modeling and Simulation of Biological Agent Response to Combustion Effects

AF06-130               Improved Omnidirectional Multiband Antenna for Miniature Munitions

AF06-131               Measuring Particulate Entrained Mass-Flow from Internal Detonations

AF06-132               Fatigue Resistant Wire for Airborne Applications

AF06-133               Multi-mode Weapon Algorithms for Future Miniature Munitions

AF06-135               Novel Power Supply for Miniature Munition

AF06-136               Desensitizing Weapons Via Multi-part Explosives

AF06-137               Novel Multi-mode Seeker Dome for Miniature Munitions

AF06-138               Self Healing Materials for Airframe Structures

AF06-139               Airborne Radar Ground Clutter Mitigation

AF06-140               NOVEL INFRARED (IR) EMISSIVE DEVICES

AF06-141               Micro Munition Technologies

AF06-142               Advanced LADAR Research for Munition Seekers

AF06-143               Home on Structured Interference/Multipath

AF06-144               Micro Fuel Cell (MFC) for Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) Power

AF06-145               Innovative Fuze Technology Research

AF06-146               Electro-Explosive Effects (E-Cubed, E3)

AF06-147               Micro Damage Mechanisms

AF06-148               Biologically Inspired Adhesive Microstructure

AF06-149               Collision Avoidance

AF06-150               1.6 Hazard Class Detonator

AF06-151               Synthetic alternative binder systems for melt castable explosive fills.

AF06-152               Telemetry and Flight Termination System Technologies

AF06-153               Novel Thermal Management Solutions for Confined Electronics

AF06-162               Identification of Integrally Bladed Rotor (IBR) Damping

AF06-163               Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) Lifing Technologies

AF06-164               Development of Hydrocarbon-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)

AF06-165               Low-Weight, Low-Cost Sensors and Low-Overhead Processing Algorithms for Damage Detection in Aircraft Disk and Blade Propulsion Turbomachinery

AF06-166               Accessory Health Management Based on Very High Frequency (VHF) Characteristics

AF06-167               Sensor and Control for Active Combustion Pattern Factor Systems

AF06-168               Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Process Condition Monitoring

AF06-169               Smart Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Technologies

AF06-170               Energy Harvesters/Storage System for Onboard Power for Remote Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS) Sensors/Devices with Long Mission Times

AF06-171               Health Management for Gas Turbine Engine Accessory Components

AF06-172               Probabilistic Analysis of Military System Development Program

AF06-173               Exploration of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Battery for Space Application

AF06-174               Power and Aeropropulsion

AF06-175               Nanoparticle Synthesis and Coating for Exchange Coupled Permanent Magnets

AF06-176               Combustion Evaluation Device for Hypersonic Propulsion

AF06-177               Reduced-Order Stability Model for Combustion Systems

AF06-178               Prognostics for Switch-Mode Power Supplies (SMPS)

AF06-179               Advanced Composite Analysis Capability for Advanced Manufacturing Methods

AF06-180               Long-Endurance Power Systems for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

AF06-187               Advanced Composite Blade Design

AF06-188               Ignition and Efficient Combustion of Alternative Scramjet Fuels

AF06-189               Electrical Contacts and Packaging for Diamond and Diamondlike High-Power Devices

AF06-190               Development of Computed Tomography  (CT) Software Techniques for Detecting Aging of Rocket Motors

AF06-191               Improved Computed Tomography(CT) Imaging of High Z Materials

AF06-192               Small Launch Vehicles Providing Responsive and Affordable Spacelift

AF06-193               Advanced Rocket Propulsion Technologies

AF06-194               Innovative Rocket Propellant Ingredients

AF06-195               Electrically Conducting Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) Kapton Polyimides.

AF06-196               Propellant Ingredients for Solid Rocket Motors

AF06-197               Navigation-Grade Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)

AF06-198               Network-Centric Warfare Connectivity for Electronic Attack

AF06-199               Real-Time Digital Receiver Rapid Prototyping Testbed

AF06-200               Digital Receiver Geolocation Technology Simulation

AF06-201               Simulation Technologies to Rapidly Evolve EA Sensor Resource Management Concepts

AF06-202               Integration of Risk Analysis into Acquisition Cost, Schedule, and Performance Evaluation Tools

AF06-203               Automatic Self-Tasking for Dynamic Sensor Management

AF06-204               Long-Duration, Eye-in-the-Sky Monitoring for Airfield Threat Detection

AF06-205               Multiband Array Radiators

AF06-206               High-Efficiency Extremely High-Frequency (EHF) Power Amplifiers

AF06-207               Ground-Based Radar Performance Improvements

AF06-208               Adaptive Signal Processing to Counter Jamming

AF06-210               Hyperspectral Algorithms for Anomaly Detection

AF06-211               Two-Color Infrared (IR) Simulation Tools

AF06-212               Indium Antimonide Substrate Growth for Affordable Large-Format Mid-Infrared (IR) Imagers

AF06-213               Low-Cost, High-Performance Inertial Rate Sensors

AF06-214               Low-Profile Tamper Detection Sensors

AF06-215               Lightweight, Miniature Sensor Payload for a Mini-UAV

AF06-216               Coatings for Millimeter Wave (MMW) Electronics

AF06-217               Signature Prediction and Uncertainty Analysis for Recognition Applications

AF06-218               Hyperspectral Identification for Collaborative Tracking

AF06-219               Signal Processing and Exploitation for High-Dimensional Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

AF06-220               Passive Three-Dimensional (3-D) Imaging and Ranging

AF06-221               Low-Cost Day/Night Imaging Sensors for Micro/Mini-Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

AF06-222               Hyperspectral Detector Enhancement Using Auxiliary High-Resolution Imagery

AF06-223               Multi-Phenomenology Sensing and Sensor Control in Unmanned Intelligence Vehicle (UIV) for ATR and Tracking of Dismounts and Vehicles

AF06-231               Load Bearing Antenna Structure for Small  Unmanned Air Vehicles (SUAV’s)

AF06-232               High-Speed Valves for Smart-Material Based Electrohydrostatic Actuators (EHAs)

AF06-233               Automating Error Quantification and Reduction for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

AF06-234               Innovative Structural Joining Concepts and Analysis Techniques

AF06-236               Sense and Control for Efficient Aerostructure

AF06-237               Rapid Mission Planning and Operation for Space Access Vehicles

AF06-238               Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Ground Operations Positioning System (UGOPS)

AF06-239               Structural Energy Storage in Air Vehicle Structure

AF06-240               Geometry Manipulation Through Automated Parameterization (GMAP)

AF06-241               Innovative Near Space (High Altitude Air) Platform Technologies

AF06-242               Sensors for Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Immune Fly-By-Light (FBL) Systems

AF06-243               Surface Measurements – Flow Field Correlations Resulting in Applicable Cavity Flow Field Control

AF06-244               All-Surface Landing Capability Development

AF06-245               Accurate, Stable Clock for Small Low Power Anti-Jam GPS User Equipment

AF06-246               Sensing of Upper Atmosphere

AF06-248               Real-Time Specification of Battlespace Environment

AF06-250               Radar Ionospheric Impact Mitigation

AF06-251               Electro-Optical (EO) Sensor Management

AF06-252               Advanced Algorithms for Exploitation of Space-Based Optical Spectral Imagery

AF06-253               Low Power GPS Signal Acquisition Using Asynchronous Logic

AF06-254               Home-on-Jam Technologies

AF06-255               Optical Jitter Control for Laser Communications

AF06-256               Next Generation Programmable Gate Array

AF06-257               Advanced Transmitter and Receiver (T/R) Module Technology For Space Radar

AF06-258               Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Performance Prediction Model

AF06-259               Space Radar Reflector Producibility

AF06-260               Satellite Programmable Frequency Transceiver

AF06-261               Standardized Satellite Electrical Internal Interface

AF06-263               Space Object Characterization with Space Based Hyperspectral Imagery

AF06-264               Prognostic Models for Cryo Cooling (Heat Transfer and Heat Dissipation) Systems

AF06-265               Advanced Prognostics Technology for Digital-Based Electronic Systems and Their Components

AF06-267               Tunable Spectral Response in Space-Based Systems

AF06-268               New Sensing Capabilities for Space Situational Awareness

AF06-269               Cold Atom Optical System for Space

AF06-270               Autonomous Flight Termination & Satellite Based Telemetry System for Launch Vehicles

AF06-271               Lightweight Hybrid Radio Frequency (RF) and Optical Instrument

AF06-272               Satellite Design Automation (SDA) for Responsive Space

AF06-273               Plug-and-Play Structures for Satellite Applications

AF06-274               Next Generation Solar Cells Based on Nanostructures

AF06-276               Combining Remotely Located GPS Antennas

AF06-277               Reliable, Lightweight and Volume Efficient Electrical Harnessing

AF06-283               Threat Detection, Validation, and Mitigation Tool for Counterspace and SSA Operations

AF06-284               Miniature Frequency Agile RF Beacon Receivers for Ionospheric Effects Monitoring

AF06-292               Intumescent Material Passive Fire Protection Technique for Aircraft Engine Nacelle

AF06-293               Electronic Virtual Thermal Mapping Device

AF06-294               Mutil-mode Sensor Characterization

AF06-297               Develop Flow-Field Seeding for Large Tunnels

AF06-298               Non-Invasive Model Attitude and Deformation Measurement

AF06-299               Aeropropulsion Test Facility Diagnostics

AF06-300               Hypervelocity Projectile Position, Angle of Attack, and Velocity Detection System

AF06-301               Gas Turbine Particle Matter Emission Characterization

AF06-302               Volatile Particle Condensing Chamber for Turbine Engine Emissions

AF06-303               Telemetry for Testing Applications

AF06-306               Optical /Technology for Cryo-Vacuum Mirrors

AF06-311               Directed Energy Targets with Un-hardened Electronics

AF06-312               Threshold-capable Multi-wavelength High Energy laser Protection

AF06-313               Optimization of Parameter Identification for Flutter and Flying Qualities

AF06-314               Aeroservoelastic Predictive Analysis Capability

AF06-316               Noncoherent Telemetry Demodulator

AF06-317               Automated Analysis of Datalink Transmissions (AADT)

AF06-318               Identification and Tracking of Juvenile Desert Tortoises

AF06-320               Ground Loads Predictive Analysis

AF06-325               Automation of Analysis of Digital X-Ray Images

AF06-326               Environmentally Friendly Cleaning for Titanium Welds and Brazing

AF06-327               Dielectric Measuring Tool for Radome Checkout

AF06-328               Coating Application using Liquefied Powder

AF06-329               Next Generation Supply Chain Management Practices, Processes and Systems

AF06-330               Advanced MRO Multi-Echelon Planning and Scheduling

AF06-331               Filtration of Used Non-destructive Testing Fluids

AF06-332               Use of Environmental Forensics for Trichloroethylene (TCE) Plume Delineation

AF06-338               Noninvasive Pressure Measurement of Aircraft Pressurized Lines

AF06-339               Advanced Frangible Composite Structure

AF06-340               Tiled Ultra High-Resolution Light Engine

AF06-341               Advanced Rigid Composite Tower

AF06-342               Thermoplastic Large, Ground-Based Radomes

AF06-344               Multi-spectral Physics-based Projector

AF06-345               Blast-Resistant Composite Panels for Composite Tactical Shelters

AF06-346               Delamination and Water Intrusion Detection

AF06-347               Low Cost Wear Resistant Surfaces for Composite Shelter

AF06-350               Medium Caliber Gun Barrel Bore Coatings

AF06-351               Eliminating Legacy Performance Barriers Imposed on New Systems

AF06-353               High Efficiency Flexible Photovoltaic Modules

AF06-354               Noise Suppressor (Hush House) Fire Suppression

AF06-355               Damage Detection and Identification in Composites

AF06-356               Damage Detection and Identification of Adhesive Bonding in Metal Components

 


AirForce SBIR 06.1 Topic Descriptions

 

 

AF06-001               TITLE: High Power Optical Amplifier

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics, Space Platforms

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative designs and concepts to enhance reliability and output power of High Power Optical Amplifier (HPOA) for SATCOM Laser Communications

 

DESCRIPTION: Tomorrow’s warfighters will require significantly greater battlefield bandwidth to access all of the information required to maximize mission effectiveness.  Historically, SATCOM (Satellite Communications) has played a key role in providing bandwidth to remote battlefield locations, and laser communications based SATCOM offers more than a three order of magnitude increase in communications capacity over existing RF (Radio Frequency) based SATCOM.   Since High Power Optical Amplifiers (HPOAs) are an enabling technology for laser communications, the availability of HPOA’s promotes warfighter’s mission effectiveness.   Given that the useful operating lifetime communications satellites can exceed twenty years, HPOA reliability is crucial to cost effective delivery of bandwidth to the warfighter. This topic seeks to advance the state of the art of HPOA, particularly with respect to reliability and output power.   Goals include optical bandwidth of 1450 and 1500 nm [TBR], minimum gain of 20 dBm [TBR], minimum output power 500 mW[TBR], noise < 3 dB[TBR], output power variation < .5 dB[TBR], isolation > 30 dB[TBR], optical input power (typ) 4 dBm[TBR], operating temperature range between –40 degrees C and +80 degrees C, weight < 2 lbs.  The HPOA should be capable of withstanding 300 krads total dose, heavy ions to linear energy transfer (LET)  60, and dose rate to 108 rads/sec. 

 

PHASE I: Evaluate HPOA design options leading to enhanced reliability.   Design HPOA and simulate operation over a broad range of environmental and temperature ranges.

 

PHASE II: Fabricate a minimum of eight prototype HPOAs.  Characterize for power output, wavelength, mean time to failure, operating temperature range, and radiation tolerance.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: High power optical amplifiers have numerous commercial and military applications, including transmission of data over fiber optic lines.

 

REFERENCES: 1. S.G. Lambert and W.L. Casey, "Laser Communications in Space", Norwood, MA: Artech House, Inc., 1995

 

2. J.A. Abate, J.R. Simpson, et al., “Reliability concerns for double clad fiber lasers for space based laser communications,” IEEE Trans. MILCOM, vol. 2, pp. 936 – 942, (1997)

 

KEYWORDS: High Powered Optical Amplifier, Satellite communications, Wavelength,. Bandpass, Laser communications, Output power

 

 

AF06-002               TITLE: Spatial Resolution and Conformal Boundaries Within EM-PIC Simulations

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Weapons

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a strategy for handling complex features within an electromagnetic - particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) model which maintains at least second order global accuracy. Convergence should be demonstrated.

 

DESCRIPTION: Many of the numerical tools which are used in the design and testing of  HPM sources are built upon FDTD techniques and rely on a tensor product grid with stair stepped boundaries.  This combination requires globally a very fine resolution grid to accurately predict the effects of small scale features.  Furthermore, due to the stair-stepping boundary approximation, the global order reduces to first order for sufficiently high resolution.  Even on todays massively parallel computers, it is unfeasible to solve this problem with resolution alone.  Traditionally for pure electromagnetics these issues are overcome with one of the three techniques; body fitted coordinates [1], fractional cell or mixed boundary elements[2,3] or fully unstructured mesh techniques[4].  These techniques have various advantages and disadvantages which are very problem dependent.  Currently none of these techniques have been shown to be feasible for a large scale EM-PIC codes, which implies not only do these techniques need to maintain a high level of accuracy, they also need to be energy conserving, scale to large numbers of processors and support particles.

 

PHASE I:  The goal of Phase I is threefold: first, a survey of techniques which are capable of solving the complex geometry problem; second, identification of a solution technique; third, prototype implementation into either a test code or AFRL provided model. Prototyped implementation should be verified.

 

PHASE II:  The goal of Phase II is implementation of the algorithms into fully functioning codes, complete with particle emission and propagation. Algorithm should be shown to be scalable, stable and globally second order accurate for problems defined in Phase I. Issues such as self force, grid heating, non-physical radiation and self heating should also be mitigated.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION:  As well as electromagnetic generation, a conformal PIC code would also help in the simulation of the following defense related technologies; plasma opening switches, ion propulsion, and hypersonic drag reduction. A conformal PIC code would also help in simulating plasma processing (etch and deposition) and fluorescent lamps, which would have industrial impact. In addition, conformal boundaries would help many areas of basic plasma research such as dusty plasmas, particle accelerators, Q-machines, Malmberg-Penning traps, magnetic fusion plasmas and laser-plasma interaction.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Karmesin, S.R., P. C. Liewer, and J. Wang, "3D Electromagnetic Parallel PIC in Nonorthogonal Meshes", Plasma Science, IEEE International Conference on June 5, 1995. http://sciserv er.lanl.gov:80/cgi-bin/sciserv.pl?collection=confs&journal=ieee1912& issue=v1995i0506&article=138_3eppinm.

 

2. Railton, C. and J. Schneider, "An Analytical and Numerical Analysis of Several Locally Conformal FDTD Schemes," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Tech., Vol. 47, 1999, pp. 51-66.

 

3. Dridi, K., J. Hesthven, and A. Ditkowski, "Staircase-Free Finite-Difference Time-Domain Formulation for General Materials in Complex Geometries," IEEE Trans. on Ant. and Prop., Vol. 49,  May 2001, pp. 749-756.

 

4. Hesthaven, J. and T. Warburton, "Nodal High-Order Methods on Unstructured Grids, I. Time-Domain Solution of Maxwell's Equations," J. Comp. Phys., Vol. 181, 2002, pp. 186-221.

 

KEYWORDS: microwaves, electromagnetic, PIC, FDTD, non-conformal boundaries,

 

 

AF06-003               TITLE: Traveling Wave Marx Generator

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics, Weapons

 

OBJECTIVE: Development of a fast, repeatable, high rep rate Marx generator system using traveling wave triggering techniques.

 

DESCRIPTION: This effort will develop and demonstrate design concepts for a compact, lightweight pulsed power generator system capable of delivering pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) of several kilohertz (kHz) at voltages ranging from 50-300 kilovolts (kV) into an approximately 100 ohm load.  Present pulsed power generators are generally centered around two primary technologies:  resonant transformers and Marx generators.  Whereas resonant transformer technology is capable of producing voltages on the order of 1 Megavolt (MV) and PRFs of several kHz, they are generally heavy due to the large volume of insulating oil required.  Marx generators, on the other hand, can be made very compact and lightweight, especially when designed to drive impulsive sources.  However, their performance is usually limited to <100 Hz and exhibit large erection jitter.  For future DoD applications, it is desirable to develop lightweight pulsed power technology that will deliver consistent, low jitter performance at higher PRFs. Precision triggering and low erection jitter are keys to performance.  The use of traveling wave switches is a possible solution to this problem.   

 

PHASE I: Perform innovative research on available or completely new pulsed power generator concepts. Phase I will build and test a working model capable of at least 30 kV and 1 second bursts of fast, low jitter, pulses.  Develop an initial commercialization concept and plan.  

 

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype high-PRF Marx generator capable of delivering the required output.  Develop a business and commercialization plan for the Phase II engineering development and marketing program. 

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: Military uses of this technology include airborne and ground-based pulsed radar systems and high power microwave systems.  Civilian sector applications include pulsed radar, counter mine, and numerous manufacturing applications. 

 

REFERENCES: 1. C.E. Baum, “Traveling-Wave Switches and Marx Generators,” Switching Note 33, Air Force Research Laboratory/DEHP, Kirtland AFB NM, March 2005. 

 

2. C. E. Baum and J. M. Lehr,  "Parallel Charging of Marx Generators for High Pulse Repetition  Rates," Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 5, P.D. Smith and S.R. Cloude, eds, Plenum Press, New York, 2002.   

 

3.  J.R Mayes and W.J. Carey, “Sub-nanosecond Jitter Operation of Marx Generators,” Proc. International Pulsed Power Conference, 2001. 

 

4.  F.E. Peterkin, et al., “Modular Compact Marx Generator,” Proc. AMEREM 2002 Conference, Annapolis MD, June 2002.  

 

KEYWORDS: Marx Generator, Pulsed Power, High Voltage, High Repetition Rate, High Power Microwave

 

 

AF06-004               TITLE: Radio Frequency Effects on Electronics Algorithm

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Electronics, Weapons

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate time-dependent, multi-conductor, transmission line (MTL) algorithms for analyzing the electromagnetic coupling effects on cables and active electronics due to unwanted, ultra-wideband, radio-frequency wave exposures based on the electromagnetic topological decomposition formulation.

 

DESCRIPTION: The key aspects of modeling the electromagnetic coupling effects on cables and active electronics deal with: 1) the treatment of electromagnetic (EM) coupling between chaotic, ultra wideband (UWB) signals and shielded MTLs, and 2) the process involved in decomposing a complex electromagnetic network system into smaller and manageable modular pieces by developing detailed electromagnetic coupling models for different modular pieces. The intent of this work is to come up with electromagnetic coupling effects software, which is based on the MTL formulation for analyzing the electromagnetic coupling effects of packaged, linear and nonlinear electronic circuit boards, located inside semi enclosed cavities, such as personal computers, buildings, vehicles and aircraft. To date, all known transmission line software have very limited capabilities. One such code developed commercially in 1990, the CRIPTE code, is limited to analyzing linear electromagnetic network systems because of the use of the frequency domain approach.  Another transmission line code, called NULINE, was developed back in 1996, and it uses either the frequency domain approach or the time domain approach; however, the time domain approach is limited strictly to a single wire over a perfectly or imperfectly conducting ground plane. These limitations came about mainly because these codes are written more than 10 years ago with limited computational power available at that time. With advent of more powerful computers, it is now possible to develop time-dependent, MTL software that can investigate computationally intensive electromagnetic coupling effects on not just shielded cables but on large apertures and re-radiation off the cables by coming up with more sophisticated lumped circuit models in dealing with the overall response of active linear and nonlinear electronic elements excited by UWB signals. The frequency band of interest for this project is 200 megahertz to 10 gigahertz.

 

PHASE I: Perform survey of the physics behind UWB coupling on cables and active printed circuit boards in the open literature. Apply innovative mathematical/numerical techniques for EM topological decomposition modeling for solving complex electromagnetic networks of shielded cables and active electronic components under chaotic UWB exposure to perform transient EM effects analysis.

 

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate the time-dependent, shielded, MTL algorithms. Come up with a software package, consisting of the MTL coupling effects software and the graphic user interface (GUI) program, which can be tested with existing UWB systems. The GUI program shall be developed specifically for the purpose of decomposing a complex electromagnetic network that can be interfaced directly with the MTL coupling effects software. Will require a business and commercialization plan for marketing this technology.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military uses of this technology combined with other Maxwell solvers to carry out the susceptibility and vulnerability analysis of complex electronic systems due to unintentional high power microwave irradiation. Civilian applications include methods to harden and protect commercial electronic systems from unwanted strong radio-frequency wave exposure.

 

REFERENCES: 1. F. M. Tesche, M. V. Ianoz and T. Karlsson, "EMC Analysis Methods and Computational Models," A Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York, 1997.

 

2. C.E. Baum, “Some Simple Formulae for Transient Scattering,” Interaction Notes 558, Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM, February 2000.

 

3. ESI Group, http://www.esi-group.com/SimulationSoftware/, CRIPTE code.

 

4. J. P. Parmantier and P. Degauque, “Modern Radio Science 1996,” pp. 151-177, “Topology Based Modeling of Very Large Systems,” J. Hamelin (ed.), Oxford U. Press, 1996.

 

5. C. E. Baum, J.B. Nitsch and R. J. Sturm, “Review of Radio Science 1993-1996,” Ch. 18, pp. 433-464, “Analytical Solution for Uniform and Nonuniform Multiconductor Transmission Lines with Sources,” W. R. Stone (ed.), 1996.

6. J. P. Parmantier, “Numerical Coupling Models for Complex Systems and Results,” IEEE Trans. on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 359-367, August 2004.

 

KEYWORDS: High Power Microwave, Ultra-wideband, Electromagnetic Transient Analysis, Computational Electromagnetics, Electromagnetic Coupling, Telegrapher’s Equation, S-Parameter Analysis

 

 

AF06-005               TITLE: Transportable Ultrashort Pulsed Laser Systems and Technology

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics, Weapons

 

OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate novel concepts for generating and amplifying ultrashort (fs-TW) laser pulses using architecture amenable to mobility.

 

DESCRIPTION: The Air Force is interested in promoting and conducting innovative research on promising new technologies relevant to the development of femtosecond Terawatt (fs-TW) laser systems that have a minimal number of optical elements, high average power, excellent beam quality, and are easily portable.  Ultrashort pulsed laser technology has advanced rapidly in the last 10 years.  Numerous domestic & international programs have demonstrated pulsed laser systems with peak powers in the Terawatt and even Petawatt ranges and average powers approaching the kilowatt (kW) level.  These high intensity ultrashort lasers have been shown to have interesting propagation and materials interaction properties.  Unfortunately, traditional ultrashort laser systems are complex and not particularly well suited for applications which require maintenance-free and mobile operation because they typically incorporate complicated optical trains with many reflective surfaces.  The ideal fs-TW system is one in which the oscillator and amplifiers are monolithic - a single solid state material engineered to incorporate all of the optical elements necessary to generate and/or amplify an ultrashort laser pulse.  In particular, the pulse stretching and compression techniques require complicated optical elements with large gratings.  Potential oscillator candidates include mode-locked semiconductor lasers, fiber lasers, and solid-state laser oscillators.   Potential amplifier candidates include semiconductor amplifiers, diode pumped fibers, diode or fiber laser pumped thin disks, and laser pumped gases (contained within a hollow core fiber).  Candidate concepts must be capable of producing very high peak energy pulses, with high average power (that is high repetition rate) and excellent beam quality.  Furthermore, the overall system must have a high degree of reliability, require minimal maintenance, and have a variable pulse frequency and operational mode (eg. kHz, sub-kHz, and burst mode operation).  Finally, high overall energy efficiency is a critical consideration for mobility.  System integration issues must be considered.  For example, the individual components within the overall system must be compatible with one another and produce an efficient and conveniently packageable ultrashort pulsed laser system.

 

PHASE I: Identify, model, and/or demonstrate a promising fs-TW system or components.  Although laboratory demonstrations at the TW power level are likely to be beyond the scope of a Phase I effort, a clear scaling path including component demonstrations and modeling to the desired power is essential. 

 

PHASE II:  Model, build, and demonstrate a suitable fs-TW system that meets the notional requirements identified above.  If appropriate, build and demonstrate a portable prototype version of the system.  Initiate system studies to determine packaging, size, and weight requirements for the overall system.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Possible applications include industrial welding, beacons and illuminators for upper atmosphere remote sensing, and as a portable source for material interaction studies.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Koechner, W., "Solid-State Laser Engineering," 5th ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences, ed. A.L. Schawlow, A.E. Siegman, and T. Tamir, Vol. 1. 1999, New York: Springer-Verlag.

 

2. Set, S.Y., et al., "Ultrafast Fiber Pulsed Lasers Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes," IEEE J. Quant. Elect. 10(1), 137 - 146, 2004.

 

3. Zayhowski, J.J. and J. A. L. Wilson, "Miniature, Pulsed Ti:Sapphire Laser System," IEEE J. Quant. Elect. 38(11), 1449 - 1454, 2002.

 

4. Kasparian, J., et al., "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science. 301, 61 - 64, 2003.

 

5. Teodoro, F.D., et al., "Diffraction-Limited, 300-kW Peak-Power Pulses from a Coiled Multimode Fiber Amplifier," Opt. Lett. 27(7), 518 - 520, 2002.

 

KEYWORDS: ultrashort lasers, fs-TW lasers, pulsed lasers, lasers, atmospheric propagation

 

 

AF06-006               TITLE: Aero-Optics Research and Development

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics, Weapons

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop optical or flow control technologies to compensate for high-energy laser degradation suffered when a high energy laser (HEL) beam is propagated through aircraft-induced optical turbulence.

 

DESCRIPTION: High performance HEL aircraft must incorporate large fields of regard in order to enhance mission capability and to provide for greater missile self-defense coverage. Unfortunately, aircraft motion perturbs the refractive index field over most of the field of regard near the HEL exit aperture. As a result, the outgoing HEL undergoes extreme disturbances due to shock waves, turbulent shear layers, and regions of separated flow. The net effect of the large, rapidly-varying wavefront turbulence on the HEL beam produces degraded beam quality and decreased HEL energy-on-target. Since aero-optical turbulence contains a significant high frequency content, current state-of-the-art adaptive optics (AO) systems cannot adequately compensate for their effects. The purpose of this effort is to develop advanced AO technologies to permit high bandwidth (>2 kHz closed loop) HEL compensation of aircraft boundary layer-induced turbulent flow fields. The end product of this effort shall be the development of new high bandwidth laser wavefront sensors, adaptive optics components, near-field laser beacons, etc., as well as, means to mitigate or suppress aero-optical turbulence. In addition, this effort may explore novel turret designs to minimize flow field effects and approaches that utilize electro-optical mechanical hardware (the current standard), all optical, or hybrid concepts. Some approaches may seek to mitigate, reduce, or shift the frequency spectrum of the turbulence flow itself while other approaches may seek to increase the bandwidth of AO system components including sensors, laser beacons, deformable mirrors. In addition, other approaches may culminate in entirely new approaches to solve the aero-optics HEL problem.

 

PHASE I: The offeror shall develop a concept for a subsystem or component in lieu of a complete AO system.  Phase I shall encompass a preliminary design of at least one of the following: a conceptual hardware/software design of the strawman AO concept, control system architecture, sensor design, a conjugate mirror design, flow control devices, or turret design, etc. Performance analysis and modeling shall establish concept feasibility. 

 

PHASE II: Demonstrate, in a cost effective way, the enhanced adaptive optics component and/or flow control hardware based on the approach developed in Phase I. The offeror shall propose a cost-efficient Phase II proof of concept hardware demonstration that will realistically test the utility and performance of the concept.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: It is expected that an adaptive optic or flow control subsystem based on the hardware developed under this research, with economical considerations folded in, would have both commercial and military applications.  The military applications include all those with requirements for atmospheric compensation through turbulent media and from moving platforms to moving targets such as the Airborne Laser, the C130 Advanced Tactical Laser, Laser Strike Fighter, Relay Mirror, UAVs, aircraft surveillance systems and the like.  Inasmuch as optical turbulence affects the commercial or civilian areas such as astronomy, laser communications, and power beaming, the AO components developed under this SBIR will likewise have a high commercial potential.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Gilbert, K. G., (1982) “KC-135 Aero-optical Turbulent Boundary Layer/ Shear-Layer Experiments” in “Aero-Optical Phenomena”, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Vol 80.

 

2. Fitzgerald, E.J. and Jumper, E.J. (2002) “Scaling Aero-Optic Aberrations Produced by High-Subsonic-Mach Shear Layers,” AIAA Journal, 40(7), pp. 1373-1381.

 

3. Jones, Mike I. And Erich E. Bender (2001) “CFD-Based Computer Simulation of Optical Turbulence Through Aircraft Flowfields and Wakes,” AIAA Paper 2001-2798.

 

4. Jumper, E.J., and Fitzgerald, E.J. (2001) “Recent Advances in Aero-Optics,” Journal of Advances in Aerospace Science, 37 (3), pp. 299-339.

 

5. Oljaca, M., and Glezer, A. (1997) “Measurements of Aero-Optical Effects in a Plane Shear Layer,” AIAA Paper 97-2352.

 

KEYWORDS: adaptive optics, turbulent flow, aero-optics, coherent flow structures, separated flow, shear layers, aerodynamic boundary layers.

 

 

AF06-007               TITLE: Increased Range Neutron Response High Explosives Detection

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics, Space Platforms, Nuclear Technology

 

OBJECTIVE: Development of ability to detect sealed containers of high explosives at greater ranges. For this topic, this means develop improved gamma ray diagnostics, with better combined spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution, and improved detection algorithms, in order to improve background rejection.

 

DESCRIPTION: Develop design concepts for increased range neutron (n) response detection system for high explosives (HE). This requires both higher yield, re-usable, reliable 14 million electron volt (MeV) neutron sources (for which there are already good ideas), and greatly improved neutron return radiation diagnostics (which is the goal of this SBIR topic). This is in order to discriminate against nitrogen (N) background in the atmosphere, ~ a kilogram per cubic meter (m). Background: Neutron induced gamma emission is an established technique for detecting HE at short range (~ 3m). This can be done by the use of thermal neutrons for activation analysis, or by the use of fast neutrons (14 MeV from Deuterium-Tritium (DT) fusion reactions) to cause prompt gamma emission from inelastic scattering or other nuclear reactions. Detecting HE at large distances (>/~ 100 m) is extremely desirable and difficult. A possible way to detect HE at distances ~ tens of meters to perhaps 100 m. is the second approach. Inelastic neutron scattering by 14 MeV neutrons has cross sections of 25 millibarns (mb) for producing 5.1 MeV gammas from N, 100 mb for producing 4.4 Mev gammas from C (carbon)and 100 mb for producing 6.1 MeV gammas from O (oxygen). This can be used to determine the stoichiometric ratio of N, C, and O in neutron bombarded samples. Analytic estimates, using the cross sections for prompt gamma production by 14 MeV neutrons incident on C, O, and N indicate that a dose of 100 millirem (2 x 10^6 n/cm^2) on a 50 kg block of typical high explosive will produce ~ 3.0 x 10^7 5.1 MeV gammas from the N, ~ 1.3 x 10^8 4.4 MeV gammas from the C, and ~ 1.3 x 10^8 6.1 MeV gammas from the O. This will result in ~ 250 of the 5.1 MeV gammas/m^2 , and ~ 1,000 each of 4.4 MeV and 6.1 Mev gammas/m^2 at 100 m distance (sample to detector). These numbers (of gammas/m^2 at the detector versus dose or fluence at the sample) will scale inversely with distance (sample to detector) squared. If the source to sample distance equals the sample to detector distance, the required source strength scales as inverse fourth power of distance. This ignores atmospheric attenuation. The size and use of detector(s) determines how many neutrons and gammas/m^2 are required for identifying and locating the HE. Diagnostic development would be as important as source development, and may be quite difficult. The ideal gamma diagnostics would have combined high energy resolution, short time resolution, and good directional resolution with wide directional coverage, operable over a wide dynamic range of incident gamma flux. Simpler schemes using arrays of detectors with just good energy and time resolution, such as triangulation, could work in non-terrestrial environments, where there is no nitrogen atmosphere and virtually no nitrogen in the soil. In the terrestrial environment, background likely requires directional resolution as well as energy and time resolution to overcome it. The existing gamma ray telescopes used in astronomy (on satellite born systems) are very low flux systems. Developing higher flux versions is a possible approach to solving this problem. 

 

PHASE I: Requires innovative R&D of diagnostics for detecting sealed explosive containers at ranges of tens of meters or greater in earth atmosphere environment. This may require simultaneous spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution to greater extent than present radiation detector technology provides. It may also require new analysis schemes.

 

PHASE II: Develop a feasible detection concept, implement a significant part of the new detection concept. Develop a business and commercialization plan for the Phase II engineering development and marketing program.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military uses of this technology include fixed and mobile high explosive detection systems for force protection. Civilian sector applications include more efficient and increased throughput screening of vehicles and cargo containers for Homeland Defense, law enforcement, public safety, and counter mine systems.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Tsahi Gozani, “Novel Applications of Fast Neutron Interrogation methods,” Nucl.Instr. Methods in Physics Research A 353, 635 (1994).

 

2. G. Vourvopoulos and P.C.Womble, “Pulsed Fast/Thermal Neutron Analysis: A Technique for Explosives Detection,” Talanta 54, 459-468 (2001).

 

KEYWORDS: detection, high explosives, neutron response, radiation detector technology, gamma emission, gamma production

 

 

AF06-008               TITLE: Transient Wave Based Command and Control Systems

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

 

OBJECTIVE: To develop and demonstrate a transient wave based command and control system.

 

DESCRIPTION: A transient wave based command and control system would have several advantages over the carrier wave based command and control systems currently being used. Carrier wave based command and control systems have limitations. They have a high probability of intercept and a high potential for jamming. They are also limited in bandwidth and therefore limited in data transmission rates. Therefore, we are interested in developing a transient wave based system which would have virtually zero probability of intercept, a low potential for jamming and would be able to achieve very high data transmission rates, on the order of  100 kB/second or better.

 

PHASE I: Provide a feasibility concept to determine if it is possible to modify existing carrier wave controlled systems so that they can be controlled by a transient wave based system. Develop a prototype to demonstrate this capability. Develop an initial commercialization concept and plan.

 

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a working transient wave based command and control system with a working range on the order of 10’s of meters. Investigate antennas to be implemented in the system to transmit and receive wideband signals with minimal dispersion. Develop a business and commercialization plan for the Phase II engineering development and marketing program.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Phase III will require the commercial development of the transmit and receive chip sets to be integrated into transient wave based command and control systems. Size and type of packaging should be designed for substitution into existing carrier wave based systems.

 

REFERENCES: 1. D. Porrat and D. Tse, "Bandwidth Scaling in Ultra Wideband Communication," Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley

 

2. T. Tibebe, "Simulation Study of Ultra-Wideband Communication System," Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London

 

3. R.J. Fontana, “Recent System Applications of Short Pulse Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Sept. 2004, page 2087

 

4. R.J. Fontana; J.F. Larrick, J.E/ Cade, “A Low Cost Ultra Wideband System for UAV Communications and High Resolution Radar Applications”, Proceedings of the Precision Strike Technology Symposium, Baltimore, MD, Oct 8-9, 1997.

 

KEYWORDS: Command, Control, Wideband, Transient, Remote Control, Ultra wideband

 

 

AF06-009               TITLE: Turbulence Inner Scale Sensor

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Weapons

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a simple technique to estimate the inner scale of turbulence along arbitrary atmospheric paths.  Final deliverable would include a sensor package to measure inner scale.

 

DESCRIPTION: Atmospheric turbulence generally degrades performance of imaging & laser propagation systems because the wave propagates through a region with non-uniform index of refraction.  Typical effects resulting from this turbulence are beam broadening, jitter, and irradiance fluctuations.  Often simulation results for such systems are compared to experiments where light propagates through the atmosphere, but suffer from the lack of atmospheric turbulence information along the propagation path.  To understand such cases the power spectral density (PSD) of the refractive index field is important.  The PSD is a function of the spatial wave number, and depends on the refractive index structure constant Cn2, the inner scale and the outer scale.  In most cases the outer scale can be considered infinite without deleterious effect.  Cn2 is usually not measured at the same time and along the same path as the light in propagation experiments.  However, moments of Cn2, like the coherence length r0, the log amplitude variance, isoplanatic angle and the Greenwood frequency are often measured and give some information on the refractive index structure constant.  This leaves the inner scale.  Often knowledge of the inner scale of turbulence would benefit the comparison, but usually the inner scale isn't measured at the experiment, so in the simulation the inner scale is assumed to be zero, although it becomes the grid size by default.  If available, average values of inner scale from similar locations can be used.  Having a simple way to measure or even estimate the inner scale along the propagation path would give the analyst a much better idea of the turbulence spectrum and enhance comparison to experiment.  Typical scenarios of interest include vertical and near-vertical paths starting at ground level going to an altitude of 24 km and the reverse path.  In the most stressing cases the log amplitude variance could be as large as 0.3, and the coherence length as small as a few centimeters.

 

PHASE I: Perform a study to identify a technique for estimating the inner scale of turbulence that is easy to implement and can be used along arbitrary propagation paths.  Provide a preliminary design for an inner scale sensor based on that technique.

 

PHASE II: Develop and build the sensor and demonstrate on a wide range of propagation problems using the technique developed in Phase I.  Typical problems would include measurements with both cooperative and non-cooperative sources, possibly laser guide stars. Final deliverable would include a sensor package for measuring inner scale along an arbitrary atmospheric path.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: It is expected that an inner scale sensor based on the concepts proposed under this research would have both commercial and military applications. The military applications include all those with requirements for laser systems propagating through turbulent media such as ground based lasers, tactical laser weapons and laser communications. Commercial markets include areas such as astronomy, laser communications, and power beaming.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Roggeman, M.C., and Welsh, B., "Imaging through Turbulence," CRC Press, Boca Raton, (1992)

 

2. Hill, R. J., "Review of Optical Scintillation Methods of Measuring the Refractive-Index Spectrum, Inner Scale and Surface Fluxes", Waves in Random Media 2 (1992), 179-201.

 

KEYWORDS: adaptive optics, atmospheric turbulence, turbulent media, inner scale

 

 

AF06-010               TITLE: Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser Diagnostics

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors, Weapons

 

OBJECTIVE: Design a suite of turn-key diagnostics that produce quantitative data about species generated in electrically driven oxygen iodine lasers.

 

DESCRIPTION: Instead of using a chemical reaction to produce single delta oxygen (SDO), electric oxygen iodine laser (EOIL) devices rely on direct electrical excitation. The excitation process does not produce a single clean product but a variety of excited state oxygen molecules, O atoms and various other radicals. Currently O atom scavengers, such as NO2, are also used in these experiments and the by-products of these reactions must be known. Sensitive diagnostics are needed to probe what species are produced and in what concentrations.

 

PHASE I: Conduct research on how to quantify concentrations of O atoms and species, including NO, produced during scavenging. The methods of analysis should rely on spectroscopic methods. Diagnostics should be compact and not require extensive calibration. Prototype apparatus should be designed for Phase II.

 

PHASE II: The prototype designed in Phase I (including software)should be built and tested. Actual minimum detectable yields and operating conditions should be reported. Designs for streamlining the apparatus to make it rugged and turn-key operational should be pursued. Run-time and pathlengths must be addressed and incorporated into the design to make it compatible with current experimental hardware.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: Build the new diagnostic product and field test it in the appropriate lab environment. Civilian application: Final product can be used for environmental monitoring of these species.  Upper atmosphere chemistry would be relevant.

 

REFERENCES: 1. D. L. Carroll,a) J. T. Verdeyen, D. M. King, J. W. Zimmerman, J. K. Laystrom, B. S. Woodard, N. Richardson, K. Kittell, M. J. Kushner, and W. C. Solomon. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1320 (2004).

 

2. D.S. Stafford and M. J. Kushner, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2451 (2004).

 

3. W.T. Rawlins, S. Lee, W.J. Kessler, and S. J. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051105 (2005).

 

KEYWORDS: EOIL diagnostic,oxygen-iodine-laser,nitric oxide,O atoms,quantitative spectroscopy

 

 

AF06-011               TITLE: Synthetic/Sparse Aperture Imaging Techniques

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Electronics, Space Platforms

 

OBJECTIVE: Utilize active lasing with sparse and/or synthetic aperture techniques to characterize Resident Space Objects (RSOs). 

 

DESCRIPTION: Space Situational Awareness (SSA) requirements include the need to remotely characterize RSOs.  Sparse/synthetic aperture imaging techniques can provide a cost effective means of obtaining highly resolved target imagery from long stand-off distances.  On-going efforts in the astronomical community have primarily focused on passive ground and space-based interferometry techniques (e.g.  NASA's Space Interferometry Mission and Keck Interferometer).  This goal of this project is to develop ground-based active (laser) imaging techniques utilizing sparse apertures. Pupil-plane imaging techniques do not require high quality optics and are scalable to very large apertures.  The challenge is to develop small-scale test systems that can be scaled to very large apertures, such as 10 to 30 meters.

 

In order to image Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, the system will also need to be able to track the satellite (which orbits the earth in a period of approximately 90 minutes), so will need to be able to slew rapidly.  Significant innovation will be required for such a system. 

 

A significant advantage of pupil-plane imaging techniques is that they do not require hardware to phase the apertures and atmospheric compensation is accomplished using software algorithms.  The proposed systems should be designed consistent with existing and/or small (0.53um) advances in laser technology.  As an example, a 40-joule to 100-joule solid state (1.0 um) Nd:Glass laser has been demonstrated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 

 

PHASE I: The Phase I product will be developing concepts for active (laser) imaging, synthetic/sparse aperture techniques, scalable to ground-based 10 to 30 meter apertures.

 

PHASE II: The phase II product will be to build and demonstrate (in a laboratory) a small-scale prototype system scalable to ground-based 10 to 30 meter apertures.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military applications of these concepts include improved space surveillance capabilities, for which the ability to image objects at great distances is critical.  Private sector commercial applications could include determination of satellite health, such as after collisons with space debris during launch (e.g., the Space Shuttle).  Imaging techniques could also be applied to astronomical objects such as near Earth asteroids or other solar system objects. 

 

REFERENCES: 1.  Lawson, P.R.(ed.), "Principles of Long Baseline Interferometry" (1999).

 

2.  Hjellming, R.M.(ed.), "An Introduction to the Very Large Array" (the VLA Green Book), Edition 2.

 

KEYWORDS: SSA, RSO, characterization, active imaging, interferometry, sparse aperture, aperture

 

 

 

AF06-015               TITLE: Wearable Computer for Enhanced Situation Awareness

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a high performance wearable computer system to enhance target detection, recognition, and situation awareness.

 

DESCRIPTION: What is needed to bring the next generation of day/night vision enhancement systems to life is a powerful, light-weight, efficient, wearable computer optimized for image processing.  The desired system will take sensor data from one or more sensors and process the video streams to perform tasks such as: image enhancement, target detection, target recognition, and as such would improve situation awareness. The system will also be required to interface internal or external databases to enable the overlay of additional information on the enhanced imagery and provide a thorough literature review of the current state-of-the-art in wearable computing. In addition, the contractor shall plan what steps need to be taken in order to develop a wearable computer system that will perform real time video processing of sensor data and display the augmented information to the user. The contractor shall develop one or more viable, high-level designs that could be built and tested in Phase II.  

 

PHASE I:  Perform an analysis of alternatives and document the strength and weaknesses of competing platforms due to processing power, power consumption, battery life, weight, network bandwidth, and video input/output capabilities.

 

PHASE II: Build and demonstrate a wearable computer system that can process video streams in real time. The system would be lightweight, energy efficient for long battery life in the field, and powerful enough to process video streams in real time. In addition, the system shall be robust enough for laboratory, limited field testing, and concept demonstrations.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Wearable computers and augmented reality technology is envisioned to help in many tasks where users are presented with a large amount of information and where performance would be enhanced by having additional information overplayed on the real world. Air-traffic controllers could use such a system to automatically overlay the information about the flight number and destination merely by looking at a plane. The training and simulation industries would reap great benefits from high-performance image processors and generators.  Finally, the technology developed in this program would also lead to great enhancements in the computer and entertainment industries.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Anliker, U. ; Beutel, J. ; Dyer, M. ; Enzler, R. ; Lukowicz, P. ; Thiele, L. ; Troster, G.  “A Systematic Approach to the Design of Distributed Wearable Systems.” In IEEE Transactions on Computers Volume: 53, Issue: 08, August 2004, pp. 1017 - 1033 

 

KEYWORDS: Wearable computer, augmented reality, sensor fusion, image processor, image enhancement

 

 

AF06-016               TITLE: Decision Support Technologies for Weapon System Logistics Investment Decisions

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop support technologies for establishing a repeatable, structured, and integrated decision-making process providing insight into existing and new technology weapon system logistics decisions.

 

DESCRIPTION: The development of a sound, structured and integrated simulation model to assist in investment decision analyses for existing and future weapon systems is critical.  The availability of a consistent, effective evaluation process which includes logistics considerations will ensure the technology and system initiatives for our weapon systems can be evaluated, documented and developed into an integrated investment strategy that provides the greatest return on our limited investment dollars.  The goal of this research is to provide a product that incorporates current technologies for use in developing and justifying these weapon systems investment decisions. 

 

This research and methodology development is relevant to Department of Defense weapon systems and technologies because credible engineering and logistics analysis tools and methods are needed to assess the realistic performance benefits of proposed investments.  This decision support technology will provide decision-makers with improved insight to the most beneficial investment strategies.  Credible logistics models such as the Logistics Composite Model (LCOM) are an important enabling technology for this capability to ensure data input from all levels of the organization can be integrated effectively and used to understand the system performance and affordability of various logistics support options.  Proposed methodologies should consider enhancements to legacy simulation tools and must be capable of executing on commercial-off-the-shelf desktops or workstations.  Any graphical depiction and output should comply with industry or international standards.  Methodologies implementing the collaborative environment should be open and standards-based to support interfaces to other analysis, simulation and modeling tools.

 

PHASE I:  Develop new analytical capabilities/requirements of the structured approach. Develop an integration concept for the model’s graphical input interface, the simulation engine itself, output tool module, and proof-of-feasibility demonstration of key enabling concepts.

 

PHASE II: The researcher will design, develop, and demonstrate a structured, collaborative, integrated approach for evaluating system/technology investment information to provide an assessment of weapon system performance given a specific logistics scenario/concept.  The researcher will also detail the plan for Phase III effort.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The desired product of Phase III is a robust, off-the-shelf collaborative, integrated methodology for evaluating system/technology investment information for use in defense and commercial product development and manufacturing. Investment decision methodologies that incorporate community-accepted data and engineering/simulation evaluations for logistics performance effectiveness are applicable to all manufacturing industries, and to communication and information systems.  Industry and service organizations that strive to obtain the greatest return for their investment dollars can benefit from this capability.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Boyle, E. LCOM Explained. AFHRL-TR-90-58 (1990), AD A224497

 

2. McGinnis, L. F. BPR and Logistics: The Role of Computational Models Proceedings of the 1998 Winter Simulation Conference P.A. Farrington, H. B. Nembhard, D.T. Sturrock, and G.W. Evans, eds. (1998)

 

KEYWORDS: Modeling and Simulation, Mission Capable (MC), Sortie Generation Rate (SGR), Supply Chains, Logistics, Maintenance

 

 

AF06-017               TITLE: Laser Eye Protection Field Evaluation Device     

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a device to measure the optical density of LEP spectacles, goggles, and visors for use by operational military units.

 

DESCRIPTION: Advances in laser component technologies have lowered the cost and increased the capability, and therefore applications, of lasers by military forces. These advances have put lasers on the vanguard of revolutionary change in modern warfare. The use of lasers for precisely guiding smart bombs, illuminating targets, range finding, aircraft self-protection, laser weapons, and secure communications is extensive and expanding. On the other hand, these lasers create a unique potential for ocular injury of military members as both hazards (buddy lasing) and threats (use by hostile forces). Aside from avoidance, the principal countermeasure against eye injury is laser eye protection (LEP) in the form of goggles, spectacles, and visors. There is not currently, nor will there be in the near future, a single LEP device that can protect eyes against this myriad of laser systems, while minimizing negative impacts on vision, in a format that is compatible with all of the various Air Force missions. As a result, numerous types of LEP will be required to properly protect our personnel. The Air Force currently has three LEP devices in the field, each with a distinct spectral and optical density profile, and three more are scheduled to become available within the next one to two years. The existence of multiple protection configurations presents the opportunity for operators to select the wrong LEP for the laser threat(s) or hazard(s) they will face. Also, since the technologies used in these LEP are new, we have very little experience with field use and operational lifetime of these devices. So, even though the leading-edge technologies used for these high-performance LEP devices are thoroughly tested in the laboratory, we cannot be certain the devices will “perform as advertised” throughout their projected lifetime. The ability to “field check” the protection levels of LEP would be very beneficial because it would: (1) cultivate confidence of personnel in their laser-protective equipment; (2) verify that the LEP on hand (or selected) is the proper protection against the anticipated threat(s) and/or hazard(s); and (3) provide some opportunity for scientists and engineers to collect information on the useful operational lifetimes of new LEP technologies. Therefore, the goal of this effort will be to design, develop, and fabricate a user friendly, self- contained, moderately priced device capable of evaluating the protection levels of LEP out in operational flying squadrons. This will be a relatively small device (e.g. a floor-standing copier or small refrigerator) that can be used by Air Force Life Support Equipment technicians in a non-secure shop environment to verify that any given piece of LEP meets its specifications. It will operate in either a scanning mode or a single wavelength check mode. One must be able to place the LEP into a light tight chamber, enter an identification code for the article to be evaluated, select a scan or single wavelength evaluation, enter the wavelength (if that’s chosen), and hit a “start” button. The unit would then either scan through the region of 400 nm to 1400 nm and measure the optical density (OD) as a function of wavelength, or measure the OD at the selected wavelength for any LEP format (true spectacle, clip-on spectacle, mini-visor, visor, and side shields) fabricated using absorptive technology, reflective technology, or a combination of the two with a precision of ± 0.1 OD over the range of 0 OD to 5 OD. The device would then provide the technician with the results according to a means of their choosing.  Since OD as a function of wavelength in fielded LEP is generally clasified SECRET, the security of the data output/display must be safeguarded commensurately.  Because OD as a function of wavelength will be classified SECRET for many LEP articles, the reference database of spectra must also have hardware and/or software protections against unauthorized alterations or theft.

 

PHASE I: Perform a technology feasibility assessment and deliver, if determined to be feasible, data to support the feasibility assessment, a description of the conceptual solution, and a technology/technologies development proposal.

 

PHASE II: Execute the technology development plan proposed in Phase I, and demonstrate the solution by delivering a prototype device.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: There is likely to be solid interest throughout the military community since directed energy is one of the DoD Key Technology Areas. Self-protection against lasers is already becoming an issue for some new systems going to the field. In addition to the Air Force, the Army and Navy are also developing and fielding LEP for their unique requirements. In the Air Force, this product would probably be deployed at the wing level, but could find its way to the squadron level depending upon the price and demand. In the Army and Marines, it would probably be deployed at the battalion or company level, and in the Navy it would be deployed on all ships any part of whose company is at risk of laser exposure. Reserve and Guard units may also have use for this device, depending upon the concepts for LEP deployment and use by these organizations. The commercial market is difficult to predict, but companies specializing in design, development and fabrication of high performance laser protective eyewear have estimated that up to one-third of the cost of a laser eye protection device is attributable to labor costs for the tedious, yet precise, manual process of verifying protective performance. Automating this process holds forth the prospect of increasing the throughput of the inspection process by up to a factor of ten, significantly reducing this cost component for future LEP acquisitions. However, to be most useful to industry the device needs to be able to measure power, prism, haze and distortion, in addition to optical density, and to provide a variety of data output options ranging from very simple (good/bad indicator lights) to complex enough for scientific or engineering applications, e.g. storing data on a computer disk, or printing of a numerical table (spreadsheet), or a spectrum in graphical format so that the data is amenable to failure analysis applications. It is well within the realm of possibility that the component technologies will find spin-off applications, such as quality control devices, spectroscopy, and other measurement technologies.

 

REFERENCES: 1. “Beam Weapons Revolution,” Jane’s International Defense Review, pp 34-41, August, 2000.

2. “An Automatic High Resolution Scanning Densitometer applied to Optical Spectroscopy,” A.P. Laquidara, Journal of the Mexican Society of Instrumentation, Vol. 3 No. 6, 1996.

3. “An Automatic Light Spectrum Compensation Method for CCD White Balance Measurement,” Dahong Qian, James Toker, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 43, No. 2, May 1997.

4. ANSI Standard Z136.1. American national standard for the safe use of lasers. American National Standards Institute, Inc., New York. 2000.

5.ANSI Standard Z87.1 American national standard for occupational and education eye and face protection. American National Standards Institute, Inc., New York. 1993.

 

KEYWORDS: Automated Systems,Densitometer,Laser eye protection (LEP),

Optical Density,Spectrum Analyzer,Visual performance,

Quality Control

 

 

AF06-018               TITLE: Network Threat Monitoring, Intrusion Detection and Alert System for Distributed Mission Operations (DMO)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA) compatible embedded network threat monitoring system to constantly detect and mitigate intrusion attempts across a Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) network.  

 

DESCRIPTION: Current network intrusion monitoring tools are not robust enough to be useful in high fidelity simulation environments in real-time.  Moreover, the capacity to identify, track, diagnose and remediate/inoculate a high fidelity network from these attacks without negatively impacting the training that is taking place, does not exist today. Network attacks are rarely known in the DMO environment because identifying them and alerting engineers to the events unfolding has not been done to date.   An innovative tool is needed which will allow continuous monitoring and intrusion detection of the DMO network.  The tool should be compatible with the current DIS and HLA standards, and be able to display entity attributes and specific threats to them.  The tool should also be able to diagnose the threat and its potential impact on the DMO training event and to inoculate the network against the attack.  The developed tool must enable system threat assessments to be displayed while the simulation is running so that remediation can occur in real-time.  In some cases, the identification of a network attack or intrusion attempt could result in a graceful degradation of capabilities while minimizing the impact on the training experience.  The Air Force is seeking development of innovative tools and techniques that can efficiently monitor high fidelity networks in real-time and permit the identification, targeting and remediation of threats and attacks to the network, ideally without impacting the performance of networked real-time simulations in DMO using both DIS and HLA.  

 

PHASE I: Phase I will develop a prototype Intrusion detection, alarm and mitigation tool for a DIS/HLA DMO environment and provide a demonstration and report.

 

PHASE II: Phase II will result in a fully integrated intrusion detection and attack mitigation capability which is useable in real-time DMO environments and provides the capabilities outlined above.  It will also result in test and evaluation of the developed tool and will provide documentation of results in a technical report.  

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The capability to provide real-time network intrusion and attack detection, diagnosis and inoculation of ongoing network threats in an interactive DIS/HLA simulation environment does not exist today.  Phase III Dual Use potential is significant since both the military and commercial sectors actively participate in distributed simulation environments.  Distributed simulation events can include participants from all over the world.  The need is for the development of a DIS/HLA compatible embedded network threat monitoring system to constantly detect and mitigate intrusion attempts across a distributed simulation network.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Purdy, Lt. SG Jr., Wuerfel, R., Barnhart, Lt. D., and Ewart, R. (1997). Network Evaluation for Training and Simulation. AFRL-VA-WP-TR-1998-3013. ADA344849

 

2. Bryant, R., Douglass, Capt. S., Ewart, R., Slutz, G. (1994). Dynamic Latency Measurement Using the Simulator Network Analysis Project. I/ITSEC conference.

 

3. Andel, Lt. T., Zydallis, Lt. J (1998). Coyote ’98 Data Evaluation. AFRL/VACD report.

 

4. Barbuceanu, M., & Fox, M.S. (1995). The architecture of an agent building shell. In M. Woodridge, K. Fischer, P. Gmytrasiewicz, N. Jennings, J.P. Muller, & M. Tambe (Eds.), Working notes of the IJCAI-95 workshop in agent theories, architectures, and languages (pp. 264-275), Montreal, Canada.

 

KEYWORDS: Distributed Mission Operations, Network Threat Assessment, Network alert, DMO training effectiveness, DMO Network Security, Distributed Interactive Simulation, DIS Standards, High Level Architecture, HLA Standards

 

 

AF06-019               TITLE: Photosensitive Visor for Flight Helmets

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics, Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Research and apply variable-transmittance technologies that can be incorporated into a single day/night visor for the aircrew HGU-55/P Helmet.

 

DESCRIPTION: With the advent of Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMDs), the pilot no longer has the option of raising the visor when transitioning from high to low light level conditions; therefore, a variable-transmittance visor is required. Previous efforts have developed continuously variable transmissivity visors using liquid-crystal shutter technology and visors consisting of relatively thick base/cap pairs. This approach increases the cost, adds distracting secondary reflections, and complicates manufacture and customizing/trimming the visor’s fit to prevent light leakage around the nose/oxygen mask area. A simpler, low-cost approach to providing this variable transmissivity capability that will also allow the curved visor to be customized (trimmed) for individual pilots is required. The technology design goals include: spectral neutrality, fail clear, have fast transitions with no irising and be compatible with polycarbonate helmet visors. These additional goals for visor attributes are listed as design parameters that must be considered during development in order to ultimately have a successful commercialized product.

 

PHASE I: Identify and develop material technologies for a curved, low-cost, customizable, variable-transmittance visor. Determine required drive electronics. Identify system level/device requirements and program high-risk areas. At the end of Phase I, provide a report of accomplishments and lessons learned.

 

PHASE II: Develop a prototype into a functional, rugged visor with drive electronics that will be able to undergo testing (flight trials, integration and compatibility assessments, environmental, etc.) when mounted onto a standard Air Force HGU-55/P helmet. The new device must interface and be compatible with systems which are used with existing day and night time visors, i.e., prescription spectacles, laser eye protection spectacles, and oxygen masks. The prototypes will undergo testing and operational assessment to insure aircrew/equipment compatibility.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Low-cost, variable-transmittance technology can also have civilian sector applications in the areas of space suit helmet visors, race helmets, welding, eyewear, windows, automobile/aircraft/spacecraft windows, non-emissive displays.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Barfield, W. and Furness, T. (1995).  “Virtual environments and advanced interface design”.  New York: Oxford University Press.

 

2. Taheri, B., Palffy-Muhoray, P., Kosa, T., & Post, D. L. (2000). Technology for electronically varying helmet-visor tint. In R. J. Lewandowski, W. Stephens, L. A. Haworth, & H. J. Girolamo (Eds.), Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE): Head-Mounted Displays V, 4021, 114-119.

 

KEYWORDS: helmet-mounted display, HMD, tint, shutter, visor, variable transmittance, electro-optical, customized trimming, ambient light, illumination, illuminance

 

 

AF06-020               TITLE: Aircrew Personnel Lowering Device

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Research and apply technologies that can be incorporated into an improved aircrew personnel lowering device.

 

DESCRIPTION: The current aircrew personnel lowering device (PLD) was developed during the Vietnam era to help parachutists extricate themselves from trees.  The PLD, integrated with the bail parachute, is large and bulky.  The PLD case contains approximately 140 feet of 0.75 inch tubular webbing folded 140 times.  Multiple elastic straps sewn in the PLD case on each side are used to secure the webbing.  While this system has served its function, modern day aircrew require an improved streamlined version of this system to provide extraction capability.  The desired system is small and compact (fits in flight suit pocket), incorporates manual activation of slow (2-3 ft / second) controlled descent, and accommodates a load of up to 350Lbs.  Technological challenges are foreseen with the control descent mechanism.  This device will have to be miniaturized and withstand the applied load forces.  Component stress, heat management, resistance, degradation and structural integrity are critical challenges that must be addressed.  The USAF is seeking innovative technological solutions to address the requirement for a modern PLD.

 

PHASE I: Identify and develop material technologies for a compact PLD. Identify system level/device requirements, components, and program high-risk areas. At the end of Phase I, provide a report of accomplishments and lessons learned with technology demonstrations of a breadboard and model or PLD prototype.

 

PHASE II: Develop a prototype into a functional PLD that will be able to undergo laboratory and government tests to demonstrate performance.  Laboratory tests will be performed to validate component and system level performance.  Operational assessments will be performed to asses aircrew/equipment compatibility.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: This technology can be utilized by climbers and emergency rescue teams such as firemen.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Multi-Command Operational Requirement Document CAF-MAF-AETC 319-93-I-A, "Aircrew Protection/Support/Escape Systems," Jan 99.

 

KEYWORDS: Lowering Device,Escape Systems

 

 

AF06-022               TITLE: Next Generation Architecture for Night Vision Imaging

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a new device architecture for enhancing vision under low illumination conditions

 

DESCRIPTION: Image intensifier (I2) tubes are commonly used in head-mounted devices that are designed to aid vision at night.  I2 tubes are analog devices that integrate the sensor, light amplifier, and display.  The amplifier within the I2 tube is a microchannel plate, which must be suspended in a vacuum, thereby complicating fabrication and permitting certain image defects.  Many I2 tubes employ a coherent fiber optic bundle to re-invert the image after amplification, adding weight, size, and complexity.  Further, I2 tubes do not lend themselves to the use of digital image enhancement techniques or the display of images produced by outboard sensors or computers.

 

Advances in technology now make possible the fabrication of solid-state micro displays and near infrared imaging arrays.  A next logical step is to combine these technologies, perhaps even integrating them on one substrate, along with addressing and control structures, into a sensor/display package similar to the I2 tube.  Further, it may be possible to incorporate digital computing devices on the substrate.  This architecture would enable real time digital image enhancement and could ultimately outperform and replace the I2 tube.  This program will develop candidate architectures based on the preceding ideas and produce a demonstration device. 

 

It is envisioned that the next generation system can be built with smart three dimensional packaging of multiple Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) subsystems, and a micro display matrix.  The CMOS based image sensors must deliver very high frame rates, and permit parallel readouts.  The computing stage would follow a Single-Instruction Stream Multiple-Data Stream (SIMD) architecture such as Geometric Arithmetic Parallel Processor TM.  Though the know how of individual stage synthesis is well known and proven in the market place, off-the-shelf products do not exist for system integrators to build the envisioned next generation night vision system.  Identifying high performing candidates for each stage, synthesizing each individually, fabricating each by standard micro fabrication process and integrating them by a robust and inexpensive 3D packaging would be necessary.  Thermal isolation between the CMOS sensor plane and the computing planes would have to be addressed. Phase I efforts will include an analysis of alternatives, examining at a minimum: imaging array technology, miniature display technology, onboard computing, image processing, approaches for inserting information (symbology and imagery), weight, size, and power consumption.  A recommendation of the best alternative should also be identified in a detailed technical report, written at the end of this phase.

 

PHASE I:  Develop candidate architectures for the construction of a solid-state sensor/display package similar to the I2 tube.  

 

PHASE II: This phase will involve the construction of a prototype device using an appropriate approach as determined by the Phase I effort.  If necessary, multiple paths should be pursued.  The Phase II prototypes will be robust enough to undergo laboratory and limited field-testing and function as concept demonstrators.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Solid-state imaging devices will significantly improve the quality of low light and infrared imagery, when coupled with on-chip image processing and eliminate several problems inherent in image intensifier tube based systems.  The resulting improved image quality and capability will lead to advances not only in the military and law enforcement communities, but also in other fields where high quality low light images are required from compact systems, such as head-mounted devices or in the automotive industry.  This technology will be a great advancement over current methods for imaging as it is adaptable to a broad range of wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum. 

 

REFERENCES: 1. Barfield, W., Furness, T.A., (1995)Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design, Oxford University Press, New York.

 

2. Seetharaman,G, (1995) A Simplified Design Strategy for mapping Image Processing Algorithms on a SIMD Torus Journal of Theoretical Computer Science Vol 140 pp. 319-331, 1995.

 

3. J.Stern, S.Larcombe, P.Ivey, L.Seed, A.Shelley, and N.Goodenough, Design and evaluation of an epoxy three-dimensional multichip module, IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Part B: Advanced Packaging, vol. 19, pp. 188-94, Feb 1996.

 

4. E. R. Fossum,CMOS Image Sensors: Electronic Camera on A Chip,  IEEE Trans. Electronic Devices, Vol 44 No.10 1997.

 

KEYWORDS: Night vision goggle, Micro display, Solid-state imaging, Near Infrared, NVG, NVD, Image processing

 

 

AF06-023               TITLE: Advanced Sensor to Identify and Quantify Contaminants in Cockpit Air

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate sensor capable of detecting, identifying, and quantifying smoke, debris, and pollutants in cockpit air.

 

DESCRIPTION: Future aircraft will use a Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system to provide a comprehensive assessment of aircraft systems, including detection of system performance degradation.  For example, the aircraft environmental control system could be monitored to determine if the pressurized air delivered to the cockpit is free of pollutants. Cockpit pollutants might be fuel vapor, hydraulic fluid, heat exchanger fluids, carbon monoxide, particle debris, and smoke.  The presence of these pollutants may indicate the environmental control system performance is degrading. For example, toxic heat exchanger fluids could enter the cockpit, if an environmental control system heat exchanger was leaking. Sensing the presence of a cockpit contaminant could provide a method for early detection of a potential system problem before complete system failure occurs. Further, the sensor could warn the pilot of these pollutants before their concentration reachs a level that might lead to pilot incapacitation. The cockpit air sensor must be small, lightweight, low power, reliable, low maintenance, accurate, affordable, and very responsive. The sensor must detect, identify, and quantify pollutants. Preferred approach would use solid state technology or nanotechnology. 

 

PHASE I: Develop and demonstrate a breadboard sensor showing the feasibility of detecting, identifying, and quantifying pollutants in cockpit air.

 

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype system consisting of cockpit sensor and software/algorithms (if required). Demonstrate the capability of the prototype system to detect pollutants under simulated laboratory conditions. Determine approach for integrating sensor with a military aircraft prognostics and health management system.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The technology could be used on military and commercial aircraft to detect smoke, debris, and pollutants in aircraft cabins. Technology could be used at various ground locations to detect pollutants.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Air Safety Week, Vol. 17 No. 40, Oct 2003.

2. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, NIOSH Pub. No. 97-140, Feb 2004.

 

KEYWORDS: aircraft prognostics, cockpit air pollution, smoke detection, cockpit contaminants, chemical sensor, particulate sensor, environmental control system, aircraft chemical hazards

 

 

AF06-024               TITLE: Enhanced Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) for Distributed Network Applications

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Define an enhanced TCP/IP protocol for reliable and complete communication transmission in deployed environments to support live and virtual distributed entities.

 

DESCRIPTION: The TCP/IP protocol is the de-facto standard for commercial and government web data transfer under normal operating conditions. However, not all commercial and government information systems are connected to stable modes of transmission. This problem is most relevant in situations where communications equipment must be deployed in areas where a reliable infrastructure is not in place. Further, aircraft increasingly rely on data transmission between aircraft and ground stations. Since the variations of in-flight connectivity quality is often high due to flight dynamics, electromagnetic interference, and weather, critical data can become corrupted or dropped. While some loss can be tolerated, the loss rate utilizing the current TCP/IP standard can be unacceptable. Other challenging applications include distributed live simulations. The enhanced protocol will overcome the limitations of systems using the current TCP/IP protocol under less than ideal situations (i.e. deployed communications/simulations, ad-hoc mobile networks, etc.). These systems must be able to reliably interface with virtual and live entities located throughout the world. In this case, neither the loss of data nor a significant amount of packet latency can be tolerated. Hence, there exists a need to define a standard that can better tolerate high bit error rates and low or varying data rates, and be able to prioritize traffic under high volume situations.

 

PHASE I: Develop a framework on which to base the enhance TCP/IP standard from inputs generated by interested commercial and military parties and appropriate standards organizations and demonstrate its applicability to the modeling and simulation community, also commercial and military aviation applications.

 

PHASE II: Refine the enhanced TCP/IP through continuous interaction with interested parties and standards organizations to create a viable model with the potential of becoming an industry standard. Deliverables for this phase include a thoroughly documented model capable of addressing the issues stated in the description of this topic and a proposed methodology for implementation.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Monitor standard through its adoption by commercial industry and the government. Respond to comments presented by the user community.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Bellovin, S.M. ‘Security problems in the TCP/IP protocol suite’. Computer Communications Review, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 32-48, Apr 1989.

 

2. Bishop, S., Fairbairn, M., Norrish, M., Sewell, P., Smith, M., & Wansbrough, K. ‘Rigorous specification and conformance testing techniques for network protocols, as applied to TCP, UDP, and sockets’.  SIGCOMM’05, Aug 2005.

 

3. Derryberry, R. T. and  Pi, Zhouyue. ‘Reserve high-speed packet data physical layer enhancements in cdma2000 1xEV-DV.’  IEEE Communications Magazine, vol 43, no. 4, pp. 41-47, 2005.

 

4. Fall, Kevin (2003). A delay-tolerant network architecture for challenged internets. Proceedings of the 2003 (ACM) conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications, 27-34.

 

5. Foo, S., Siu, C. H., & Yip, S. W (1999). Enhancing the quality of low bit-rate real-time Internet communication services. Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy 9(3): 212-224.

 

6. Karl, H. & Willig, A. ‘Protocols and architectures for wireless sensor networks’. Wiley & Sons, Inc.: NJ. 2005. (ISBN 0-470-09510-5)

 

7. Liu, Z., Campbell, R. H., and Mickunas, M. D. ‘Active security support for active networks’, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol 33, no. 4, pp. 432-445, 2003. (ISBN 1094-6977)

 

8. Network Protocol Handbook, Second Edition. Javvin Technologies, Inc, Jan 2005. (ISBN 978-0-9740945-2-6)

 

9. Pullen, Mark, J. (1999). Reliable Multicast Network Transport for Distributed Virtual Simulation. Proceedings of the 1999 (IEEE) 3rd International Workshop on Distributed Interactive Simulation and Real-Time Applications, 59-66.

 

10. Welzl, M.  ‘Network congestion control: Managing internet traffic’. Wiley & Sons, Inc.: NJ., 2005. (ISBN 0-470-02528-0)

 

11. Wolf, T. 7 Choi, S. ‘Aggregated hierarchical multicast – A many-to-many communication paradigm using programmable networks, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics,  Vol 33, No 03, pp. 358-369, 2003. (ISBN 1094-6977)

 

KEYWORDS: TCP/IP, deployed networks, challenged internets, internet protocols, mobile communications, adaptive networks.

 

 

AF06-025               TITLE: Sensor Fusion Tactics Trainer

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop a high fidelity sensor fusion tactics trainer for developing and enhancing strategic and tactical knowledge and mission readiness.

 

DESCRIPTION: There is currently no capability to adequately train and rehearse decision makers in the tasking, processing, exploitation and dissemination (TPED) process. While there are numerous automated tools for gathering data from sources and getting those data to the "fuser", there is no training and rehearsal capability to teach personnel how to interpret taskings, what assets are available and capable of providing data for the tasking, how to obtain data from the various sources, what the quality (in terms of such things as freshness and reliability) of the data are and their relevance to the tasking, what form the fused data should take, and how best to get the fused data to the battlestaff for their use.  There is also no mechanism in current ops to provide feedback to the "fuser" on the usefulness of the fused products produced for battlestaff decision making.  This effort will develop a training and rehearsal capability for sensor operators that addresses these shortcomings. The capability we envision is one that includes developing and validating intelligent agents as actors that can role play tasking entities and sources of data to support a variety of taskings that replicate real world activities in support of current operations. Our proposed target training audience are the operators of such systems as the Distributed Common Ground Station (DCGS), a TPED Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR)system. The training and rehearsal capability will also help to improve the selection process of the operators in terms of developing better understanding of the capabilities and the quality of data from various sensor sources. This understanding should lead to better development of products for taskings and help sensor operators anticipate data requirements in advance of taskings such that better products can be made available more quickly. In other words, the operator becomes a more informed consumer of the source data and a better producer of fused information derived from it. This type of understanding existis only in the most senior sensor operators who have been on the job for a number of years.  Current ops are such that we need to train less experienced operators to this level of understanding much sooner. We plan on conducting a detailed functional and information flow analysis of ISR tasks for an example system like the DCGS. The analysis will identify key expert and non-expert decision paths and solutions as well as examine lessons learned from successful and unsuccessful recent ISR TPED activities and develop approaches to train and rehearse for more successful ISR TPED decision making processes and develop an after action capability to provide feedback on the products for the battlestaff.  The end state will be a training and rehearsal exemplar for a cognitively complex area of need.  

 

PHASE I: Phase I activities include the identification of sources of data of relevance for a system of choice (e.g., DCGS), identification of typical and unique data requests and the identification of experienced and non experienced operator performance and gaps.  Phase I will develop the specifications and example scenarios for the training and rehearsal exemplar which will be fully elaborated in the Phase II effort.

 

PHASE II: Phase II will fully develop test, refine, and validate a TPED ISR training and rehearsal capability, develop and test S/W and H/W interfaces between environment and tactical information systems and conduct evaluation studies of interfaces and interoperability environment. It will also develop a first-ever feedback and after-action review capability for TPED ISR activities.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: This effort will provide an integrated suite of tools, technologies and a general architecture for developing and enhancing the mission readiness of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance operators and teams, as well as affording training and rehearsal for those elements identified as gaps in the gathering, packaging, delivery and evaluation of fused information products. A capability like this has been highlighted as a critical need for intelligence analysts in the Department of Homeland Defense and in the commercial space imagery sector where a variety of source data are available, each with a cost associated with its availability and use. Gathering the "wrong data" or misunderstanding data requests, sources, and desired products, is time consuming and expensive.  Targeting gathering, fusing and delivery of classes of data is a shortfall that exists today for all.  There is strong US and International commecial interest in a training capability like the one to be developed in this effort.

 

KEYWORDS: Affordability, Criterion development, Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance, Knowledge assessment, Performance measurement, Readiness evaluation, Team effectiveness, Workgroup effectiveness.

 

 

AF06-026               TITLE: Linguist’s Ambiguity Tutor and Rehearsal System (LATARS)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Improve capability to rapidly produce linguist training material and demonstrate approaches to train linguist how to easily process ambiguities and slang in foreign languages.

 

DESCRIPTION: Military linguists are faced with a rapidly changing environment in today’s Global War on Terrorism (GWOT).  One challenge is the extreme diversity of the languages currently and potentially spoken by terrorists and their supporters.  Our current ability to deal with foreign languages rests on the availability of human translators or on automatic translation systems.  In order to be successful, linguists must correctly understand semantic meaning when presented with ambiguities, double meanings, and slang phrases.  The ability to correctly understand hidden semantic meaning in a slang or duplicative phrase has a critical mission impact.  There is an urgent need for an ambiguity tutor and rehearsal capability to train linguists to rapidly understand ambiguities, slang, and double meanings for a foreign language.  There is a need for source material to be processed and distributed as fast as possible to ensure linguists can quickly adapt to new contexts and changing strategies.  The ability to dynamically load new source material and then rapidly identify new ambiguities, new slang, and new double meaning phrases would be a transformational improvement in foreign language training.

 

PHASE I: Phase I will identify an approach, define an architecture, and demonstrate a prototype capability.

 

PHASE II: Phase II will develop a fully functional system capable of use and will result in a prototype capability for three languages other than English including at least one low-density language.  This phase will also fully develop a system with advanced features for data input, semantic processing, usable user interfaces, and improved performance.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The application developed for the Department of Defense is equally applicable for use in training environments for federal agencies, commercial businesses, and academia.

 

REFERENCES: 1. The State of Foreign Language Capabilities in National Security and the Federal Government:

   Hearings before the International Security, Proliferation, and Federal Services Subcommittee of

the Committee on Government Affairs, United States Senate (2000, Sept. 14 & 19).

[Transcript].  Retrieved from http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/senate/senate12sh106.html

 

2. National Briefing on Language and National Security (2002, January 16) Washington, DC:     

    National Press Club of Washington, DC.  Retrieved form http://www.ndu.edu/nsep/January16_Briefing.htm

 

3. Landauer, T. K., Foltz, P. W., Laham, D. (1998). “An introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.” Discourse Processes 25(2&3): 259-284.Dumais, S. T. (1994).  Retrieved from http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/dp1.LSAintro.pdf

 

4. Nirenburg, S., and K. Goodman. (1990). Treatment of meaning in MT systems. In Nirenburg, S., H. Somers and Y. Wilks (eds) Readings in Machine Translation, Cambridge, MA, 2003: MIT Press.

 

KEYWORDS: Linguists, Language, Training, Rehearsal, Semantic Analysis

 

 

AF06-027               TITLE: Gaming and Training Environment for Counter Space Operations

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms, Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a game-based approach to training, rehearsal and exercise for offensive and defensive counterspace (OCS/DCS) operations.

 

DESCRIPTION: Recently there has been a growing recognition of the potential role that interactive games may have as environments for training and rehearsal for military personnel.  The growth of the military’s interest in gaming is exemplified by the Defense Advanced Research Project Administration (DARPA) DARWARS initiative and the US Army’s collaboration with the University of California Institute for Creative Technology. Games, however, are not typically designed with either a research or training focus.  This effort will explore the potential for applying gaming technology to the training of counter space tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs). At the present time the USAF Space community in particular and the US space community in genral does not have a capability to examine alternative TTPs for offensive and defensive counter space (OCS/DCS)operations in a realistic environment.  OCS/DCS is conceptualized as four key tasks: detect, identify, track, and disrupt activities from space vehicles. This effort will explore the training utility of developing a gaming environment where these tasks can be trained and rehearsed in a realistic set of scenarios and simulations. The environment will need to have object models to simulate interactions between satellites and ground stations, model track data, display raw sensor data, and have the capability for multiple players to participate and to provide command and control and other tactical and operational information and interaction to the game.  By using a gaming approach, access to any classfied data would be eliminated, but the training that is provided could be conceptually valid and of sufficient fidelity to support the key OCS/DCS tasks.  In addition, this effort could permit a number of other, more research- and training-centric issues, to be examined in detail as they relate to gaming environments and to future commercial applications. First, develop specific model representations (objects) for the people, places, and things associated with OCS/DCS tasks; Second, identify and validate training strategies and scenarios that support the development and refresher of skills associated with OCS/DCS performance in the environment.  Specifically, what are characteristics of strategies and scenarios embedded in the game that support development and refresh of critical knowledge and skills; Third, develop specifications for performance measures and protocols for assessing proficiency and decay for the gaming environment; Fourth, what are some preliminary guidelines for refresher training intervals for different "classes" of OCS/DCS skill.  Fourth, examine team-level assessments and the mechanisms for gathering these in a multiplayer gaming environment.  One interesting area here would be the extent to which "multiplayer" could include connecting the gaming environment with a distributed mission training environment; Finally, demonstrate real-time scenario authoring and skills tracking that can be integrated into other gaming/training environments. 

 

PHASE I: Develop specifications for using gaming approaches to train, rehearse, and exercise OCS/DCS type operations.

 

PHASE II: Demonstrate a game-based approach to training, rehearsal and exercise for OCS/DCS operations.  Develop and validate authoring methods, event management, tools and trainee performance tracking capabilities inside the gaming environment. Explore connectivity feasibility among the gaming environment and a distributed mission training simulation environment. Conduct a field evaluation of the gaming environment with operational space personnel.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The areas to be examined in this effort will have a prodfound impact on gaming and training activities in the future.  Several of the activities in this effort represent true "firsts" for a game and increase the potential future implementation of games as training environments with military/civilian applications. The key tasks for OCS/DCS operations (e.g., detect, identify, track, and disrupt) are general enough to be applicable to a variety of commercial training requrirements where gaming is also a plausible environment choice.  The key components of the gaming environment developed in this effort would have application in homeland security, first responder rehearsal, and police force training and rehearsal.

 

KEYWORDS: Training, simulation, countermeasures, satellites, ground stations

 

 

AF06-029               TITLE: Untethered Datalinks for Use in Simulation Environments

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Electronics, Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:  Development of a means of wirelessly conveying high-bandwidth data simultaneously to and from multiple participants on an individual basis in immersive simulations.

 

DESCRIPTION:   In immersive simulation environments, information is presented to participants in a number of different ways, the primary stimuli being visual and auditory but other possible stimuli including tactile and even olfactory cues.  Such information in its various possible forms is presented to simulation participants via various transducers, be they graphics or image display systems, speakers or headphones, vibration platforms or artificial G-seats, or scent aerosol dispensers.  Some transducers, such as headphones, binoculars, helmet-mounted displays, radios, or simulated night vision goggles, may be individually worn or employed.  All such transducers require an electrical signal of some sort to drive or actuate them.  In current simulation environments involving participants that perform and move around independently of vehicles (e.g., soldiers operating on the ground), the participants typically receive stimuli from transducers built into the simulator environment in which they are operating.  In future actual combat environments, individuals will function as discrete nodes or entities in a large network, each receiving and transmitting information via wireless data links.  In immersive simulation environments a high-fidelity simulation of the same data communication capabilities will be required for training realism sake.  In actual vehicle-independent combat environments, individuals will not be tethered via cables to any fixed point.  In immersive simulations, participants transmitting and receiving information similarly should not be tethered via any cables that would limit or restrict their movements, nor should the devices they use be tethered in a manner not duplicative of the devices they use in the real world.  Some large vehicle-based simulator designs are not conducive to users being tethered by cables, as the users may need to get up and move around inside the vehicle during training exercises.

 

Due to unavoidable physical limitations of some simulation environments, some stimuli may necessarily need to be presented to participants via individually-worn transducers (as previously defined) which would not be present in an actual combat environment.  For realism sake the fidelity of visual and auditory stimuli must be very high, and for visual stimuli in particular this corresponds to high resolution, wide field of view, and a correspondingly high bandwidth. 

 

The Air Force is seeking means of wirelessly conveying high-bandwidth data simultaneously to and from multiple participants on an individual basis in immersive simulations.  Such means of data transfer must have sufficient bandwidth to support full-color, wide field-of-view, high resolution (2000 x 2000 pixel minimum) dynamic imagery at a 60 Hz update rate for individual helmet-mounted displays.  Such means of data transfer must support individually different security levels, must support high-fidelity auditory communications, and must provide means of triggering other discrete sensory cues for each participant.  For the participant(s) in a simulation equipped with the necessary measuring equipment, such means of data transfer also must support external real-time monitoring of biometric or physiological parameters (e.g., respiration, pulse, skin conductivity, eye tracking data, etc.) for each individual.

 

PHASE I:  Identify and document effects of high fidelity stimuli on data bandwidth requirements. Define and document technical options, design a tetherless datalink concept capable of meeting all requirements in “Description” for multiple individual participants in various immersive simulation environments.

 

PHASE II:  Prototype the proposed Phase I design concept, and demonstrate it using GFE simulated binocular NVG, supporting two individuals simultaneously.  Durability and operating duration are considerations.  Also demonstrate system maximum transmitting and receiving bandwidth capability.  Submit a complete technical report documenting all work under the effort.

 

DUAL USE (MILITARY AND COMMERCIAL) APPLICATIONS:  Military:  Any training simulation system requiring realistic untethered high-resolution data transfer to/from dismounted trainee participants.  Examples: USAF JTACT Simulator; US Army Dismounted Soldier Simulator.  Commercial:  Entertainment industry, also education, training or maintenance applications which would benefit from continuous roaming access to high-resolution reference materials.

 

RELATED REFERENCES:

 

1. Kraemer, W. & Pray, R. (July, 2000).  Remote Wireless High Resolution Display Systems. Presented at IMAGE 2000, Scottsdale, AZ.

 

2. Lewandowski, R.J., Haworth, L.A., Giralamo, H.J., Editors (2001).  Helmet-and Head-Mounted Displays VI.  Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4361.

 

3. Tulis, R.W., Hopper, D.G., Morton, D.C., & Shashidhar, R.N. (2001). Cockpit Displays VIII: Displays for Defense Applications.  Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4362, pp. 1-25.

 

KEYWORDS: Simulator,  Immersive,  Datalink,  Cable,  Tether,  Wireless,  Bandwidth,  Multiplexing,  Security,  Encryption,  Decryption,  High resolution,  High fidelity,  Sensory cues,  Stimuli,  Helmet-mounted display,  Night vision goggle,  Visual display,  Auditory

 

 

AF06-030               TITLE: Knowledge Assessment System for Evaluating Performance in Dynamic   Environments

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop interactive knowledge assessment tool that provides realistic vignette examples and assesses pre- /post- performance in Distributed Mission Operations (DMO).

 

DESCRIPTION: This effort will develop an automated, psychometrically sound, vignette-based tool which will assess pre- and post- performance of individuals in a dynamic environment. Efforts will focus on tailoring the tool to diagnose knowledge and skills, identify gaps, and outline training areas which can be addressed in a Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) environment. Currently most assessment methods for DMO events involve subjective pen-and-paper critiques of observed performance and do not allow the players to receive immediate feedback in the fast-paced, complex, critical decision making environment. It is difficult to asses how well an individual or group of individuals is performing in real time, subjective assessment. This tool will provide psychometrically valid assessment of an individual’s performance based on their responses before and after participating in a DMO event.  It will also assess knowledge and measure mission effectiveness and performance in military training and rehearsal environments.  Air Weapons Controllers operate in a fast-paced, quick thinking decision-making environment and it is critical that they perform to the highest level at all times. Training challenges faced by Air Weapons Controllers include reduced flexibility of mission training needs and little opportunity for repetition of specific mission elements. Controllers need realistic continuation training that centers on job specific critical skills. Currently, it is difficult to cater training missions to their needs as they play a supporting role in training missions with pilots. This interactive tool will initially focus on the Air Weapons Controller community due to the complexity of their environment and their relation to air combat, however, this tool will have the capability to generalize to other air combat areas. This vignette-based assessment tool will supplement training by providing controllers targeted mission element examples that cover a broad scope of mission types, scenario variances, and best practices. Due to the critical role communication plays within the Air Weapons Controller community, this tool will also allow for audio assessment and feedback. The tool will provide repetition of mission elements critical to maximizing their performance capability both in theater and in simulated operations. The developed solution will leverage innovative training strategies to demonstrate quantified improvement in performance on critical skills in the DMO environment.

 

PHASE I: Provide proof-of-concept vignette-based technology for assessing pre- and post- performance of individuals within a DMO environment.

 

PHASE II: Fully develop, apply, test, refine, and validate the knowledge assessment system of pre- and post- performance of individuals training within a distributed manner which includes an interface able to adjust to changing mission requirements and a scoring function to measure increases in performance after structured training interventions.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: This effort will produce a cost-effective capability to evaluate pre- and post- performance within a dynamic environment.  This system will have wide application within the command and control arena and will be extensible to combat environments throughout the military services. Commercialization of the toolset may include other domains that require fast-paced, quick thinking, accurate decision-making as well as repetition and flexibility in training protocols (air traffic control, emergency personnel)

 

REFERENCES: 1. Bennett, Winston R., Jr.; Arthur, Winford, Jr .(2001). Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Review and Meta-Analysis. Final rept. Sep 1993-Dec 1995, 1123 TASKNUMBER: A2 AFRL-HE-AZ, XC

 

2. Fahey, R. P.; Rowe, A. L.; Dunlap, K. L. (2001). Synthetic Task Design: Cognitive Task Analysis of AWACS Weapons Director Teams. Final rept Jan 97-Dec 99. TR-2000-0159, AFRL-HE-AZ. AD A398609

 

KEYWORDS: Distributed Mission Operations, Training Effectiveness Evaluation, Weapons Controllers, simulation performance measurement, effective communication, performance assessment

 

 

AF06-031               TITLE: Intelligent Information Decluttering for UAV Displays

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate intelligent information decluttering software that enhances UAV operator decision making by reducing distractions and improving situation awareness. 

 

DESCRIPTION: Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are at the forefront of current battles and future thinking (OSD UAV Roadmap, 2002).  Several projects are underway to increase the level of autonomy for future unmanned systems, so as to increase the number of UAVs that one crew (or one operator) can simultaneously control.  Besides supervising multiple UAVs, operators will be challenged to maintain situation awareness as the availability of real-time net centric information updates drastically increase, cluttering displays even more.  Information overloaded displays can have several deleterious effects:  1) important information may be obscured, 2) irrelevant information may receive undue attention, 3) decisions may be delayed, 4) decision accuracy may be compromised, and 5) cognitive workload may escalate needlessly.  Current declutter mechanisms are limited and only offer discrete predetermined solutions, based on simplistic classification rules.  With the increasing levels of data available, it is vital that the control station intelligently highlight critical and timely information to maximize UAV operator situation assessment and decision making.  Intelligent information decluttering should also help UAV operators manage their attention and concentrate on the most critical and/or threatening information.  The key challenge is determining which information elements should be decluttered, based on the task at hand.  With decision-aiding knowledge-based tools and advances in modeling/neural networks, innovative solutions for automatically tailoring information presentation in response to real-time algorithmic mission assessments are now plausible.  However, the extreme complexity of situation and threat evaluations within the "fog of war" precludes the development of a single, foolproof decluttering algorithm.  Therefore, the development of several ‘heuristic’ automation declutter algorithms, even though imperfect, may be more desirable to guide the operator’s attention.  With the goal of being a “decision-support tool” this decluttering approach should guide the operator’s attention to what the automation thinks “matters most” via decluttering/symbology highlighting, while also allowing the operator to verify the algorithms’ accuracy.  This will help ensure operators still have all the needed information to serve as the final authority in judging the appropriateness of decisions/actions made by the automation system and assessing their impact on overall mission objectives.  Additional challenges in developing this intelligent information decluttering model/simulation software is ensuring that it enhances overall situation awareness while it simultaneously reduces distractions and ensures that the intelligent information decluttering is sophisticated, following operationally relevant criteria.  The decluttering must take into account real-time task assessment and prioritization of threats/information as well as information reliability and capabilities of the automation system.  This is especially critical in light of operators’ entirely new supervisory tasking, driven by the capability of future UAVs ‘to decide’ autonomously.  The goal of this SBIR is to provide a real-time decision-aiding knowledge based information management system, based upon the development and validation of several heuristic automation declutter algorithms, which will reduce UAV operator workload and improve situation awareness, threat response time, and overall UAV mission effectiveness.

 

PHASE I: For a representative net-centric control UAV application and mission, develop a real-time decision-aiding visualization software prototype that enables intelligent information decluttering and attention management.

 

PHASE II: Perform spiral design/evaluation/refinement iterations on the intelligent decluttering model/simulation.  Expand technology to multiple UAV applications and several realistic network centric enabled information sources.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: This effort directly supports the goals of the UAV program.  The intelligent information decluttering technology will also be generalizable to unmanned ground and sea systems as well as numerous civilian supervisory work domains.

 

REFERENCES: 1.  OSD UAV Roadmap 2002-2027.  Office of the Secretary of Defense (Acquisition Technology, & Logistics), Air Warfare. December 2002.

 

2.  Yeh, M. & Wickens, C.D. (2001).  Attentional filtering in the design of electronic map displays: A comparison of color coding, intensity coding, and decluttering techniques.  Human Factors, 43, 543-562.

 

3.  St. John, M., Manes, D.I., Smallman, H.S., Feher, B.A., and Morrison, J.G. (2004).  Heuristic automation for decluttering tactical displays.  In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 48th Annual Meeting (pp. 416-420), Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

 

4.  Winter, H., Champigneux, G., Reising, J., and Strohal, M. (1997).  Intelligent decision aids for human operators.  Paper presented at the AGARD Symposium on “Future Aerospace Technology in the Service of the Alliance”. AGARD-CP-600 Vol. 2.  Available at http://www.hec.afrl.af.mil/.

 

KEYWORDS: unmanned systems, UAV, clutter, display, neural network, human factors, automation, situation awareness

 

 

AF06-033               TITLE: Instrumented Anthropomorphic Prototype for Non-Lethal Weapons Effects

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense, Biomedical, Electronics, Human Systems, Weapons

 

OBJECTIVE: Investigate Physiological Effects of Non-Lethal Weapons

 

DESCRIPTION: The current proliferation of non-lethal weapons (NLWs) is occurring despite a vacuum of data on their human physiological effects. Literature review and animal testing supplies data of limited fidelity on these human effects. Data based upon human testing is extremely difficult and rare due to ethical concerns, and when they do exist, such data are based upon experimental manipulations of low intensity and may not generalize well to operational intensities. Thus, there is a need for a human surrogate more accurate than animal models. Suggested here is an anthropomorphic test dummy prototype that is instrumented to collect data on the quality, intensity, and duration of human sensory performance as a function of the physical output of a variety of NLWs. However, neither the current state of physiological modeling nor sensory instrumentation for recording sensory responses are sufficiently advanced to provide this capability. Basic research and development are required in sensors, material technology, and most importantly, in functional modeling of human sensory capacities. The sensory mechanisms most relevant to the mediation of NLW effects must be identified and quantified in a manner that can be approximated with sensors. It is unknown whether commercial off the shelf (COTS) sensors will suffice for full instrumentation, thus custom materials and sensor development may be necessary to model certain human sensory capacities. Ultimately, such a prototype will pave the way for rapid and safe collection of high fidelity human physiological effects data as a function of existing and prototype NLWs, as well as provide design guidance on probability of effectiveness and risk for future NLWs. At a minimum, such a prototype will be instrumented to collect data regarding visual and auditory sensation, and blast overpressure effects to the lungs, central nervous system, and other major organs, with expanded capabilities to include toxicological effects of riot control agents (RCA), and dermal and optical effects of directed energy.

 

PHASE I: Review and quantify sensory mechanisms most relevant to the mediation of NLW effects. Design a promising prototype based upon test comparisons between COTS and/or experimental sensor characteristics and sensory mechanisms most relevant to the mediation of NLW effects.

 

PHASE II: Build the prototype and validate its capabilities against human effects data gathered through computer models, animal models, and extant human experimentation.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: This test bed will measure human effects of NLWs for both the DoD and CONUS law enforcement agencies.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Unconventional Weapons Response Handbook, Jane’s Information Group, ISBN: 0-7106-2519-7

http://catalog.janes.com/catalog/public/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.ProductInfoBrief&product_id=73198

 

2. Non-Lethal Weapons: Terms and Reference, Institute for National Security Studies

http://www.thememoryhole.org/mil/nl-weapons_terms/

 

3. Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program Site, US Marine Corps, MCB Quantico

https://www.jnlwd.usmc.mil/default.asp

 

KEYWORDS: Non-lethal weapons, human effects, physiological effects, anthropomorphic modeling, human sensation, sensors

 

 

AF06-034               TITLE: 3D Image Conversion to Editable Voxelized Anatomical Model

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical, Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop software to generate and edit a voxelized 3-dimensional anatomical models. 

 

DESCRIPTION:  Voxelized anatomical models are widely used to simulate exposure of biological systems to directed energy.  Most 2D and 3D models are only concerned with surface generation.  The research community is concerned with the complete volume and retaining the integrity of the internal structures within the voxelized model.  Developing the models currently is a completely manual process of converting MRI data into voxelized models.  The manual editing is done one slice at a time in two dimensions which makes maintaining continuity in the third dimension difficult.  The goal of this project would be to create an automatic method of converting medical scanning data into a voxelized model including an editor to over come the stated difficulties.  An open source development model is preferred.  Convert a 2-dimensional image dataset such as the Visible Man (National Library of Medicine) or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dataset to a 3-dimensional voxelized anatomical model.  The voxelized model will have automatic segmentation of tissue types that represents each tissue type by a color during visualization and as bytes in an output file.  Develop an interface that allows accurate dual visualization of both the original image data and the voxelized model for comparison of tissue type choices.  Provide the ability to edit the 3-dimensional voxelized model tissue types by moving a boundary line.  Final editing will permit changes to individual voxel color/byte assignment.  The user must be able to visualize each organ continuity and relationship between organs. 

 

PHASE I:  Conduct research to identify software requirements and then initiate the development of software that will generate a voxelized anatomical model and complete automatic segmentation of tissue types.  Design layout and planned functionality of the interface for viewing and editing the voxelized model while comparing to the original 3D image.  An Open-Source business model would be preferred.  Software should be capable of operating on LINUX and Microsoft Windows operating systems.

 

PHASE II:  Conduct research to refine the 3-dimensional image conversion with automatic tissue segmentation and implement the 3-dimensional interface to edit the voxelized model.  Software should be operated using Graphical User Interfaces (GUI).

 

PHASE III DUAL-USE COMMERCIALIZATION:  The final product will be useful to government, industry, and academia.  The ability to obtain cost-effective anatomical 3-dimensional voxelized models of humans would be advantages to groups designing non-ionizing medical equipment or communication systems.  The voxelized models can be used in most human research that requires very detailed internal structures.  Understanding directed energy absorption is critical for equipment design and operation. Anatomical 3D voxelized models of animals could be used for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) efforts. 

 

REFERENCES: 

1.  National Library of Medicine, Visible Human Project

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html

 

2.    P. A. Mason, W. D. Hurt, T. J. Walters, J. A. D’Andrea, P. Gajsek, K. L. Ryan, D. A. Nelson, K. I. Smith, and J. M. Ziriax, “Effects of Frequency, Permittivity, and Voxel Size on Predicted Specific Absorption Rate Values in Biological Tissue During Electromagnetic-Field Exposure,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 48, pp 2050-2058, 2000.

 

KEYWORDS: voxelized editor, voxelized models, anatomical models, editable 3D models, 3D image conversion, 3D model continuity

 

 

AF06-035               TITLE: Development of a Deployable Biomarker-Based Health Biomonitor (DBHM)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical, Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a fieldable biomonitoring device, operable by nonmedical personnel, which allows biomarker detection in body fluids.

 

DESCRIPTION: The DBHM will incorporate innovative, versatile platform and capture elements to assay multiple biomarkers in a hand-held, field deployable device. Size and weight are important objectives: the DBHM will be small and lightweight (about the size of a PDA or less). Unlike currently available point of care units, the device and its capture/detection elements must be robust to withstand battlefield conditions, including temperature and humidity extremes. The biomonitor will sample microliter amounts of body fluids (blood, urine, saliva) in a noninvasive or minimally invasive manner and provide quantitative results for multiple biomarkers in near real time. In anticipation of the development of future militarily relevant biomarkers, the biomonitor must incorporate a multi-channel design to streamline uptake of new assays. Capture/detection elements should be designed with the ability to be reused a minimum of four times, with reagentless or near reagentless operation.  The device will include any mechanism required for sample collection and will not require external power sources. The emphasis in concept and design will be on the flexibility of the device to not only test multiple biomarkers, but multiple biomarker types (protein, DNA, RNA) in extreme conditions.

 

PHASE I: Develop the initial components and key elements capable of completing the objectives in both the analyzer (mechanics and software) and the sampling platform. The sample assay chamber must demonstrate the potential for multiple assay capabilities as demonstrated by the incorporation and simultaneous detection/quantitation of two independent biomarker assays.  Biomarker assays used in development in both Phase I and II may be selected by the performer and obtained by commercially available means and/or independently developed.

 

PHASE II: Based on Phase I design and concepts, advanced prototype development will progress to miniaturization of the computer analyzer to the objective size and weight. Software will be updated and refined.  Required Phase II deliverables will include a prototype with multi-analyte detection ability as demonstrated by the incorporation and simultaneous quantitation of four independent biomarker assays, to include biomarkers to both protein and DNA. Additionally, the device detection/quantitation element must demonstrate statistically insignificant variation on four different testings of the same sample using the same assay chamber from temperatures ranging from 10 degree to 48 degree C.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: As previously stated, the development of a deployable biomonitor will give the warfighter the capabilities to monitor health in ‘real time’ in the field, allowing for detection and intervention. Once such a health monitor platform is developed, its use is limited only by the identification and validation of biomarker assays by other sources, either DoD or commercial. The DBHM will be valued for application in Homeland security through rapid evaluation of health status in emergency situations requiring the rapid testing of large numbers of personnel by field staff. Additionally, with the development and incorporation of animal biomarkers to the early stages of exposure to such bioterrorist agents such as anthrax and hoof and mouth disease, this device could be used on site by veterinarians to quickly detect and contain an agriculture bioterrorism act. The civilian use DBHM may also contain additional internet connectivity abilities to allow assay data to be sent to a central location for further evaluation and data comparison/storage.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Eisenbrand, G., Pool-Zobel, B., Baker, V., Balls, M., Blaauboer, B.J., Boobis, A., Carere, A., Kevekordes, S., Lhuguenot, J.-C., Pieters, R., and Kleiner, J. 2002 Methods of in vitro toxicology. Food and Chemical Toxicology 40:193-236.

 

2. Timbrell, J.A. 1998 Biomarkers in toxicology. Toxicology 129:1-12 Review.

 

3. International Programme on Chemical Safety. 1993 Biomarkers and Risk Assessment: Concepts and Principles. Environmental Health Criteria 155, World Health Organization. Located at hhtp://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc155.htm

 

4. Csanady, G.H., Filser, J.G., Kreuzer, P., Schwarz, L., Wolff, T., and Werner, S. 1995 Biomarkers as tools in human health risk assessment. Clinical Chemistry Dec;41 (12 Pt 2): 1804-1808 Review.

 

5. Mutti, A. 1999 Biological monitoring in Occupational and environmental toxicology. Toxicology Letters 108:77-89.

 

KEYWORDS: biomonitor, biomarker, immunoassay, ELISA, POC, chemical agent testing, biological agent testing, low level dose, force protection, early intervention, health assessment

 

 

AF06-036               TITLE: Remote Personnel Assessment

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical, Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research effort is to develop microwave/laser based technology to measure heartbeat, respiration and galvanic skin response in moving and non-cooperative subjects. It will also investigate methods to extend the standoff distance of the microwave/laser system to 35m. Furthermore, it will explore the possibility of using this system to detect and characterize personnel in severe urban clutter or in buildings (through walls) with a probability of detection threshold goal of 95%, with a 2% false positive rate.

 

DESCRIPTION: Recent research has supported the belief that active combatants will in general have heart, respiratory and galvanic skin responses that are outside the norm with respect to rate and rate variability. Therefore being able to perform real time physiological monitoring from a distance using a microwave/laser based system may provide for early detection and identification of terrorists, suicide bombers, and other personnel posing a threat. Such a device would also be useful for detection of subterfuge or deception during prisoner interrogation, and remote detection and targeting of life signs through obstructions and severe urban clutter.

 

PHASE I: Researchers will perform computational investigation/analysis of laser and RF based technologies for a single system to monitor/interrogate heart rate, respiration and galvanic skin response (GSR) in human subjects in a lab setting.  The effort will emphasize small sized (easily man portable) sensors with low power requirements.  This effort will trade laser against radiofrequency capabilities and define preferred system configuration. Technical challenges in this phase are expected to include: integration of laser/RF technologies, signal to noise optimization and statistical interpretation. Preliminary designs will be provided.

 

PHASE II: Researchers will investigate methods to extend the range of the system to 35 m with a probability of detection threshold goal of 95% and false positive rate of 2%. Researchers will also investigate methods to detect and characterize personnel in severe urban clutter and through external and interior building walls.  During this phase the researchers will provide a detailed prototype design and will complete fabrication and testing of a prototype. Technical challenges in this phase are expected to include process optimization.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:  This device would be useful for military applications such as (1) Counter-terrorism: Remote/non-intrusive monitoring of the physisiological functions of adversaries that may predict hostile behavior and give advance warning of hostile acts. (2) Force protection: Remote/non-intrusive detection of human life forms in concealed/battle damaged areas. (3) Intelligence: Remote/concealed “lie detector” analysis of individuals. The device would also have multiple commercial applications such as emergency patient monitoring, prisoner suicide prevention, disaster recovery operations, medical image processing, airport surveillance, etc.

 

REFERENCES: 1 Storm, Hanne, “Development of emotional sweating in preterms measured by skin conductance changes”, Department of Paediatric Research and Section on Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, the National Hospital, 0027 Oslo, Norway, 29 January 2001.

 

2 Matthews, Gregory, et. al., “A Non-Contact Vital Signs Monitor”, Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, 28 (1&2); 173-178 (2000)

 

KEYWORDS: Physiological Monitoring, Behavioral Monitoring, Physiological Sensors, Remote Detection, Doppler Shift.

 

 

AF06-037               TITLE: Quantitative Assessment of Influence Operations

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: Establish approaches to quantitatively predict the results of influence operations on military outcomes using existing market research statistical models.

 

DESCRIPTION: Influence operations as defined here are activities that consciously attempt to influence the mental state and behaviors of adversaries or potential adversaries. Specifically included in these activities are PSYOP, military deception, counterintelligence, and public affairs. Currently there are no universal processes to predict the results of influence operations. Being able to predict the results of influence operations would save countless lives and provide a great advantage to friendly forces. We seek novel exploitation of concepts, encouraging the use of modeling and simulation, to guide the development of an approach to quantitatively predict the results of influence operations using existing market research statistical models.

 

PHASE I: Identify and define how market research statistical models can interact in a positive manner with military operations. Design a mechanism for fitting statistical models to after action reports, as a function of influence operations.

 

PHASE II: Using the results from Phase I modeling, design, demonstrate and validate a prototype quantitative or semi-quantitative influence operations predictive capability that is analogous to market research as it is practiced today.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: Being able to predict how an adversary would react to influence operations would bring about a decrease in casualties and material loss. Commercial application: Findings of this effort would be of great interest to current market researchers in explaining and predicting outcomes as it relates to target product or service.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Richard A. Albanese, 1986, “Can High –Tech Subordinate Numerical Superiority?” USAFSAM-TR-86-11.

 

2. Conolly, B.W. and D.M. Roberts, 1992, “An Extension of the Lanchester Square Law to Inhomogeneous Forces with an Application to Force Allocation Methodology”, Journal of Operational Research Society, 43:741-52

 

KEYWORDS: Modeling and Simulation, Influence Operations, Market Research, Operations Research, Discrete Task Event Analysis Tools, Hybrid Models, Mathematical Economics and Econometrics, Model-data Fitting, Learning Theory

 

 

AF06-038               TITLE: Innovative Tools for Information to Decisions in Biosciences

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Biomedical, Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: Create and demonstrate an innovative automated intelligent tool set for managing, analyzing, and producing new knowledge, based on large bioscience-based research data sets.

 

DESCRIPTION: Developments in computer science, sensors, electronics, biomechanics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, cell-like entities, anthropometry, medical imaging, visualization, biochemistry, automated laboratory analysis, digital human modeling, the internet and other research areas have made it possible for ever-increasing amounts of data to be collected.  Some of these data are analyzed, published, and readily available worldwide.  This rapidly growing body of information is not organized in ways that would allow a quick response to “What If” questions, nor are the disparate pieces of information linked in a way to foster leaps in understanding.  An example of an accessible database that could benefit from the application of intelligent tools to convert information to knowledge and decisions can be viewed at:  www.biodyn.wpafb.af.mil.  Similar data sets exist in the areas of altitude physiology, anthropometry, acceleration physiology, and human performance.  Areas of immediate application include: biotechnology, bioinformatics, protection science, biomechanics, anthropometry, nanotechnology, remote identification and state assessment of humans, and digital human modeling. 

 

PHASE I: Research & define innovative tools to automate & facilitate the intellectual process of transforming information from the literature and from experimental data sets to knowledge, understanding, and decisions.  Perform an initial feasibility demonstration of the intelligent tool concept

 

PHASE II: Finalize and demonstrate the tool set from Phase I.  Phase II will be the continuation of the development of the tools proposed from Phase I. This information system will be validated by demonstrating how a research question can be answered through use of these intelligent tools for a practical application. 

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The tool set developed and demonstrated in Phase II would be widely applicable in the Human Effectiveness Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory.  These tools would find wide application in government, academic, and industrial laboratories where researchers face the need to process increasing amounts of information and quickly make decisions based upon that information.  With these tools it would be possible to organize and analyze the information from many different fields in order to make significant leaps in understanding.

 

REFERENCES: 1. AFRL/HEPA Biodynamics Databank - www.biodyn.wpafb.af.mil

 

2. Lincoln Stein, "What’s Next for Bioinformatics?” The Scientist/Technology, May 23, 2005, pp 31-32

 

3. Lotfi B. Merabet, Joseph F. Rizzo, Amir Amedi, David C. Somers, and Alvaro Pascual-Leone, What blindness can tell us about seeing again: merging neuroplasticity and neuroprostheses, Nature Reviews/Neuroscience, Vol. 6 January 2005, pp 71-77.

 

4. Martin Lauritzen,"Reading vascular changes in the brain imaging: is dendritic calcium the key?" Nature Reviews/Neuroscience Vol. 6 January 2005, pp 77 - 85

 

KEYWORDS: intelligent software tools, database, computer science, sensors, biomechanics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, cell-like entities, anthropometry, medical imaging, data visualization, automated laboratory analysis, digital human modeling, the internet, bioinformatics

 

 

AF06-039               TITLE: Desalinator for One-Man Survival Kit

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical, Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a lightweight, compact, rugged and reliable system that can filter salt water into safe drinkable water.

 

DESCRIPTION: Aircrew members ejecting over salt water carry limited drinking water reducing the time they can survive pending rescue operations. Current procedures/equipment for supplying aircrew members with drinking water following an ejection over salt water are not adequate. Available water includes water in soft packets and cans which are placed in the ACES II ejection seat survival kit and aircrew survival vest.  While desalinators are available to produce drinkable water, there is no desalinator suitable for storage in the ACES II survival kit.  The current desalinator (RMOD-06) used by the USAF is hand-pump operated and used on multi-man survival kits. The product water to effort ratio of the current desalinator is very small, producing only 1 cup of drinking water for 16 minutes of continuous effort or nearly 1000 hand pumps from the operator. The current desalinator can be made inoperable by biological or chemical degradation, fouling and scaling, or by supply water bypass, which are common problems with current technology.  For this effort, the contractor shall research technologies that can be applied to a new desalinator to reduce size and weight, and increase reliability and product to effort ratio.  A desalinator one-third the size and weight of the RMOD-06 is desired for storage in the ACES II survival kit or survival vest pocket.  The weight and volume of the current device is 2.5 lbs and 100 in3 (5in x 8in x 2.5in). A novel method will also be investigated to minimize or eliminate aircrew physical activity/exertion, while increasing product output. The contractor shall also investigate methods to introduce electrolytes into the water to reduce the potential for hyponatremia or water intoxication caused by electrolyte loss. Objective for water production is 2 gallons per day with a salt rejection of 98.4% average (95.3% min.).

 

PHASE I: Identify/develop technologies which can be integrated into a desalinator suitable for aircrew use in the ACES II survival kit or survival vest.  Perform requirements identification, analysis, program risk assessments and trade studies for recommended solution(s) to address size, weight, water production, reliability, salt rejection and electrolyte addition. At the end of Phase I, provide prototype(s) or demonstrate technologies which could be applied to a desalinator system.

 

PHASE II: Continue to develop/refine the Phase I system. Finalize system requirements and verification methodology. Prepare test plan and perform laboratory tests to ensure components and system are biological and chemical resistant, fouling and scaling resistant, temperature shock resistant, and pressure shock resistant.  Assemble prototype systems for integration and compatibility assessments with AF equipment, survival vests/kits.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: This technology could provide affordable drinking water conversion from brackish or sea water sources. This technology has broad commercial applications for emergency equipment for fisherman, particularly the commercial fishing industry, cruise vessels, boating, etc.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Multi-Command Operational Requirement Document CAF-MAF-AETC 319-93-I-A "Aircrew Protection and Life Support/Escape Systems" dated Jun 99

 

KEYWORDS: desalinination, desalinator, portable, sea water, salt water

 

 

AF06-040               TITLE: Distributed Methods for Assessing the Readiness of Coalition Workgroups, and Teams

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop collaborative real-time performance assessment methods for evaluating the impact of training, rehearsal, and human factors engineering interventions.

 

DESCRIPTION: Challenges with distributed team performance assessment have been demonstrated recently during a multi-national coalition high-fidelity simulation training event. Current assessment methods of such events rely on subjective pen-and-paper critiques and reviews of after-action reports which are labor intensive, time sensitive and ineffective for assessing workgroup and team performance. There is a need to develop comprehensive, psychometrically valid assessment tools for not only individuals, but workgroups and teams who interact within a dynamic environment. Team members will often respond to specific situations in different ways depending on their position and role. In previous, non-collaborative assessments, each member’s response could not be evaluated within the context of the aggregate performance of the team. This effort will conduct research to develop distributed, collaborative methods and criteria to systematically assess the performance and readiness of individuals, and individuals as participants in workgroups, and teams. This will include conducting studies to develop real-time distributed performance assessment methods and criteria for use in evaluating the impact of a variety of training, and design interventions on individual, workgroup and team performance and effectiveness. The resulting technology and criterion measures may employ text-, digital video-, animation-, and/or simulation-based situations for performance assessment. Using this developed technology, all members of the team can respond as individuals and can observe the responses of all other members. Some members may actually respond differently based on the given responses of other members. Also, the criterion performance measures will be situationally-based assessments from which actual test scores would be obtained. This same performance assessment approach can also be used by dispersed members of a workgroup who must share information about a situation and arrive at a group response or decision. A distributed, collaborative approach for performance assessment not only provides critical information about how all members would perform in the given situation, but the data on their responses can be used to identify innovative solutions, misconceptions about the appropriate solution, and incorrect information that could be addressed in future collaboration or in follow-on education and training programs. Similarly, workgroups and teams can be identified, assembled, and assessed more readily if relevant, objective performance measures are developed and used. Also, exemplary criterion measures and data collection methods will be developed for four domains. Two of the domains will be related to Joint or Coalition military workgroup and team performance and two will be related to non-military domains such as regional sales teams or product development teams.

 

PHASE I: Provide proof-of-concept technology for evaluating and modeling learning and for conducting real-time performance assessments in a distributed, collaborative environment.

 

PHASE II: Fully develop, apply, test, refine, and validate the distributed, collaborative learning modeling and real-time performance assessment technology and develop tools to permit criterion measures to assess workgroup and team performance and readiness.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: This effort will produce a cost-effective capability to evaluate individuals and teams. The results from this effort are of considerable interest to the Private Sector as a means of gathering team productivity and performance assessments from dispersed workgroups for use in identifying areas of high performance, areas of potential problems, and additional education, training, or management requirements. Phase III Dual use potential is significant as no assessment capability such as the one described herein exists. The benefits from such a capability to Government and Private Sector agencies could help organizations save considerable time and expenditures by targeting measurement to address specific areas of performance and productivity.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Fowlkes, J. E., Lane, N. E., Salas, E., Franz, T., & Oser, R. (1994). Improving the measurement of team performance: The TARGETS methodology. Military Psychology, 6, 47-63.

 

2. Guzzo, R. A., & Salas, E. (1995). Team effectiveness and decisionmaking in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

 

3. Salas, E., Bowers, C. A., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (1995). Team processes, training, and performance. Military Psychology, 7, 53-139.

 

4. Tannenbaum, S. I., Beard, R., L., & Salas, E. (1992). Team building and its influence on team effectiveness: An examination of conceptual and empirical developments. In K. Kelly (Ed.), Issues, theory, and research in industrial/organizational psychology (pp. 117-153). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

 

KEYWORDS: Coalition training,Collaborative learning,Distributed simulation, Joint training and rehearsal,Performance measurement, Program evaluation,Readiness evaluation,Individual and team effectiveness

 

 

AF06-043               TITLE: Developing Crew Resource Management (CRM) Skills for Combined Air Operations Center (CAOC) Teams

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: The objective for this effort is to identify CRM skills required by AOC crews, develop training interventions to improve these skills and evaluate the impacts on AOC crew performance.

 

DESCRIPTION: Military and commercial flight crew training programs have invested considerable resources in Crew Resource Management (CRM) training, and general CRM concepts are currently being applied to a variety of other high risk environments such as medicine (Helmreich, 2000) and industrial settings such as off shore oil operations (O’Connor and Flin, 2003) and nuclear power plants and refineries (Helmreich, Wilhelm, Klinect, & Merritt, 2001).  Despite its widespread adoption as a training intervention, researchers have documented a lack of agreement on several fundamental issues, including which CRM skills are needed for effective mission performance, how CRM behaviors can be most productively trained, and even the effectiveness of CRM training (Salas, Rhodenizer, & Bowers, 2000).

 

For Air Force aviators, CRM skills are defined in terms of six core areas--situational awareness, crew coordination/flight integrity, communication, risk management/decision making, task management, and mission planning/debriefing (Air Force, 2001).  Statistically significant correlations between these CRM areas and mission performance were documented for both special operations and tactical airlift crews during annual simulator refresher training (Nullmeyer and Spiker, 2003; Nullmeyer, Spiker, Deen, and Wilson, 2003), and key CRM behaviors of the most effective crews were identified.  Consistent with trends identified from real world mishap reports, specific CRM shortfalls were associated with weak mission performance.  On the opposite end of the performance spectrum, a consistent set of exemplary CRM behaviors characterized the most effective crews. 

 

Helmreich (1999) documented a clear evolution of CRM training from seminars covering general interpersonal dynamics toward aviation-specific content that includes hands-on simulator scenarios.   Recent generations of CRM focus on error management (avoiding errors, identifying and correcting errors before they become consequential, and mitigating the consequences of errors that do occur).  With this focus comes a requirement for an accurate understanding of error in the community being trained.   Smith (2002) used the Air Force CRM taxonomy to analyze events leading to the 1994 Black Hawk fratricide and concluded that “CRM-type concepts were applicable.”  CRM-type errors were evident in this real-world incident, and CRM-type skills were evident in analyses of several CAOC Offensive Operations Team Time Critical Targeting processes.  Both suggest the need for effective CRM training. 

 

Smith’s detailed analyses of CRM behaviors in CAOC crews and lessons learned from aviation CRM training both suggest the need to identify the areas of greatest need upon which CRM instruction can be focused.  Smith found evidence that most, but not all elements of the Air Force taxonomy were relevant.  In addition, several CRM-like behaviors that are not specifically addressed in the Air Force taxonomy emerged as important elements.  Similarly, aviation CRM programs have clearly evolved from generic to audience-specific content (Helmreich, 1999).  Smith’s initial analyses are encouraging, but they are focused on one event that occurred a decade ago.  An early requirement is to determine those areas of greatest need based on a broader analysis of current CAOC performance. 

 

PHASE I: Review the scientific literature and interview AOC experts to identify crew performance areas that are particularly sensitive to CRM skills. Conduct cognitive task analyses to identify training objectives.   Develop a concept design for CRM training interventions to include training media.

 

PHASE II: Based on the Phase I concept design, produce a functional prototype CRM instructional package for AOC crews, including both courseware and media.  Test and evaluate the resulting instructional package to demonstrate impacts on the specific CRM skills identified in Phase I and on the overall performance of AOC crews.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Prepare detailed plans for implementing demonstrated team training capabilities for applications in the domains of homeland defense, law enforcement, medicine, business, or aviation industries.  Phase III proposals must include a detailed market survey and letters of interest / commitment from potential commercial partners for evaluation of Phase III consideration.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Helmreich RL, Merritt AC, Wilhelm JA. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management in commercial aviation. International Journal of Aviation Psychology; 9: 19-32.

 

2. Helmreich, R.L. (2000). On error management: lessons from aviation. British Medical Journal, 320: 781-785.

 

3. O’Connor, P. & Flin, R. (2003). Crew resource management for offshore oil production teams. Safety Science,  41: 111-129.

 

4. Salas, E., Rhodenizer, L. & Bowers, C.A. (2000). The design and delivery of crew resource management training: exploiting available resources.  Human Factors. 42 (3): 490-511.

 

5. Smith, D.D. (2002). An examination of the applicability of crew resource management training concepts to a combined air operations center team: An operational-level analysis of the USAF F-15C fratricide of two US Army Black Hawks in Operation Provide Comfort. Army Command and General Staff College, Ft Leavenworth KS. DTIC AD Number: ADA4066977.

 

KEYWORDS: crew coordination, situation awareness, decision making, communication, air and space operations center, distributed mission operations

 

 

AF06-044               TITLE: Immunity from Threat Based on Measured Injury Causation

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical, Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a new class of small sensors for routine wear by military, police & sports personnel that record the magnitude & duration of exposure to impact, electromagnetic radiation, blast waves & bullets. The particular focus should be on sensing energy from blast waves ( e.g from Improvised Explosives Devices ) and bullets that accelerate the helmeted head to dangerous levels causing traumatic brain injury.

 

DESCRIPTION: An increasingly important issue in force protection is the ability to quantify injury causation resulting from various weapons effects and to design appropriate protection strategies. Today’s weapons range from kinetic weapons, blast waves, thermal pulses, optical/electromagnetic beams and secondary sources such as shrapnel, and crash. What is not always known is the relationship between the local insult and the resulting injury. This is especially true of traumatic brain injury caused by blast waves from Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). In order to design effective protection systems knowledge of this cause and effect relationship is critical. What is envisioned are very small sensors that can be worn by all military personnel without encumbrance during all operations. These totally new sensors built using MEMS and or Nano technology would require no power or recorder but could be calibrated to permanently change in some way to capture a p record of the energy and direction of the blast or accleration of a helmet caused by a bullet. A small step in this direction has been taken by instrumenting race car drivers in the Indy Racing League and Champ cars with earplugs containing miniature accelerometers. More than sixty crashes have been documented thus far showing how the drivers’ heads accelerate during the impacts while the resulting injury in documented by the medical staff. Boxers at the Air Force Academy have also been instrumented with earplugs containing accelerometers. However, both these current systems require batteries and a recorder that raise cost and require the wearer to put them on and other wise take care of them. With the new sensors very comprehensive prospective epidemiological studies could be carried out in all military and police operations and in helmeted sports where the recorded insult could be correlated with the resulting injury documented by medical staff. The resulting data could then be used to optimize protection through changes in protective equipment and tactics.

 

PHASE I: Conduct research leading to the development of very small, inexpensive, unpowered sensors that physically capture the magnitude and total energy of acceleration events. Results must demonstrate that practical components are possible, and that such components would have wide application (hence low price).

 

PHASE II: Phase II would consist of developing, testing and validation of a prototype system of sensors for a helmet and demonstration of its use in a blast wave environment (provided by the government).

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Wearable monitoring sensors could be a highly marketable item to the military, police, sports and the automotive industries. In all areas it will provide critical information linking physical insult to resulting Traumatic Brain Injury. Design of new protection concepts requires such understanding. Groups that have already expressed interest include, National Rodeo Association, National Football League, Olympic Ski Team, Military and Civilian Fast Boats, Champion Aerobatic Pilots and FIA - Racing Go Karts and Rally Cars.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Knox, Ted, Validation of Earplug Accelerometers as a Means of Measuring Head Motion. SAE Paper 2004-01-3538, Proceedings of the SAE Motorsports Conference and Exhibition (P-392). Nov. 30 – Dec2, 2004, Dearborn, MI

 

KEYWORDS: force protection, warfighter, battlefield stressors, real injury criteria, epidemiology of injury, sanctuary, immunity from threat, wearable sensors, nanotechnology, MEMS, unpowerd sensors, traumatic brain injury

 

 

AF06-045               TITLE: Networked Electronic Warfare Training System (NEWTS)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: To develop a synthetically Electronic Warfare threat training system for tactical aircraft flight training for the Next Generation Threat System & proven Imbedded Electronic Warfare System.

 

DESCRIPTION: The Imbedded Electronic Warfare System (IEWS) was a highly successful AFSOC project (02-028) designed by the Air Force Research Lab Warfighter Training Research Division to simulate threat parametric data in the AN/ALR-69 Radar Warning Receiver (RWR). IEWS was developed with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) personal computers installed in a rack in the cargo area of aircraft  IWES interfaced with the AN/ALR 69 signal processor through the MIL-STD-1553 EW bus, creating an onboard simulation of the AN/ALR-69 with threat parametric data.  Aircraft airspeed, altitude, and position data were also fed into the simulator from the MIL-STD-1553 navigation bus, allowing the imbedded simulator to provide fully correlated threat parametric data to the AN/ALR-69 azimuth indicator and indicator control unit in the cockpit.  With IEWS, aircrews were provided a realistic simulated threat environment for training anywhere and anytime without the additional cost and need of an EW training range or dedicated air and ground threat assets.  Today’s small tactical aircraft do not have the physical space for an IEWS equivalent imbedded system.  Although such a system could be packaged in a pod that would be hung from a weapon station, doing so would require Seek Eagle testing for each platform type on which the system was used.  Additionally, funding for dedicated training systems on every small tactical aircraft cannot compete with funding for essential combat equipment.  The proposed NEWTS addresses these issues by utilizing existing EW and data link equipment on small tactical aircraft to pass the “hard-wired” commands utilized in the IEWS system over “wireless” channels between a common ground simulator and participating aircraft.  For initial validation of this concept, certain fighter aircraft are ideal because of their AN/ALR-69 RWR and Situational Awareness Data Link (SADL) capabilities.  Additionally, fighter aircraft possess the AN/ALQ-213 EW Management System with proven AN/ALR-69, MIL-STD-1553 bus, and data link interface capabilities.  After successful validation of this concept, the NEWTS could be extended to all small tactical aircraft with RWR and data link capabilities.  Essential air and ground EW threat training opportunities would no longer be limited to EW training ranges with expensive emitters or pod-required training systems.

 

PHASE I: Design a feasible technical solution to provide networked electronic warfare training via datalink.  Document inadequacies of current fighter EW training.  Propose system architectures able to transmit data, aircraft airspeed, altitude and position data over time, and process this data in NGTS.

 

PHASE II: Demonstrate generation of a threat symbol on an AN/ALR-69 RWR.  The threat symbol will correlate in azimuth and range to a fixed ground location relative to a flying fighter aircraft.  Airspeed, altitude and position data over time will be processed in NGTS to assess the maneuvering against the simulated threat.  Countermeasure actions will be identified for assessment.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: This effort will produce a cost-effective capability to maximize critical combat training opportunities.  It will fill an identified shortfall in realistic threat reaction training, especially for smaller dislocated operation units and ultimately improve combat effectiveness.  High fidelity EW scenarios and training could be executed at the unit level, without external contractor support or cumbersome aircraft mounted pod systems.  Contractors supporting Air Force DMO systems can integrate NEWTS into current and future aircraft.  Additionally, civilian organizations supporting Homeland Defense and Air Traffic Control can leverage networking applications developed for NEWTS for use in civilian training or live systems.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Gray, T.H., Edwards, B.J., & Andrews, D.H. (1993, April).  A survey of F-16 squadron-level pilot training in PACAF (AL-TR-1993-0041, ADA265053). Project 1121.  Armstrong Laboratory.  NTIS.

 

2. Hanz, D. and D. Holeman, J. Shockley (SRI International) and D. Devol, T. Denning, C. Jergens,and D. Nagy (BGI LLC), F-22 and JSF Range Instrumentation (RI) and Distributed MissionTraining (DMT) Requirements Study and Implementation Roadmap, April 2002.

 

3. OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT (ORD) CAF ORD 330-88-II-B For Joint Threat Emitter (JTE)

 

KEYWORDS: Electronic Warfare Training,Live Virtual Constructive, Distributed Simulation,Combat Mission Training

 

 

AF06-047               TITLE: Semantic Interoperability of C2 Tools and Technologies

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop technology for information discovery and reasoning to facilitate information sharing between decision aiding tools to efficiently perform planning and execution management functions.

 

DESCRIPTION: The current Command Control Communications Computers Intelligence, Surveillance Reconnaissance (C4ISR) infrastructure is not seamless and vital pieces of information are not passed in a timely manor or critical pieces of data are not linked to entities that require it. In addition, many of the current systems lack compatible tool/process interoperability, which results in slower processing and action on information. Operators spend a tremendous amount of time identifying relevant, required and missing information across the boundaries of the AOC Divisions.

 

The purpose of this effort is to develop tools and techniques that will enable personnel to utilize information discovery technology to connect semantically meaningful information to automated AOC systems. The goal is to create reasoning capabilities to provide executable, decision-quality knowledge to the commander in near real-time from anywhere, thereby enabling force application in single-digit minutes from the decision to engagement

 

Demonstrate the interoperation of decision aiding tools and technologies utilizing semantic like integration and information infrastructure technology for such areas as collaborative planning, scheduling, and execution analysis capabilities. For a military environment this could be the complete Joint Air Operations Plan (JAOP) and execution Air Tasking Order (ATO) within the Air Operations Center (AOC). Semantic linkages between the information/data and various tools should also be explored.

               

PHASE I: Analyze information sources and need of prospective processes within the Air & Space Operations Center for maximizing machine interoperability. Develop an approach to assist AOC personnel and demonstrate the initial design for a prototype application.

 

PHASE II: Research and develop the required technologies and prototype, per Phase 1 design. Develop and demonstrate a prototype system which semantically marks up information across the AOC tools. Demonstrate that the information can be used to support other applications.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: The ability to understand information constructs through the definition of relationships would enable timely passing of needed and relevant information. This would also be of primary benefit to Homeland Defense and law enforcement for situation understanding.

 

REFERENCES:

1. World Wide Web Consortium W3C http://www.w3.org, Subtitle Semantic Web

 

2. The Semantic Web, Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler &Ora Lassila, Scientific American, May 2001

 

3. Joint Publication 3-30 (2003), “Command and Control for Joint Air Operations”

 

KEYWORDS: Semantic Markup, Air Operation Center, AOC, Interoperability, Information Exchange

 

 

AF06-048               TITLE: Mission Rehearsal Capability for Feasible Dynamic ISR Tasking in Support of Effects Based Assessment

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Provide the Air Operation Center (AOC) with a capability to simulate and assess alternative air intelligence collection tasking methods in support of dynamic effects based assessment.

 

DESCRIPTION: The dynamic and evolving hyper-operations-tempo battlespace of the future will require rapid adjustment of the location and timing of intelligence and surveillance collection assets. This effort will result in a mission rehearsal and analysis capability for use by the AOC Combat Plans division to “fly-out” ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) collection plans. Algorithms, simulations and/or modeling techniques will be investigated and developed for use in optimizing the ISR plans in relation to their support for effects-based assessment. Exploration of the application of modeling and simulation technology such as system modeling, discrete event simulation, numerical simulation, multi-perspective modeling, performance evaluation, etc. should be proposed. The capability will assist the ISR planners to optimize alternative paths, layouts of assets, and alternative collection resources, and de-conflict ISR collection plans with other mission plans (Attack and Electronic Combat). The ISR Division of the AOC could also utilize the technology developed to adjudicate between JFACC (in-house) vs. national ISR collection asset and assist in dynamically adjusting these asset collection mission paths.

 

Inherent in the capability will be insight into the effects-based course of action and Joint Air Operations Plan, especially the assessment plan developed by the Operational Assessment Team. The final product will allow ISR planners to adjust their plans to meet the dynamic nature of the battlefield. The ISR plan can then be focused on how their assets will contribute to the overall operational (effects-based) assessment. The capability will answer such questions as: When should the ISR assets be at a specific location and time? What are the collection requirements that need to be met in support of assessing the effects-based plan? Can the assets see and collect relevant intelligence that will give indications of the attainment of an effects based dynamic plan at a given location? When should collection of intelligence be performed? What is the best orbit, location and orientation to collect info to meet the effects assessment needs? What is the most meaningful time to employ assets in support of assessment?  Proposals can focus on one or more of the numerous aspects of the ISR tasking for effects-based assessment challenge without trying to solve the entire problem.

 

PHASE I: Research the applicability of proposed M&S technology for a mission rehearsal capability oriented to optimizing the ISR collection plan for effects based assessment. Investigate operational utility. R&D technology application and conduct a concept demonstration of the prototype capability.

 

PHASE II: Research and develop the required technologies and prototype, per Phase 1 design. Develop and demonstrate a prototype baseline system to assist with optimizing air intelligence collection tasking in support of effects based assessment. Develop capabilities to incorporate dynamic and continuous planning for assessment into the intelligence and surveillance collection process.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The ability to conduct mission rehearsal is very important in the military domain as discussed above as well as for first responders during a crisis response such as hurricanes, terrorist attacks, earthquakes, etc. Algorithms developed under this effort should be flexible enough to apply to these events.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Air Force Instruction 13-1, Operational Procedures - Aerospace Operations Center

 

2. Joint Publication 3-30, Command and Control of Joint Aerospace Operations

 

3. Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5.1, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

 

4. EBO References: “Effects Based Operations”, www.sci.fi/~fta/EBO.htm

 

KEYWORDS: Mission Rehearsal, Optimization Algorithms, Air Operation Center, AOC, ISR Plans, electronic combat plans

 

 

AF06-049               TITLE: Real-Time Effects Assessment Management System

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop technology to conduct continuous real-time effects-based assessment across all levels of war. Include techniques for correlating and matching observables to indicators from the EBO plan.

 

DESCRIPTION: Current combat assessment practices are not adaptable to the complexity of a dynamic and evolving hyper-ops-tempo battlespace. The DoD lacks a comprehensive assessment architecture and current approaches focus on assessing actions rather than effects.  In addition there is currently no generally accepted framework (rating scale, update method, etc.) for conducting rapid battle damage assessment.  Effective real-time assessment is required to assess actions in light of their progress towards achieving commander’s desired effects, so that air tasking processes can be dynamic and highly responsive to changes in guidance, resources and situation. This effort will explore new ways to achieve effects-based assessment in real time. Inclusive with assessing desired effects is the need to assess the impact of blue actions on enemy system models. This will assist in determining if indirect, cascading and unintended effects are being achieved. Technology is needed that can derive or infer attributes from intelligence data for the purpose of correlating effects indicators with evidence. Applications such as case-based reasoning, assessment templates with wizards, success indicator ontologies, data matching and correlation methods, and on-board decentralized assessment could be considered for exploration. The technology will enable the rapid assessment of tasks, effects and objectives based on observed actions, observed and predicted results, intelligence information, and other disparate forms of evidence. The resulting capability should address the aggregation of assessment from lower levels such as enemy target system battle damage assessment, up through assessment of component operational and strategic campaign objectives and effects.

 

PHASE I: Develop initial technology for automated effects based assessment using accrued multi-int sources, mission reports, battle damage assessment, intelligence summaries, platform video, real-time reporting links, etc. Design a capability for real-time and continuous effects based assessment.  This might include exploring new frameworks for rapid battle damage assessment and the ability to parse the BDA reports to extract appropriate evidence for higher level EBA.

 

PHASE II: Develop a prototype effects based assessment management capability. This product will assist in planning and conducting effects based assessment. It will address the rapid aggregation of battle damage assessment and engagement level task accomplishment to determine higher level effects and objectives at the operational and strategic levels of war.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The ability to conduct real-time assessment could benefit sectors of industry that are involved with dynamic tasking processes such as express mail services, rental car companies, and airline agencies. Other Government agencies such as FEMA that are involved with emergency relief operations could also benefit from a real-time assessment technique.

 

REFERENCES: 1. JP 2-01.1, “Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Intelligence Support to Targeting”

 

2. JP 3-60, “Joint Doctrine for Targeting”

 

3. ACC White Paper and ACC/XPS briefing “Effects-Based Assessment: Closing the Loop”

 

4. "The Current Battle Damage Assessment Paradigm is Obsolete", Lt. Col. Hugh Curry, Air and Space Power Journal - Winter 04

 

5. EBO References: “Effects Based Operations”, www.sci.fi/~fta/EBO.htm

 

KEYWORDS: Effects Based Assessment, Effects Based Operations, Combat Assessment, Battle Damage Assessment, Dynamic Tasking, Campaign Assessment, Operational Assessment,

Correlation and Matching, Indicators, Observables

 

 

AF06-050               TITLE: Exploiting Dynamic Text Sources (e.g., Chat) for Improved Battlespace Awareness

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Electronics

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop technology to extract information from dynamic text sources (chat) for improved Battlespace Awareness, particularly in support of Dynamic Targeting.

 

DESCRIPTION: Time-Sensitive Targets (TSTs) require an immediate response because they pose danger to friendly forces, or are highly lucrative fleeting targets of opportunity. Examples may include tanks, troops, leadership, Command and Control facilities/nodes, and surface-to-air missiles.  Because TSTs require an immediate response, a key goal is to reduce the time it takes to prosecute TSTs from hours to minutes. This need to speed up Dynamic Targeting has driven a demand for faster, more dynamic Battlespace Awareness.  This has resulted in the operational use of friendly chat and other dynamic textual sources (e.g., e-mail) as alternate/contributing sources of information for Dynamic Targeting. However, critical parameters such as accuracy, latency, format, and actual value have yet to be assessed for Dynamic Targeting applications. 

 

The objective is to develop technology to automatically extract information from dynamic text sources like chat, pertinent to Dynamic Targeting of TSTs. The goal is to provide high-quality structured information to processes involved in Dynamic Targeting (those involved in the Find, Fix, Track, Target, Engage, Assess cycle), to help automate, speed-up, and improve those processes.  Note that for fast moving targets, such as missiles, chat has insufficient accuracy and update rates for use in actual targeting, but may be useful as an indicator for a launch event, or for confirmation of general trajectory or type.

 

Of particular interest is the use of chat by two groups that play key roles in Dynamic Targeting: Air Operation Centers (AOCs) and the AF Distributed Common Ground Station (DCGS-AF). E.g., AOC Time-Sensitive Targeting Cells do the planning and decision-making for targeting and prosecuting TSTs. Automated tools are being developed to speed-up these processes, but they need timely inputs, in a structured form their tools can exploit. Developing technology that successfully extracts information from chat for this purpose would be a major accomplishment. For Combat Assessment, extracting information on the status of a TST targeted during a previous mission could help determine if it needs to be re-targeted.

 

The DCGS-AF, a major provider of information to AOCs, will provide worldwide Tasking, Processing, Exploitation and Dissemination of AF air and ground Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) sensors and systems. This includes multi-INT Fusion. Could information extracted from chat be used by any of these processes to speed-up/improve Dynamic Targeting?

 

Numerous research challenges are associated with extracting reliable, high-accuracy information from dynamic textual sources like chat. Chat is non-grammatical, and is full of acronyms and abbreviations. Chat is similar to dialogue in nature; certain knowledge is assumed to be shared between participants vs being explicitly stated. Extracting useful information from chat will require: inferring information across lines/sentences, performing co-reference resolution; time-stamping information, and disambiguating/normalizing locations. Because chat is so domain-specific, the capability must facilitate domain-customization by users to improve performance.  Information that is subjective, uncertain, or negated must be accurately captured and represented.  Since chat/email traffic may be erroneous or intentionally false, sensitivity analysis is important.

 

Because of the operational nature of this SBIR Topic’s requirements and data, offerors are required to have at least Secret clearances.

 

PHASE I: Perform research to ID concept-of-operations, specify requirements and assess potential approaches. Develop the most promising solution approach and assess its feasibility. Develop the initial design for a prototype and demonstrate its application. AFRL is pursuing chat data for analysis.

 

PHASE II: Research and develop a prototype baseline system for extracting info from dynamic text sources like chat, per the Phase 1 design. Use real data, if possible. Demonstrate how the capability improves a specific Dynamic Targeting process (e.g., in the DCGS or AOC). Show how it would be used along with DBs within and outside of the Theater Battle Management Core System for immediate application.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The ability to extract information from dynamic textual sources such as chat would be very useful to analysts and investigators in both Homeland Defense and Law Enforcement, who need to be apprised of potentially relevant information in these textual data sources, but have limited resources, in terms of time and manpower, to do so in a manual fashion. An automated capability, that could keep them apprised of potentially critical new information as it becomes available, would be an invaluable assistant to shorthanded analysts and investigators.

 

REFERENCES: 1. AF Chief of Staff General John Jumper, “Future Force: Joint Operations”, http://www.af.mil/speech/speech.asp?speechID=73, Remarks to the Air Armaments Summit VI, Sandestin, Fla., March 17, 2004.

 

2. AF Chief of Staff General John Jumper, “Future Force: Transforming Operations”, http://www.af.mil/speech/speech.asp?speechID=67, Remarks to the National Defense Industrial Association, Arlington, Va., April 1, 2004.

 

3. Cummings, M.L., “The Need for Command and Control Instant Message Adaptive Interfaces: Lessons Learned from Tactical Tomahawk Human-in-the-Loop Simulations”,

http://web.mit.edu/aeroastro/www/people/missyc/pdfs/Cummings_AA.pdf, July 23, 2004.

 

4. Krepinevich, Andrew F., “Operation Iraqi Freedom: A First-Blush Assessment”, Center For Strategic And Budgetary Assessments (CSBA), http://www.csbaonline.org/4Publications/Archive/R.20030916.Operation_Iraqi_Fr/R.20030916.Operation_Iraqi_Fr.pdf, September 17, 2004.

 

5. Thorsberg, F.. “Can Instant Messaging Really Be Safe?” PCWorld, http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,110301,00.asp, Apr. 17, 2003.

 

KEYWORDS: Information Extraction, Natural Language Processing, AOC, DCGS, Chat, Dynamic Targeting, Time-Sensitive Targets, TST

 

 

AF06-051               TITLE: Track Type Prediction Algorithm

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop technology, based on branch prediction algorithms for pipelining processors, to predict track types of emerging, potential dynamic targets.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Positive Identification (PID), which is a step in the dynamic targeting process that determines the intent and target type of an emerging target, is a bottleneck for prosecuting time sensitive targets (TST) in the Air Force Air Operations Center (AOC).  PID often involves tasking multiple sensors to gather intelligence on the track report of a potential target, analyzing the intelligence from the multiple sensors, and concluding if the target is a valid target.  This could take 30 minutes to several days depending on the availability of sensors and human analysts.  Once PID has determined the target as hostile, the AOC may continue the planning process of assigning which asset to strike the target; however, with a very small window of time to work with.  By alleviating this bottleneck in the dynamic targeting process, more time would be available for planning and more strike options would be available, resulting in more TST opportunities taken.

 

Although several approaches are currently being researched, including automatic target recognition and dynamic sensor management, results have been slow to solidify.  Instead of just waiting for results, something needs to be done to address this problem in the near-term to more rapidly support the warfighter.  One completely different approach is to accept that PID will take a long time, but make predictions about the PID outcome so that the planning process may commence prior to PID completion.  This approach exists today in the computer engineering domain for streamlining instruction evaluation for pipelined computer processors.  It could be applied to any pipelined serial process, including the dynamic targeting process.

 

Modern computer processing architectures employ pipelining to cost-effectively approximate parallel processing. In other words, a single N-stage pipelining processor at steady-state is theoretically equivalent to the throughput of N parallel processors.  In reality, the pipeline processors must contend with data, control, and structural hazards, which stall out the pipeline causing degradation in throughput.

 

The utilization of branch prediction algorithms significantly reduces stalls caused by these control hazards resulting in an increase in instruction throughput. The algorithm predicts the outcome of the branch condition, which is a condition where the location of the next instruction is not known, before it is actually evaluated.  The postulated outcome is assumed true until the actual branch condition is evaluated.  In the event that the outcome is incorrect, the next instruction will have to be aborted and reissued, causing a penalty equivalent to normal penalties in the absence of a branch predictor. If the postulation was correct, then the next instruction is left alone to continue execution, resulting in the avoidance of a stall.  Modern branch prediction algorithms make predictions based on global and local histories of previous outcomes of branch evaluations.  Low overhead approaches such as this have been shown to have prediction accuracies ranging from 80% to 95%.

 

PHASE I: Develop an automated track type prediction algorithm based on the most promising approaches.  Given a track, the algorithm will make predictions on the intent and type of entity based on a variety of information sources, which will also be identified in this phase.  The algorithm should focus on providing computationally inexpensive solutions at the cost of accuracy.  Assess the algorithm's feasibility. Develop the initial design for a prototype, perform modeling and simulation, and demonstrate its application.

 

PHASE II: Research and develop the required technologies and prototype, per Phase 1 design.  Develop and demonstrate a prototype baseline algorithm in military domain.  Plan for Phase III.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: At the core technology of the track type prediction algorithm is a low cost prediction algorithm.  Business could benefit from utilizing this core technology, allowing their processes to be streamlined.  For example, an event prediction algorithm could be employed at a bank in the loan process, specifically at the point of pre-approval. The algorithm could predict whether the applicant will be approved or denied based on the applicant's historical data and the bank's historical data on the applicant's classification. After pre-approval, if the outcome was different than the prediction, then the loan officer could easily adjust.  This may be faster or cheaper than existing pre-approval methods.  Industry would also benefit as most manufacturing processes in industry use an assembly line, which is a form of pipeline. Inspection points may be choke points in the process, where each item must pass some test before proceeding to the next process down the line.  The prediction algorithms could predict whether or not a batch of items should be rejected or accepted based on historical data of the batch as well as historical data on all of the batches.

 

REFERENCES: 1. M. C. Chang, Y. W. Chou. "Branch prediction using both global and local branch history information". IEE Proceedings - Computers and Digital Techniques, vol 149, issue 2, pp 33-38, March 2002.

 

2. Young, R.K.; Wyckoff, P.S.; Wise, J.H. "Automated targeting data fusion (ATDF)", Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical

Engineering Conference, vol.5101, p.240-8, 2003.

 

3. Maj Danskine, W. B. "Time-Sensitive Targeting Model", http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/cc/Danskine.html.

 

KEYWORDS: PID, TST, PBA, Set Prediction, Branch Prediction Theory, Statistical Inference, Information Fusion

 

 

AF06-052               TITLE: Semantically Correct Interoperability of Executable Architectures

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Research and develop a methodology for providing semantically correct interoperability of executable models of system/operational architectures of complex information systems

 

DESCRIPTION: Architecture design tools for complex information systems are in increasing use in government and industry. The DOD Architecture Framework lacks semantically correct interoperability of compliant tools. Current commercial and DoD tools are not interoperable and output from one tool cannot be read by other, different tools.   Interoperability among tools is of high concern to government users and many in the commercial sector.  New trends in system design have led to the creation of executable models of system and operational architectures, but many different tools are in use, and the value of executable architectures is diminished without interoperability.   An executable model of an architecture is a  mathematical representation of the architecture  traceable to the data contained in the DOD  Architecture Framework artifacts and  products.  Current commercial efforts are developing tools for architecture design and analysis but not establishing an underlying foundation that allow tools to exchange data that has both correct content and meaning. 

 

The objective of this research is to define and develop new and innovative methodologies for both syntactically and semantically correct interoperability of executable architecture models. There is a major deficiency in the ability to address semantic interoperability.  While many tools export and import content in a tagged-data format, typically Extensible Markup Language (XML), tool interoperability is not achieved since the XML nomenclature for each tool is often proprietary. The development of language translators that convert one XML format to another often leads to subtle translation errors related to seemingly insignificant semantic differences between two nearly identical objects. The Defense Department has developed a central repository, the Defense Architecture Repository System (DARS), to foster interoperability between complex system architectures developed with different tools. DARS is compliant with the Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF), which does not currently specify how executable architectures are expressed. The purpose of this research is to create a general DODAF/DARS compliant methodology (taxonomy, terminology, and ontology) for representing executable architecture content.  The end product  of the research will be a methodology that can be used to extend the Department of Defense Architecture Framework and commercial applications to include architecture execution by providing a common set of fully-expressed data descriptions related to architecture execution.   Proposed methodologies must be capable of executing on commercial-off-the-shelf desktops or workstations and be platform independent.  If any graphical output is employed for visualization, industry or international standards such as OpenGL, Java libraries, etc. should be used in lieu of proprietary products.

 

PHASE I: 1) Develop specifications and design for a methodology to express executable architecture content that is DODAF/DARS compliant, 2)proof-of-feasibility demonstration of key concepts for preserving semantically correct interoperability executable architectures across 2 or more existing modeling tools

 

PHASE II: The researcher shall design, develop, and demonstrate a prototype tool that implements the Phase I methodology.  The researcher shall also detail the plan for the Phase III effort.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The desired product of Phase III is a robust, off-the-shelf engineering tool capable of preserving syntactical and semantic interoperability for executable models of operational/system architectures for use in defense and commercial product design, development, and manufacturing for large and complex systems.  Design and engineering tools are applicable to financial and manufacturing industries, biotechnology, healthcare, transportation, communications, and information systems.  

 

REFERENCES: 1.  DOD Architecture Framework (DODAF) version 1, http://www.aitcnet.org/dodfw/

 

2.             Thomas R. Dean and David A. Lamb, "A Theory Model Core for Module Interconnection Languages", in Proceedings of GASCON'-Integrated Solutions, Toronto, Ontario, Oct. 31-Nov. 3, 1994, IBM Centre for Advanced Studies, pp. 1-8,

 www.qucis.queensu.ca/Department/TechReports/Reports/1994-370.pdf

 

3.    Unified Modeling Language, Object Management Group,

http://www.omg.org/technology/documents/formal/uml.htm

 

4.  Jensen, Kurt, “Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets,” University of Aarhus, Denmark, http://www.daimi.au.dk/CPnets/intro/

 

5.  Rumbaugh, James,  Michael Blaha, William Premerlani, Frederick Eddy, and William Lorensen., “Object-Oriented Modeling and Design”, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1991.

 

KEYWORDS: Model architecture, executable architectures, UML, XML, CPN, IDEF, color Petri nets, GIG, DARS, DODAF

 

 

AF06-053               TITLE: Knowledge-based Technologies to Support Predictive Mission Awareness

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Research and develop algorithms and architectures using knowledge-based technologies to support real-time battlespace non-intrusive data collection and autonomous networking of theatre platforms for rapid predictive awareness.

 

DESCRIPTION: Decision makers in the defense and commercial sectors must assimilate a tremendous amount of information, make quick-response decisions, and quantify the effects of those decisions in the face of uncertainty. Advanced information technology will enable new decision-making tools, decision support systems, and future predictive oriented simulations that will assist decision makers in making better decisions. For military operations, Predictive Mission Awareness is the understanding of the operational environment that allows the commander and staff to anticipate future conditions, analyze adversary and friendly courses of action, formulate plans, and forecast specific events where decisions are required. An example of Predictive Mission Awareness is Predictive Battlespace Awareness as define by General John Jumper is his paper on the Global Strike Task Force. 

 

The purpose of this research is to define and develop new algorithms, methodologies and architectures using real time knowledge-based technologies to support the collection and aggregation of situational information and the processing of predictive mission awareness across a range of applications.   In general predictive mission awareness can be carried out by the human analyst , an intelligent system, or a mixture of both, and is very data intensive. The data are usually distributed across several command and control systems and in various formats. The researcher shall investigate new approaches for accumulating relevant data from distributed and heterogeneous data sources so that minimal amount of time is spent in learning individual data formats. The researcher shall consider intelligent agent and other knowledge-based technologies that could enhance data retrieval efficiency by automatically locating and retrieving data based on user queries. The researcher shall also consider the concept of a continuous, serendipitous, automated on-board ISR function while the aircraft is already out on the ATO-directed mission supplying situational data over autonomous data link operations.  This function would automatically monitor all sensor events and direct additional sensors coverage of the events along its flight path so that ISR data can be sent back immediately to the CRC/AOC for up-to-date predictive evaluation. Once the specific data sources have been located and retrieved, they need to be fused based on some standard ontology to support rapid situation and threat assessment and prediction.

 

The amount of relevant data that are being accumulated has become overwhelming. A manual process to look for indications and warnings of threats into such data is highly time consuming. Intelligent techniques therefore need to be employed that can automatically assess and predict threats in a timely manner. Such techniques should be robust in order to deal with uncertain and incomplete data. New research is needed for rapid retrieval of data from voluminous and distributed heterogeneous data sources based on agent technology; fusion of accumulated information; advanced situation and threat assessment based on artificial intelligence techniques that can deal with uncertain data, such as influence nets and Bayesian belief networks; and prediction of adversary activities taking into account spatial and temporal dimensions.

 

A predictive mission awareness environment should include components for information retrieval, fusion, situation assessment and prediction. Proposed methodologies must be capable of executing on commercial-off-the-shelf desktops or workstations and be platform independent. If any graphical output is employed for visualization, industry or international standards such as OpenGL, Java libraries, etc. should be used in lieu of proprietary products. Methodologies implementing the predictive awareness environment should be standards based to support interfaces to other analysis and simulation and modeling tools.

 

PHASE I: Phase I activity shall include: 1) development of a framework, computational approaches,  architectural concepts and communication protocols for implementation of real time knowledge-based technologies for autonomous ISR data collection and predictive awareness; 2) a proof-of-feasibility demonstration of key enabling technologies .

 

PHASE II: The researcher shall design, develop, and demonstrate a prototype tool that implements the Phase I methodology. The researcher shall also detail the plan for the Phase III effort.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The desired product of Phase III is a robust, off-the-shelf tool for predictive awareness for use in the defense and commercial sectors. Commercial applications include law enforcement, financial industry, biotechnology, healthcare, transportation, and telecommunications. On the commercial side, this research can be applied to detecting credit card and telecommunication fraud by collecting data from multiple corporate data sources or to generate business intelligence by collecting and analyzing data available over the web.  Additionally, the use of distributed intelligent nodes, communicating and handling processes in a closed domain without human intervention, could have many uses in industry, business and DoD.  Space applications were the first to use this concept in a limited manner, by necessity.  Nuclear, biological and other locations dangerous to humans  would be conducive to this approach. Homeland defense is another application where drug or terrorist interception could be aided by many civilian aircraft with additional sensors and data inks.  Conservationists could use this large area coverage for plant disease, animal migration and erosion control surveillance.

 

REFERENCES:

1.             Das, S., Shuster, K., and Wu, C. (2002) “ACQUIRE: Agent-based Complex QUery and Information Retrieval Engine,” Proceedings of the 1st International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Bologna, Italy (July).

2.             Goodman, Glenn, “ISR Integration: Essential Step Toward Network-Centric Operations”, ISR Integration 2003: The Net-Centric Vision Conference, November 2003, http://www.defensenews.com/promos/conferences/isr1103/2399864.html

3.             Jumper, John P.: “Global Strike Task Force- A Transforming Concept, Forged by Experience”, Aerospace Power Journal, Vol. 15, pp. 24-33, Spring 2001,

http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj01/spr01/jumper.pdf

4.             McQuay, William K., Boris Stilman, Vlad Yakhnis, “Distributed Collaborative Decision Support Environments for Predictive Awareness,” Proceedings of SPIE Enabling Technologies for Simulation Science Conference, Orlando, FL, March 2005.

5.             Pearl, Judeau, “Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems: Networks of Plausible Inference,” Elsevier Science & Technology Books , San Mateo, CA, 1988.

 

6.             Sirak, Michael, “Gen. John Jumper – US Air Force Chief of Staff.” Janes Defense Weekly, February 23, 2005,  http://aimpoints.hq.af.mil/display.cfm?id=1333   .

 

KEYWORDS: Knowledge-based modeling, predictive awareness, mission space, predictive battlespace awareness, intelligent agents, knowledge-based technology

 

 

AF06-054               TITLE: Argumentation-based Approaches to Enhance Dynamic Time Critical Decision-Making

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Research and develop an argumentation-based approach to support dynamic time critical activities such as prosecution of air campaign targets

 

DESCRIPTION:  Many time sensitive and time critical processes exist in commercial and military activities. 

In the military, prosecution of time sensitive and time critical targets within a command and control environment imposes significant workload and processing challenges. The compressed timeframes for addressing dynamic targets, combined with the uncertainty of battlespace information and the desire to elicit specific effects,  impose severe limitations on command and control personnel.  There is a significant need in military and commercial applications for a robust methodology to support decision making in time critical situations.

 

The purpose of this research is to define and develop argumentation-based approaches with agent-based system to support dynamic time critical activities such as the Aerospace Operations Centers for military and emergency planning centers in commercial applications.   The argumentation formalism provides a form of reasoning that can account for uncertainty, ambiguity, and incomplete knowledge in decision factors.

 

The researcher shall address these issues with innovative methodologies to construct arguments for and against alternative options then aggregating what support information there is for each. The method must be robust and versatile but formalized in a way that is theoretically sound and computationally practical.  Argumentation theory allows reasoning explicitly with negation of the candidate decision options; allows various forms of a dictionary of evidence which may be more psychologically intuitive than probabilities; provides a simple rule-based structure of knowledge that is easier to understand for non-technical end-users; and requires very few parameters for processing information.  Proposed methodologies must be capable of executing on commercial-off-the-shelf desktops or  workstations and be platform independent.  If any graphical output is employed for visualization, then industry or international standards such as OpenGL, Java libraries, etc. should be used in lieu of proprietary products.

 

PHASE I:  1) Develop specifications and design for an argumentation-based agent framework for use in a dynamic Aerospace Operations Center scenario;  2) a proof-of-feasibility demonstration of key enabling concepts.

 

PHASE II:  The researcher shall design, develop, and demonstrate a prototype tool that implements the Phase I methodology for an air campaign scenario.  The researcher shall also detail the plan for the Phase III effort.

 

PHASE III:  The desired product of Phase III is a robust, off-the-shelf decision support tool capable of  decision-making within time critical environments.  Time sensitive and time critical decision support tools are applicable to financial and manufacturing industries, biotechnology, healthcare, transportation, communications, and information systems.  Within the military community, an automated means for response recommendation has tremendous implications for the development of next-generation command and control systems.  Within the commercial domain, example applications include equity and money market trading.

 

REFERENCES: 

 

1.  Fox, John , Subrata Das , “Safe and Sound: Artificial Intelligence in Hazardous Applications,” AAAI Press, 2000.

 

2.  Perelman, Chaim, “The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation, “ University of Notre Dame Press, 1969

3. Toulmin, Stephen E., “The Uses Of Argument,” 2nd edition,  Cambridge University Press, 2003.

 

KEYWORDS: Argumentation-based reasoning, decision support, time critical decisions, decision theory

 

 

AF06-055               TITLE: Uncertainty Visualization for Modeling and Simulation of Complex Systems

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Research, develop and evaluate methods for visualizing uncertainty in simulations of complex military systems

 

DESCRIPTION:  Data visualization technology has made significant gains in its ability to rapidly, and with high resolution, render two and three dimensional graphics. But visualization needs to advance dramatically from data to information to knowledge visualization.  In complex commercial and military information systems, there are many significant spatial and temporal uncertainties that must be depicted in an understandable fashion to the decision support personnel. There is a compelling need for providing a way for analysts and decisionmakers to assess uncertainty in the data they are exploring and for new methodologies to visually represent uncertainty.  The objective of this research is to address current deficiencies and inability to portray uncertainty in military decision support systems and accompanying models and simulations.

 

Modern military simulation systems employ a variety of models to provide realistic representations of friendly and adversary warfighting capabilities (e.g., models of specific weapon systems) and the environment in which these capabilities exist (e.g., models of weather phenomena). These models and simulations attempt to capture the key elements needed to support training, mission rehearsal, decision support, acquisition, deployment, and tactics/strategy development.  To achieve high degrees of realism, these models and simulations must also represent inherent uncertainties. For example, a commander deciding to deploy a specific weapon system may check the current and predicted turbulence at the target’s location. In the real environment, the commander would use a weather forecast that has some degree of uncertainty in predicting turbulence. In the simulation, the model of the weather must also represent that degree of uncertainty so that the decision aid can correctly respond.  Despite the fact that there are many methods to model uncertainty, uncertainty and data confidence levels are not typically incorporated into battlespace displays shown to the decision maker. This is due, in large part, to the fact that it is yet unclear how best to portray uncertainty in military decision support systems and that uncertainty visualization is an active area of research. Ill-timed or ineffective presentation of uncertainty information, in addition to other critical decision information, can result in information overload and interfere with decision making in rapid-response situations.  Also, the user’s trust that a simulation is realistic will depend on the representation of the same uncertain information found in real combat situations.

 

The researcher shall develop innovative methodologies of uncertainty depiction and consider aspects such as  identification of key types of uncertainty and the situations where uncertainty information is critical to decision making; development of a system for exploring visualization techniques for representing uncertainty within simulations of complex systems such as military weapons; and the evaluation of visualization techniques using established metrics (e.g., response time, accuracy, user trust, improved situation awareness). Proposed methodologies must be capable of executing on commercial-off-the-shelf desktops or workstations and be platform independent.  Graphical output should comply with industry or international standards such as OpenGL, Java libraries, etc. in lieu of proprietary graphics products.

 

PHASE I: 1) Develop specifications, metrics, and design for a methodology to portray uncertainty for military decision-making which is supported by a battlespace simulation such as the Joint Semi-Automated Forces (JSAF), 2) a proof-of-feasibility demonstration of key enabling concepts.

 

PHASE II:  The researcher shall design, develop, and demonstrate a production-scalable prototype that implements the Phase I methodology for a selected battlespace display driven by a military simulation.  The researcher shall also detail the plan for the Phase III effort.

 

PHASE III:  The desired product of Phase III is a robust, off-the-shelf decision support tool capable of visualizing information and knowledge uncertainty for simulations of complex military and commercial information systems.  Decision support tools are applicable to financial and manufacturing industries, biotechnology, healthcare, transportation, communications, and information systems.  Other dual use applications include state and local government emergency response systems for homeland security scenarios where uncertainty information is critical to effective decision-making.

 

REFERECES:

 

1.             Parsons, Simon, “Qualitative Methods for Reasoning Under Uncertainty”,  MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2001.

 

2.             Pang, A., Wittenbrink, C., & Lodha, S. "Approaches to uncertainty visualization", The Visual Computer, 13(8), 370-390, 1997,  http://www.cse.ucsc.edu/research/slvg/uncertainty.html

 

3.             Ware, Colin, “Information Visualization: Perception for Design”, Morgan Kaufmann, 2nd edition, 2004.

 

4.             University of California, Santa Cruz, Uncertainty Visualization web site, http://www.cse.ucsc.edu/research/slvg/unvis.html

 

KEYWORDS: Knowledge visualization, Information visualization, uncertainty depiction, decision aids, Modeling and Simulation, Uncertainty

 

 

AF06-056               TITLE: Tri Band Radome Design for Airborne Antennas

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Space Platforms

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop of a low loss triband radome for airborne antenna terminals.

 

DESCRIPTION: The radome mechanically protects the antenna and

terminal electronics from the outside environment. Careful trade-offs must be made between the mechanical constraints on the aircraft and the electrical performance. This development effort focuses on the development of a multi band radome and its associated material properties. The frequencies of interest would be Ku, Ka and EHF. The radome could be used on future FAB-T increments such as Global Hawk, U2 and Predator.

 

PHASE I: Develop conceptual material coupons and radomes designs that relate to the existing FAB-T radome shape. Analyze resistive and reflective losses in the bands of interest.

 

PHASE II: Fabricate a radome coupon/panel to validate the results predicted from the phase I development effort. Incorporate the results into a radome Design and predict losses as a function of scan angle using a representative FAB-T antenna. Design consideration should include rain erosion aerodynamics.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The contractor will work to produce a similar multi-band radome for the commercial aviation market. The frequency bands of choice for the commercial application will initally focus on 2-way Ku-band service (nominally 12 GHz receive and 14 GHz transmit) and the commercial Ka-band (nominally 20 GHz receive and 30 GHz transmit). The application is for commercial satellite communications on passenger aircraft. Radome sizings will be determined early on in Phase 3 and will address the antenna aperture sizings necessary to support various data rates deemed of interest in the commercial market and the capabilities of the satellites that are being connected to.

 

REFERENCES: 1. DVB-RCS: Satellite Industry Needs, Opportunities, & Issues

 

2 (White Paper); Spacebridge Semiconductor;

http://www.spacebridge.com/documents/appnotes/WP-DVBRCSINDB.

 

3. http://www.cablemodem.com/ -information on DOCSIS

 

4. http://jtrs.army.mil/ -information regarding JTRS

 

KEYWORDS: 1. Multi band radomes,Airborne terminals,Reflector antennas

 

 

 

 

AF06-059               TITLE: Automated Metadata Generation, Indexing and Cataloguing

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Provide a capability that will facilitate tagging and cataloguing of ISR information products for enhanced discovery and information sharing.

 

DESCRIPTION: Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) are being developed to support the Air Force’s migration from a Task, Process, Exploit, Disseminate (TPED) toward a Task, Process, Post, Use (TPPU) approach in which Publish/Subscribe mechanisms will play an important role. A critical element of the Pub/Sub approach is the need to create and maintain metadata of information products to be shared within a commonly accessible, shared repository. Metadata, which will play a vital role in implementing the DOD Net-Centric Data Strategy, describes the content, quality and other characteristics of data in a structured manner that facilitates management, discovery and retrieval. This SBIR effort will develop tools that automatically capture metadata as the user is creating the information product using unclassified versions of standard Air Force vocabularies and metadata standards. Standards and vocabularies are crucial in describing the information that producers have and that consumers need to access. Safeguards are needed to ensure that metadata is indexed and cataloged before an approved information product is allowed to be shared within the enterprise to include capturing security dissemination restrictions. It will enable information discovery by known and unanticipated users throughout the enterprise. Automatic generation of metadata during new document creation will be a part of the content authoring and structuring capability that is used during the creation of new document. In addition, there is a need to generate metadata to facilitate the use and exchange of documents produced from legacy systems. Current approaches for leveraging unstructured information products would require extracting metadata though a labor intensive effort which is often error prone. Advances in linguistic analysis may allow for automated tagging by extracting and classifying information.

 

PHASE I: Perform the initial research necessary to assess potential approaches. Develop a solution approach comprised of the most promising approaches, and assess its feasibility. Develop the initial design for a prototype and demonstrate its application using open sources.

 

PHASE II: Research and develop the required technologies leading to the demonstration of a limited prototype. The prototype will demonstrate the creation of metadata during the generation of candidate ISR products consisting of textual and imagery data from unclassified sources to the extent possible.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: This software-based tool will prove useful throughout the retail marketplace (e.g. Wal-Mart, Target, etc). It will augment their current efforts to assemble large, dynamic data warehouses, conduct data mining and facilitate business-to-business commerce.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Building and Managing the Meta Data Repository: A Full Lifecycle Guide, David Marco, Wiley, 2000

 

2. Metadata Solutions: Using Metamodels, Repositories, XML, and Enterprise Portals to Generate Information on Demand, Adrienne Tannenbaum, Addison-Wesley, 2001

 

3. Models and tools for generating digital libraries: Localizing experience of digital content via structural metadata, Naomi Dushay, July, 2002, Proceedings of the second ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital libraries

 

4. Gathering metadata from Web-based repositories of historical publications, Sanz, I.; Berlanga, R.; Aramburu, M.J., Database and Expert Systems Applications, 1998. Proceedings. Ninth International Workshop on , 26-28 Aug. 1998

 

5. From unstructured data to actionable intelligence, Rao, R., IT Professional , Volume: 5 , Issue: 6 , Nov.-Dec. 2003

 

KEYWORDS: Interoperability, Metadata, Data Discovery, Content Analysis, Information Retrieval

 

 

AF06-060               TITLE: Enabling Monitoring and Analysis of Concept-Based Event Information in Text.

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Research and develop technology for extracting concept-based event information from unstructured text, for operational-quality monitoring, retrieval and analysis of events.

 

DESCRIPTION: Information analysts need to effectively exploit event information for their area of responsibility from unstructured textual data sources (open source, HUMINT, etc.). E.g., analysts studying missile proliferation may want to monitor textual data sources for all procurement events involving certain types of missile delivery systems, with certain characteristics, and involving certain known (or unknown) participants (persons, organizations or countries).

 

However, current technology has a number of shortfalls. First, it is difficult to find events of interest from large volumes of text.  Keyword searches typically result in either a lot of irrelevant information (high recall, low precision) or a small subset of highly relevant documents (high precision, low recall). Even after documents containing relevant events have been found, the event information is not in a structured form exploitable by analysis and visualization tools. So analysts must manually input event information into DB records. Analysts need a faster, more effective means for exploiting event information in unstructured text.  Information Extraction (IE) technology holds promise for meeting this need.

 

Considerable research has advanced IE technology over the past several years.  DARPA-led efforts like TIPSTER, EELD, TIDES and GALE have made substantial contributions.  Benchmark Evaluations have also helped advance the state-of-the-art, providing the methods and resources to objectively measure IE performance and to assess progress in the field.  These include the DARPA-led Message Understanding Conference (MUC), NIST’s Automated Content Extraction (ACE) Evaluations, the Time Expression Recognition and Normalization (TERN) Evaluations, and SENSEVAL. Finally, linguistic resources, such as those made available through the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC), have been invaluable in nurturing extraction research. 

 

As a result, simpler IE capabilities have matured and are now available commercially.  This is exemplified by the wide-spread use of commercial products for Named Entity (NE) extraction that extract the names of people, organizations, locations, etc.  Somewhat more complex capabilities, like relationship extraction, are also available, but do not perform as well as NE tools, and often require customization by the developer. 

 

However, concept-based event extraction is a much more difficult challenge.  Most operational IE systems that do event extraction typically perform shallow event extraction. I.e., the actions they extract are typically based on a verb that has not been disambiguated (has multiple meanings). In addition, many do not extract all essential information associated with a given event type.  E.g., for a procurement event, such information as: who is the buyer, who is the seller, what was sold, at what cost?  Finally, many operational systems are still limited to extracting information within a sentence’s boundaries. So while promising research that can contribute to domain-customizable concept-based event extraction is being performed, such a capability is still beyond the state-of-the-art. 

 

The focus of this SBIR Topic is to research and develop a capability for high accuracy, concept-based event extraction from unstructured text.  Desirable features include domain-portability, and capturing all essential information associated with event types of interest from across a document (disambiguated, normalized, and consolidated).  While determining time and location is also desirable, this is not a primary focus of this research. 

 

PHASE I: Feasibility concept.  Develop an innovative approach to meet the SBIR Topic requirements, and assess its feasibility. Develop the initial design for a prototype and demonstrate its application.

 

PHASE II: Research and develop the required technologies and prototype, per Phase 1 design.

Develop and demonstrate a prototype baseline system for extracting and visualizing event information from unstructured text with a high level of accuracy, using candidate actual data from operational systems.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: A capability to perform concept-based event extraction has high dual-use applicability. It would be of great benefit to Homeland Defense analysts, who need to be able to monitor large volumes of unstructured text for specific events of interest. A capability to do this quickly, and with high accuracy, would give our people earlier indications of potential threats, thus enhancing Homeland Security. Law Enforcement would similarly benefit, as investigators would have an effective means to search large volumes of text for particular types of events, involving specific suspects, in order to develop or pursue leads. Business Intelligence applications would also benefit, as this would enable near real-time alerts for event types of interest, such as corporate sales or mergers, or changes in product status.

 

REFERENCES:

 

1.             Bejan A., Moschitti A., Morarescu P., Nicolae G., and Harabagiu S. 2004. Semantic Parsing Based on FrameNet.  In Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the Evaluation of Systems for the Semantic Analysis of Text, ACL 2004 Workshop, Barcelona, Spain.

 

2.             Giuglea, A.M. and Moschitti, A. 2004.  Knowledge Discovering using FrameNet, VerbNet and PropBank.  In Proceedings of the Workshop on Ontology and Knowledge Discovery at ECML 2004, Pisa, Italy, 2004.

 

3.             Niu C.,  Li W., Srihari R. K., Li H., and Crist L.  2004.  Context Clustering for Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Modeling Pairwise Context Similarities.  SENSEVAL-3:Wkshp. Evaluation of Systems for the Semantic Analysis of Text, Barcelona, Spain.

 

4.             Palmer, M. Gildea D. and P. Kingsbury.  2005.  The Proposition Bank: An Annotated Corpus of Semantic Roles.  To Appear Computational Linguistics.  Also:  www.cis.upenn.edu/~mpalmer/papers/prop.pdf

 

5.             Wattarujeekrit T., Shah P. K., and Collier N. 2004.  PASBio: predicate-argument structures for event extraction in molecular biology.  BMC Bioinformatics 2004, 5:155.

 

KEYWORDS: Information Extraction, Natural Language Processing, Events, Homeland Defense, Intelligence Analysis

 

 

AF06-061               TITLE: Multi-INT Ontology Mediation Services

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop an information sharing capability that will promote the exchange of information that resides across multiple communities of interest (COI).

 

DESCRIPTION: A key component to achieving this capability involves discovering and accessing a community’s available information products which includes the information content and structure. An illustrative example would involve multi-sensor (e.g. E-O), multi-platform systems that cover the spectrum from ground, air and space deployments. Each community shares a specialized language which has evolved over many years that may be significantly different from other communities. Currently, each sensor type is often processed, exploited and disseminated in isolation and are not used to their utmost potential. Even though this data is easily accessible, integrating this data is not practical. This is primarily due to the fact that each data producer uses his own standards and formats. The main purpose of this research is to enable information sharing in a way that is independent of where and how information is stored. Considerable progress has been made to create and maintain metadata repositories (e.g. DCGS ISR metadata standard) to facilitate information discovery and access. There is an emerging interest in the development of ontologies as a medium for defining metadata categories. As the second step beyond metadata tagging, ontologies will improve discovery and access by revealing the information content and semantic meaning.  Although ontologies can be represented in a digital form, the generation of a mapping between two or more COI ontologies can be tedious, time-consuming and manpower intensive. Automated tools that can provide this mapping function would foster greater information sharing and reuse. Under this research, consideration should be given to the application of structure-based, keyword-based, thesaurus-based and namespace-based that takes full advantage of inferencing capabilities enabled by the ontologies. Technologies useful for representing weakly-structured information sources should be considered. For example, XML, RDF and OWL have proven useful in describing syntax and semantics of semi-structured information sources.

 

Military information systems suffer from the proliferation of standards to represent the same data. Ontology mediation among these community standards will help promote interoperability.  Such a capability would enable the Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) to discover and utilize sensor data from a variety of sources. It will pave the way for more effective information resource discovery, transparent data exchange, and automated integration, re-use of information content from any producers and timely delivery to any information consumers.  This underlying capability will facilitate both intelligence information pull and push to meeting dynamic mission planning and execution needs.

 

PHASE I: Perform the initial research necessary to assess potential approaches. Develop a solution approach comprised of the most promising approaches, and assess its feasibility. Develop the initial design for a prototype and demonstrate its application.

 

PHASE II: Research and develop the required technologies leading to the demonstration of a limited prototype. The prototype will demonstrate the capability to broker, translate, aggregate and integrate ontologies from multiple ISR products consisting of textual and imagery data.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Commercial enterprises have recognized the importance of ontology to the development of Internet commerce systems. The main barrier to electronic commerce lies in the need for applications to meaningfully share information. This is due to the variety of enterprise and e-commerce systems deployed by businesses and the way these systems are variously configured and used. This capability will prove useful throughout the retail marketplace (e.g. Wal-Mart, Target, etc). It will augment their current efforts to assemble large, dynamic data warehouses, conduct data mining, facilitate business-to-business commerce and dynamic supply chain composition.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Innovations of Knowledge Management, Bonnie Montano, IRM Press, 2004

 

2. The Semantic Web : A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management, Michael Daconta, Leo Obrst, Kevin Smith, Wiley, 2003

 

3. Special section on Semantic Web and Data Management: A conceptual architecture for semantic web enabled web services, Christoph Bussler, Dieter Fensel, Alexander Maedche, December 2002 ACM SIGMOD Record, Volume 31 Issue 4

 

4. Ontologies: A lightweight ontology repository, Jin Pan, Stephen Cranefield, Daniel Carter, Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent, July 2003

 

KEYWORDS: Semantic Processing, Information Retrieval, Semantic Knowledge-based, Interoperability, Semantic Web, Web Services, Peer-to-Peer Technologies

 

 

AF06-062               TITLE: Reprogrammable High Assurance Internet Protocol Encryptor

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a reprogrammable High Assurance Internet Protocol Encryptor (HAIPE) for use in future satellite communications (SATCOM) applications.

 

DESCRIPTION: As military satellite communication systems continue to evolve, new generations of hardened space qualified and military ground qualified bulk and packet encryption/decryption devices will be required to provide secure transmission of data for the Transformational Satellite (TSAT) program and its successors. HAIPE is planned for use as a means of encrypting data packets for transit across ground to satellite links. Encryption algorithm obsolescence and high ‘bulk’ encryption data rates are two examples of emerging HAIPE requirements growth. Encryption algorithms obsolescence will lead to more sophisticated algorithms and greater computing speed. Laser communications will drive bulk encryption requirements beyond 10 Gbps. The purpose of this topic is to develop and demonstrate a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based programmable encryption device capable of meeting projected HAIPE requirements. Goals include reprogrammability, data rate > 10 Gbps, modular design, backwards cryptographic bypass [TBR], field software reprogrammability, operating temperature range –40 to +85 degrees C, and a forward compatibility with emerging algorithms.

 

PHASE I: Explore FPGA-based encryption/decryption device viability and security issues. Develop FPGA requirements for topology, gate count, speed, memory, radiation hardening and reliability.  For the speeds required to be compatible with the military laser communications, this will be very challenging.  This effort will not involve classified material for the Phase 1 part of this effort and will not begin to address classified information we are well into Phase 2 of this effort.  Phase 2 may or may not become classified.  Phase 1 will simply recommend radiation hardened, high speed processing architectures that would be amenable to the reprogrammable HAIPE capability. 

 

PHASE II: Develop a minimum of eight prototype devices, characterize for speed, power, reliability, radiation hardening. Final report documenting.   Phase 2 will begin with the verification of high speed processing reprogrammability consistent with the speeds required for the laser communications placed on the Transformational satellites.  Toward the end of Phase 2, collaboration with NSA may lead to the instantiation of classified, HAIPE compliant hardware.  If this happens, a DD 254 will be submitted for the program and the effort will become classified.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Commercial uses for encryption include financial transactions over the internet and wireless communications.  Future commercial satellites will migrate to a processed packet communications.  Highly sensitive commercial traffic traveling over satellites such as banking information, will need to be conducted at high speeds as well.  This effort will directly benefit those commercial requirements.

 

REFERENCES: Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol," RFC 2401, 1998.

 

KEYWORDS: Field programmable gate array, internet protocol,application specific integrated circuit, information security, reprogrammability, encryptor

 

 

AF06-063               TITLE: Asymmetric Adversary Tactics and Strategy Generation

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Electronics

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop the capability to automate the generation of asymmetric adversary tactics and strategies for use in synthetic environments.

 

DESCRIPTION: Recent events have demonstrated the use of non-traditional tactics to offset US military power. The use of non-traditional tactics and strategies by potential adversaries, i.e., asymmetric warfare, has come into the forefront of national security issues. Rogue nations, with links to trans-national terrorists, in tandem with the rapid proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, have created a highly unpredictable and potentially dangerous environment for homeland security, emergency preparedness, and military operations. Innovative information and human systems technology to assess, generate, and present potential adversary tactics and strategy will improve decision support in these environments. Modeling methodologies and capabilities, which take into account social, cultural, political, economic, religious, ethnic, and ideological aspects of the adversary, are required to assist decision makers in preparing for future adversary actions. The models shall be capable of interfacing with simulation environments and provide realistic adversary tactics and strategy to support a persistent synthetic battlespace infrastructure. The infrastructure is critical for military training, mission rehearsal, and the exploration, design, development, analysis, and testing of new warfighting systems and concepts. This research will define and develop an asymmetric adversary modeling capability that can support synthetic environments. Decision theoretic methodologies to gather data and dynamically build adversary models to describe, assess, and predict the activities of individuals, teams, and organizations shall be developed. Proposed methodologies must be capable of executing on commercial-off-the-shelf desktops or workstations and be platform independent. Methodologies implementing the adversary environment should be standards based to support interfaces to other analysis, and modeling and simulation tools.

 

PHASE I: Research and develop technology to support an adversary environment that generates tactics and strategy for military simulations. Develop the specifications and design for a standards based adversary environment. Develop a proof-of-feasibility demonstration of key enabling concepts.

 

PHASE II: Research, design, develop and demonstrate a prototype adversary modeling system capable of interfacing with military simulation environments, and assessing an air campaign tactical scenario.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: An off-the-shelf asymmetric adversary environment for decision support will increase our ability to conduct military training, mission rehearsal, and the exploration, design, development, analysis, and testing of new warfighting systems and concepts. Improved anticipation and preparation for national emergencies, terrorist activities, homeland defense and military operations will result. The development of automated tactics and strategy generation also has high relevance to the commercial wargaming industry, where applications of asymmetric adversary models would result in more realistic military strategy games. In addition, the commercial Industry relies on predictive simulations for assessing and evaluating strategies related to marketing assessments, business process management, enterprise management and network control. Improved modeling technology could result in higher quality decisions.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Cruz, J. B. J., Simaan, M. A., Gacic, A., Jiang, H., Letellier, B., Li, M., Liu, Y. (2001). "Game-Theoretic Modeling and Control of Military Air Operations." IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems 37(4):

1393-1405.

 

2. McCrabb, M., Caroli, J. (2002). Behavioral Modeling and Wargaming for Effects-Based Operations. Workshop on Analyzing Effects-Based Operations, McLean, Virginia, Military Operations Research Society,

http://www.mors.org/meetings/ebo/ebo_reads/McCrabb_Caroli.pdf

 

3. Wallace, Jeffrey W. and Judy M. Sollenberger, "Improving the State of Military Modeling and Simulation: The Joint Synthetic Battlespace", http://www.modelingandsimulation.org/MandS0101/Wallace0101.html .

 

KEYWORDS: Asymmetric warfare, Joint Synthetic Battlespace, Adversary behavior, Cultural modeling, Adversary model

 

 

AF06-064               TITLE: Automated Signal Processing for Information Exploitation

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: Design and prototype technologies that provide Signals, Imagery and Measures/Signatures Intelligence, information dominance through innovative signal processing of systems, sensors and data.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The all source analysts’ mission is to provide the maximum amount of relevant information from raw data signals and imagery. Current automated sensors are capable of collecting vast amounts of modern modulation data and exploitation of new systems that provide far more information than can be exploited by today’s analysts. Analysts are at the breaking point in obtaining actionable intelligence information from the data. New, efficient, automated exploitation tools and methods are unavailable and are required to rapidly extract the highest interest information. Research is required to assess the feasibility of new innovative signal processing and technology approaches to exploit the modulation, compression, coding, forensics of modern modulation signals and automate the exploitation processes being employed. Operators and analysts need new tools and concepts now to stay ahead of the information technology being fielded today.  The following topical areas represent scientific and technical problem areas requiring innovative solutions:

1) Exploit 'All' the data from the traditional and non-traditional reconnaissance and surveillance sensors

2) Automate the processing to provide actionable intelligence information from sensor data

-Determine the feasibility of the application to RF signal interception, detection, identification, location, demodulation, processing and collection of data

-Determine the feasibility of the application to audio signal processing for user identification including open set speaker, language, dialect, and background detection

-Determine the feasibility of the application to video processing for target identification/target tracking and processing.

-Determine the feasibility of the application for steganography, watermarking, steganalysis and digital data forensics for information exploitation, tracking, protection and assurance

-Determine the feasibility of the application for implementation of measures and signatures intelligence architectures and techniques to exploit unaddressed sensor signals. Assess new approaches to foster equipment interoperability and functionality associated with production

 

PHASE I: Assess innovative signal processing tools for data collection, information exploitation, intelligence production; propose conceptual proof-of-concept prototypes to address modern modulation signals, new systems/sensors, revolutionary improvements in information analysts’ productivity.

 

PHASE II: Develop working prototypes with sufficient fidelity to: demonstrate the exploitation of heretofore difficult or unexploited modern modulation signals and new systems and sensors; - improve current manual analyst activities with new automated and semi-automated capabilities.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Vast opportunities currently exist for innovative information technology (IT) signal processing techniques to be readily melded into fielded commercial IT systems as preplanned-product-improvements. Further, small businesses have previously secured successful commercialization of their work in this IT area through creative contractor teaming arrangement with large contractors on new acquisition efforts. Entrepreneurs will further their commercialization efforts with the start-up of new product line thanks to the risk reduction work accomplished under this SBIR topic. From the government perspective, this work can contribute to the common platform baseline used by all US DoD military intelligence analysts in support of information exploitation missions. Furthermore, this technology has current relevance to support homeland security activities at the local, state and federal government levels and in the commercial and private sector security areas that feed to homeland security.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Transformation Planning Guidance, Dept. of Defense, April 2003

2. C2&ISR Capability Statements, AF C2&ISR Center, July 2002

3. Joint Vision 2020

4. Air Force Vision 2020 – Global, Air Force Vigilance, Reach, and Power

 

KEYWORDS: SIGINT, IMINT, MASINT, COMINT, ELINT, Motion Imagery, Steganalysis, Forensics

 

 

AF06-065               TITLE: Acquiring Probabilistic Knowledge for Information Fusion

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop technology for acquiring uncertain relational knowledge from SME's, and demonstrate the acquisition of probabilistic models to support situation awareness and predictive analysis.

 

DESCRIPTION: The work performed under this SBIR will focus on the development of technology for acquisition of large probabilistic relational knowledge bases.  The probabilistic knowledge acquisition process currently requires deep expertise and is still largely a manual effort.  Recent work in knowledge acquisition technology is beginning to support acquisition of models in relatively expressive relational languages.  There has also been substantial research on the knowledge engineering aspects of Bayesian networks.  However, there are as yet no systems that provide end-to-end support for the acquisition of probabilistic relational knowledge.  Intelligent systems capable of performing situation and impact assessment will require the ability to better capture, represent and express probabilities.   This knowledge acquisition bottleneck is a critical obstacle to the deployment of these data fusion systems.  Such systems will support diverse tactical-level analysis tasks, including behavior-based identification of asymmetric targets, determining adversary force structure and courses of action from GMTI data, and generating timely indications and warnings for force protection.

 

PHASE I: Develop algorithms and methodologies for the acquisition of probabilistic relational knowledge from subject-matter experts with little or no training in formal knowledge representation or probability theory.

 

PHASE II: Implement prototype software to acquire probabilistic relational knowledge. Validate the approach by using the prototype to acquire models which could be used to solve a real-world fusion problem.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Develop deployable system for acquiring probabilistic relational knowledge. Applications of this technology include battlespace situation and threat assessment, early detection of indications and warnings of terrorist activity, interpretation of medical imagery, condition-based maintenance complex machinery, and interpretation of business intelligence.

 

REFERENCES:

 

1. Mica R. Endsley. Toward a Theory of Situation Awareness in Dynamic Systems. Human Factors Journal, Volume 37(1), pages 32-64, March 1995.

 

2. Mica R. Endsley. Theoretical underpinnings of Situation Awareness: A Critical Review. Mica. R. Endsley, and D. J. Garland (editors), In Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement (pp. 3-32). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

 

3. Alan N. Steinburg, Christopher L. Bowman, and Franklin E. White. Revisions to the JDL Data Fusion Model, presented at the Joint NATO/IRIS Conference, Quebec, October 1999

 

KEYWORDS: Probabilistic knowledge, Information Fusion, Uncertain Reasoning, Knowledge Acquisition

 

 

AF06-066               TITLE: Systems-of-Systems Data Utilization Patterns

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Materials/Processes, Space Platforms

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop the tools and techniques to infer ontology concepts and relationships from data utilization patterns in federated system-of-systems environments.

 

DESCRIPTION: The need for enterprise information integration is widely recognized in both the commercial and government worlds. DoD’s approach, defined in the DoD Net-Centric Data Strategy, aims to make data from multiple, divergent domains visible and accessible

 

To achieve this goal increasing numbers of new and legacy DoD systems are being integrated into federated systems-of-systems, providing greater access to large volumes of data that span multiple domains. This is true for the DoD space launch and range operations environment. Space launch and range operations at the national ranges involve many different organizations working together to perform complex and technically demanding operations. For example, the 45th Space Wing (45 SW), provides space launch and range support for Department of Defense (DoD), civil, and commercial space launch missions. Support is also provided to DoD submarine launched ballistic missile Test and Evaluation missions. To provide this support the 45 SW operates and maintains the Eastern Range. It includes launch complexes, processing facilities, tracking radar, optical systems, telemetry, command destruct systems, and communications-computer systems. This demanding mission is performed primarily through several major service contracts that provide the multitude of services and functions needed to support launch and range operations. To perform its mission the 45 SW and its contractors must actively work with many other organizations involved in launch and range operations. The diversity of organizations and associated data sources involved in launch and range operations significantly increases the need for and scope of federated systems-of-systems to deliver integrated information. This increase in federated systems-of-systems has created both need and opportunity.

 

These federated systems-of-systems depend, either explicitly or implicitly, upon ontologies to provide a basis for integrating, searching and using the data.  The problem is that ontologies that federate these diverse systems and their information sources are typically incomplete.  They are also dynamic, continually changing in response to user needs and the availability of new data sources.  The risk is that search, query and analyses based on incomplete ontology semantics will not help us find the specific information we are looking for in a large forest of information, leaving the needle lost in the haystack.    One research hypothesis is that information access and usage patterns may provide important heuristics for positing new concepts and relations to the ontology.  This will involve monitoring information use across systems, capturing usage patterns, analyzing patterns for potential concepts and relations, and offering assistance to ontology modeler on where to merge newly learned components into the semantic model.

 

The opportunity relates to the possibility that overall system management based upon understanding of the data will also generate information that can be used to enhance the value of the data itself. A tool for system management that understands the use of the data could also support analysis of patterns for additional insight or to aid specific tasks such as search. An analogy may be found in the use some web search engines make of relative links for determining the relevance of a given page to a search. Data usage patterns in a federated system-of-systems might indicate the value of specific data for specific purposes or even promote collaboration between users.

 

Research is needed into how federated system-of-systems data utilization patterns can be captured, analyzed, and applied to positing new concepts and relations to the ontology to increase value to the end-user. Solutions must address how such patterns can be acquired without adversely impacting system performance; and how user interfaces can be improved by leveraging the systems-of-systems data utilization patterns. New tools and techniques are needed to grow and optimize the semantics and metadata that support the unifying ontologies in order to obtain semantic models that more closely represent the way these systems and their underlying data sources are used.

 

PHASE I: Develop the requirements, general usage scenarios and candidate architecture for capturing and applying system-of-systems data utilization patterns. Consideration must be given to performance impacts, security, analytic approaches, and value to the end-user.

 

PHASE II: Develop a full scale implementation of the federated system-of-systems data utilization pattern capability and employ it in a suitable trial environment. Emphasis shall be placed upon the balance between data and system utilization pattern capture and analysis to infer ontology concepts and relationships and creation of value to the end-user

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: Due to the growing use of federated systems-of-systems and the need to effectively manage and use the integrated information from them, a data utilization pattern capability could have wide use in the government and commercial world. PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL:  A robust implementation of this capability could easily be applied to the many business organizations (medical, manufacturing, etc.)  implementing large-scale data integration and systems-of-systems.  Candidate commercial partners include firms providing Enterprise Information Integration, Message-Oriented Middleware, or Data Warehouse solutions.

 

REFERENCES:

1.             http://www.defenselink.mil/nii/org/cio/doc/Net-Centric-Data-Strategy-2003-05092.pdf

2.             Surowiecki, J., The Wisdom of Crowds, Doubleday, 2004

3.             Laplante, P., Heisenberg Uncertainty, ACM SIGSOFT, 1990

 

KEYWORDS: Information Technology, Pattern Matching, Ontology, System-of-System Architectures

 

 

AF06-067               TITLE: Robust Complex Systems

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop tool(s)/toolset(s) for the productive development and deployment of software-intensive parallel application of cognition into military information systems.

 

DESCRIPTION: Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems employ distributed processing, and make use of mobile code, intelligent process allocation, dynamic multiprocessing and other techniques to create a virtual distributed computing network.  These complex hardware/software systems have to satisfy hard real-time performance constraints. The ability to evolve, organize and optimize over their lifetime offers the opportunity to enhance these systems through the introduction of cognitive capabilities.  By exploiting the performance advantages made possible with self-organizing morphable hardware and software, cognitive functions may be added which will leverage the parallelism that is inherently available.  Since the parallelism in these types of applications is irregular, they will likely take advantage of multithreading.  Multithreaded applications present unique challenges to application developers especially during the debugging stage.  The requirement that these systems be scalable, modular, verifiable and distributed results in an unprecedented system complexity.  Further, cognitive software systems require verification and validation that cognition is correctly performed, unacceptable behavior identified, defects in behaviors that have yet to be learned detected, and prediction of the system performance.  This effort will develop tools and techniques to enable, debug, verify, and assure productive implementations of software-intensive parallel applications for cognitive information systems.  Possible approaches include but are not limited to cognitive techniques for debugging such as inferring invariants whose violation could correspond to bugs, or techniques for debugging cognitive applications which do not lend themselves to conventional imperative debugging.

 

PHASE I:  Develop a tool/toolset that includes a low fidelity feasibility demonstration of the critical aspects of the design.

 

PHASE II:  Develop and demonstrate the prototype tool/toolset in a realistic environment.  Conduct testing to demonstrate the approach is scalable and adaptable to mission objectives.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:  This tool/toolset could be used in a broad range of military and civilian applications which demand that systems evolve and change by ad-hoc and self-adaptive means.

 

REFERENCES:

Tudoreanu M. Eduard, “Designing Effective Program Visualization Tools for Reducing User’s Cognitive Effort,” Proceedings of the 2003 ACM Symposium on Software Visualization, San Diego, CA, p105.

 

Koedinger K., Aleven V., Heffernan N., ”Tools Towards Reducing the Costs of Designing, Building, and Testing Cognitive Models,” The 2003 Conference on Behavior Representation on Modeling and Simulation, BRIMS 2003.

 

Engler D., Chen D., Hallem S., Chou A., Chelf B., “Bugs as Deviant Behavior: A General Approach to Inferring Errors in Systems Code,” Symposium on Operating Systems Principles 2001, pp57-72.

 

Schultz D., Mueller F., “A ThreadAware Debugger with an Open Interface,” Proceedings of the 2000 ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis, pp201-211.

 

KEYWORDS: Software intensive systems, cognitive information systems, parallel development

 

 

AF06-068               TITLE: Cyber Operations

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort is to develop a defensive “Cyber-Craft” for full-spectrum computer network defense and information assurance.

 

DESCRIPTION: Today’s philosophy of cyber defense is centered on strong boundary protection (e.g. firewalls) and network intrusion detection systems. While these technologies provide some sound defensive capabilities, if breached these types of systems provide the intruder with full-access to an enterprise network. In a Network-Centric Warfare environment today's defenses will not scale to provide the protection required. We envision a new capability we call the cyber-craft that operates solely within the cyber domain to extend the arm of existing cyber defense and computer network defense capabilities. A cyber-craft can be thought of as a lightweight software agent system that performs multiple computer network defense and information assurance functions. The characteristics of a cyber-craft include the ability to be launched from a network platform, the ability to embed control instructions within the craft, the ability to positively control the cyber-craft from a remote network location or management console, the capability for the craft to self-destruct if attacked and corrupted, the capability for the cyber-craft to operate with minimal or no signature/footprint, and the ability for the cyber-craft to rendezvous and cooperate with other friendly cyber-craft. Small, lightweight cyber-craft agents could monitor a large enterprise network with nearly no performance degradation and cooperate in such a way that collectively they become a smart cyber sensor grid. It is envisioned that a cyber-craft system would augment existing computer network defenses by helping to perform security management, network management, intrusion detection, malware detection and eradication, and digital evidence gathering.  

 

PHASE I:  Perform the initial research necessary to assess potential approaches. Develop a solution approach comprised of the most promising approaches, and assess its feasibility. Develop the initial design for a prototype and demonstrate its application.

 

PHASE II:  Develop the required technologies leading to the demonstration of a limited prototype. The prototype will demonstrate the creation of software agents for comprehensive, enterprise-level computer network defense.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: Dual use applications of this technology include industries and critical infrastructures that have networks and enterprises requiring a high-level of assurance and security. In addition, from a military standpoint this technology could be transitioned into any networks requiring an enhanced level of information assurance.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World by Bruce Schneier

 

2. OASIS: Foundations of Intrusion Tolerant Systems Edited by Jaynarayan H. Lala, IEEE Computer Society Press

 

KEYWORDS: Cyber Operations, Cyber Defense, Computer Network Defense, Information Assurance

 

 

AF06-069               TITLE: Advanced Radio Frequency and Optical Connectivity to support Network-Centric Operations

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: This program seeks innovative hardware and/or software technologies that advance radio frequency, optical, networking technologies, reduce transmission requirements, and reliable communications.

 

DESCRIPTION: There are numerous radio, data link, and RF-based network equipments that are being considered for upgrade or replacement over the next decade.  Replacement is done with the intention of supporting future NCO environments, where participants are able to collaborate and cooperate seamlessly through appropriate information-sharing mechanisms. This will require that all communication terminals be capable of providing “internet-like” services, albeit at differing levels of service, speed, and versatility.  In addition, the trend is towards smaller unmanned air vehicles in which size, weight, prime power consumption, quality of service, data integrity, interoperability, maintainability, and re-programmability are some of the key requirements.  Technologies need to be developed wherein the Department of Defense can insert advanced technologies to these systems or develop new systems for increased throughput or reduced size, weight, and prime power.  Develop innovative ideas to reduce the insertion loss, physical size, and increase the power handling capacity of passive RF components, in particular, X-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band diplexers; and the use of digital signaling processing techniques to shape the transmit waveform to minimize the possibility of interference and the need for band-pass filtering.   Combining these technologies to accomplish multiple functions simultaneously or readily switching between different technologies to accomplish a number of specific functions are just some of the possible approaches.  Increased throughput can also be achieved by operation at higher radio frequencies, use of laser communications technology, combined RF/optical data link technology, more efficient transport, network, link protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, use of multiple paths for data transfer, advanced data/video compression algorithms, etc. 

 

PHASE I: Explore design options to determine the technical feasibility of the proposed hardware or software.  Show how the technology option selected has application to one or more of the existing radio/data link/network systems or offers the potential to replace an existing capability. 

 

PHASE II: Fabricate a breadboard hardware feasibility model(s) and/or specify and code the software algorithm technology option(s) selected. Provide a demonstration that validates the proposed technology.  The Phase II program shall provide a plan to transition the technology to operational use.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: The proposed technologies shall be applicable to a range of DOD and Homeland Security systems requiring connectivity among a range of wireless and wired platforms and commercial applications including radio, cell phone, network, and satellite applications

 

REFERENCES: 1. Space & C4ISR Capabilities CONOPS

 

2. Global Strike Task Force Infrastructure Capabilities Roadmap

 

KEYWORDS: Radio Frequency Communications, Optical Communications, Free-space Optical Communications, Antennas, Diplexers, Mobile and Ad-hoc Networking, Enterprise Management, Network Modeling and Simulation, digital signal processing, wideband communications

 

 

AF06-070               TITLE: Innovative Command and Control (C2) Technologies to Enable Force Synchronization for Effect

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: Research and develop advanced information technologies to enable future forces to synchronize their respective capabilities (kinetic and non-kinetic weapons, sensors) to achieve desired effects in high tempo and dynamic environments

 

DESCRIPTION: DoD transformation initiatives are actively pursuing the development of a Net Centric Environment where information will be pervasive creating new opportunities to better conduct operations in a wide variety of scenarios. The concept of synchronization of forces is a revolutionary concept that could change the way we Command and Control (C2) our forces in the future. Synchronization is defined as “the purposeful arrangement of things in time and space”. From a military perspective, it is the successful orchestration of all forces within the battlespace in both position and time to achieve objectives. This encompasses sequencing the actions of forces (ground, sea, air, and space) to combine their effects to accomplish the mission. C2 elements process information and arrange and continually adapt the relationships of actions in time and space in order to maximize effects and established mission objective(s). Additionally, synchronization must occur vertically from operational to tactical levels, and horizontally across C2 entities and functional areas. Further, shared awareness and shared understanding enable an entity (individual, group, organization) to self-synchronize and to operate in the absence of traditional hierarchical mechanisms for command and control, thus enabling more dynamic responses through more efficient decentralized execution. Self-synchronization represents the full capitalization of network centric operations. It increases force agility to respond quickly to fleeting targets and changing objectives.

 

PHASE I: Develop an innovative approach that will provide a decision maker with the ability to decisively task and re-task kinetic and non-kinetic weapons and sensing “platforms” to achieve commander’s intent in time and space. Potential solutions could include extending existing weapon targeting pairing algorithms to include information operations and sensors, causal modeling, graph tree analysis, genetic algorithms or hybrids of these or other novel approaches. Solution should be extensible to non-military domains. Develop architecture views of the information sources and human operators combining to synchronize capabilities and actions to accomplish various missions.

 

PHASE II: Based on the results from Phase 1, define, develop and then simulate (real and virtual) a prototype effects based force synchronization capability. Emphasis should be on commanding and controlling all available forces and then synchronizing those forces to achieve effect.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The ability to conduct synchronize resources in time and space would be beneficial to sectors of industry that are involved with time sensitive dynamic tasking processes such as express mail services, retailers, rental car companies, and airline agencies. This capability also will enable better emergency response to major disastrous events (9/11, Hurricane Katrina) and security of major venues like the Super Bowl and Political National Conventions.

 

REFERENCES: 1. CCRP Publication Series, “Power to the Edge”, Alberts and Hayes

 

2. CCRP Publication Series “Understanding Information Age Warfare”, Alberts, Garstka, Hayes, Signori

 

3. CCRP Publication Series “Net Centric Warfare 2nd Edition”, Alberts, Garstka and Stein

 

KEYWORDS: Command and Control, Effects Based Operations, Combat Assessment, Self Synchronization, Dynamic Tasking, Net Centric Warfare, Power to the Edge

 

 

AF06-071               TITLE: TACTICAL INFORMATION INTEROPERABILITY & MANAGEMENT (TIIM)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: Design and build an innovative information management technology to support peer to peer information exchange, enhancing information collaboration and sharing for manned and unmanned tactical assets.

 

DESCRIPTION: Today’s tactical warfighter is not unfamiliar with hostile tactical environments.  The increasingly non-traditional nature of these environments (urban warfare, IEDs, etc) often means that the veracity, relevance, and timeliness of the warfighter’s information about his surroundings is one of his greatest tactical assets.  In this new era of Net-Centric Warfare (NCW), getting such information from the Global Information Grid (GIG) to these tactical environments will become a problem of increasing importance. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), especially the smaller, more agile variety of UAS, will soon pervade these tactical environments.  The goal of this topic is to take advantage of the growing presence of UAS in the tactical environment by exploring technologies that will allow for the creation of a peer to peer (P2P) information sharing network over a cluster of small UAS.  One aspect of this research includes modifying or creating P2P information sharing technologies that would allow for a “Napster in the sky” capability.  Nodes of such a P2P technology would have to provide certain information sharing services and would have to operate on the lightweight, low power, resource starved hardware and disadvantaged links common among small UAS, while at the same time taking into account unreliable connections and rapidly changing node topologies.  Another aspect of this research will involve the routing of information through such P2P technologies, as well as the actual physical control algorithms of the UAS themselves.  One can envision several different modes of operation for such P2P information sharing networks: in an information “cloud” UAS nodes would organize themselves into a cluster providing an information sharing infrastructure to a local area; in an information “bridge” UAS nodes would line up to transport information from one location to another; an information “airlift” would allow a single UAS node to leave the cloud and physically bring requested information to a specific location.  The benefits and feasibility of these and other algorithms should be examined.  Research efforts for this topic should culminate in a prototype P2P information sharing network capable of being deployed using clustered, small UAS nodes.

 

PHASE I: Develop a conceptual design and early prototype of a P2P information sharing technology that specifies software and hardware to be used and incorporates concepts of operation and tactical scenarios.

 

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a full prototype system in a realistic environment. Conduct testing and demonstration to prove feasibility of approach.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: The developed technology could be used in other future commercial UAV/UGV environments where multiple sensors are deployed such as oil exploration, commercial fishing, and environmental monitoring.

 

REFERENCES: 1. A Reference Model for Information Management to Support Coalition Information Sharing Needs; Linderman et al, ICCRTS 2005.

 

2. Net-Centric Information Management Challenges; Linderman, Milligan, SPIE Defense & Security Symposium 2005, Conference 5820, Paper 5820-39.

 

3. UAS Roadmap, http://www.acq.osd.mil/uas/

 

4. A Survey of Peer-to-Peer Content Distribution Technologies; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Spinellis, ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 36, No. 4, December 2004.

 

KEYWORDS: Tactical, UAS, Information Management, Smart Munitions, Non-Traditional ISR Assets, Information Interoperability, Peer to Peer

 

 

AF06-072               TITLE: Locating and integrating members for virtual ad-hoc teams

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: To enable the rapid identification of people with the requisite expertise and personal characteristics to effectively participate in ad-hoc virtual teams.

 

DESCRIPTION: Faced with asymmetric threats and the expanding set of military missions (e.g. humanitarian and police functions), commanders are often confronted with a varying array of situations for which they need expert assistance outside of their immediate staff. In the era of network centric operations, connectivity and bandwidth are increasingly available to the commander so that outside experts can be reached for consultation when a specific situation arises. The goal of this effort is to develop the capability to locate experts and form virtual ad-hoc teams on demand. In order to identify experts, it is envisioned that the documents produced by individuals within the organization (including Word documents, PowerPoint presentations, email, etc) will be analyzed by a machine learning-based text categorization method (e.g. neural network, bayesian classifier, or decision tree) in order to develop an association between individuals and their primary areas of expertise or interest.  The results would also be ranked based on a weighting factor or an assigned trust factor, potentially based upon how many times an individual’s documents were downloaded or modified and/or utility rankings provided by other users. The capability to suggest potential team composition from a listing of potential candidates and a suitable collaboration environment is also desired. It is envisioned that multidisciplinary teams will be formed in most situations with a mix of internal and external members.  In addition to an individual’s expertise on a given subject, social network analysis (SNA) may be employed to determine what groups of people are already working together as part of the “informal organization,” outside of the standard org charts of the enterprise.  SNA can also provide information about how extroverted or focused an individual is.  This information could then be considered when suggesting members for the virtual team.  More research into automated text categorization, trust networks, and social network analysis would be required to be successful in this SBIR.  The end goal of this effort is to assist the commander’s ability to foster creativity in the decision making process in instances where expert assistance may be needed outside of their staff.

 

PHASE I: The desired end product is to have the capability to identify and integrate experts into ad-hoc virtual teams on demand. It is expected that by the end of Phase I a set of applicable technologies to solve the problem are identified.

 

PHASE II: Develop a prototype capability that can be demonstrated within a controlled environment in order to test the functionality and determine its usability in a controlled operational environment.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The potential exist for the widespread application of this product throughout the world, spanning academic, Government, industrial, and non-government organization (NGO) communities, where people can identify others with similar interests in order to collaborate and develop professional relationships.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Tom Garvey, Future Command Experience for Intuitive Decision, 23 Sep 2004.

 

2. Wasserman, Stanley, Social Network Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 1994.

 

3. R.A. Baeza-Yates and B. A. Ribeiro-Neto, Modern Information Retrieval.  ACM Press / Addison Wesley, 1999.

 

KEYWORDS: Communication pattern monitoring, collaboration environment, team formation, trust networks, social network analysis, virtual teams.

 

 

AF06-073               TITLE: Collaborative Sense Making

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:   Provide methods to analyze, represent, visualize and collaborate in order to “make sense” of the contents of large heterogeneous distributed data and document collections.

 

DESCRIPTION: The objective of this topic is to develop collaborative sense-making technologies to enable individual and team cognitive performance in developing a picture of the situation at any given moment.  Intelligence Analysts must excel at performing enormous tasks at uncovering new, potentially suspicious “patterns of activity”; and putting multiple puzzle pieces of information together.   Although they typically have both broad and deep knowledge of the subject area, there is still a need for analysts to better coordinate their “sense making” analysis and production tasks with other analysts who are working within the same subject domain or in a highly related subject domain area.

 

An essential component to sense making is the need for an intuitive integration framework whose foundation includes a large virtually centralized knowledge repository.   This "Virtual knowledge base" will be an instantaneously accessible repository in which past historical information and current knowledge is automatically collected and organized.  Key here is that the information and knowledge that is stored must be valid, reliable, and immediately accessible from anywhere at anytime by anyone. The Virtual Knowledge Base must also be self-organizing and self-generating in order to accommodate newly gathered information or knowledge.  Situational analysis tools will utilize this knowledge in a collaborative environment providing a quantitative evaluation of events that enhance a decision maker's ability to judge, appraise, and determine the relevance of emerging situation's).  These tools will help identify what key aspects are needed to verify an existing situation or anticipate a situation and be used to cull through the data and information, discover new knowledge, and provide a real-time situation assessment.  

 

Currently, there are many tools being developed that provides various intelligence products aimed at situational analysis.  The potential sources of information associated with these tools include extensive existing databases. Innovative technologies are needed to be able to utilize these databases as a virtual, centralized, knowledge repository in an integrated analysis environment.  The primary focus of this topic is to design and prototype such a sensemaking technology integration framework through which these disparate tools and data can be easily brought together allowing individual and team sensemaking activities.  The goal is a single "system of systems" that models the process of sense-making (i.e., information gathering, transformation, analysis, interpretation and presentation). 

 

PHASE I: Perform the initial research necessary to assess potential approaches. Develop a solution approach comprised of the most promising approaches, and assess its feasibility. Develop the initial design for a prototype and demonstrate its application.

 

PHASE II: Research, develop, and demonstrate the prototype designed in Phase 1 for creating decision support capability using information integrated from structured and unstructured sources.  Develop and demonstrate the prototype baseline capability using candidate actual data from operational systems.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: Develop deployable system for sense making and understanding. Possible applications of this technology include military situation and threat assessment, indications and warnings of enemy activity, business intelligence monitoring and interpretation, and counterterrorism for homeland security.

 

REFERENCES:

 

 1. Endsley, M. (1995). Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Human Factors, 37(1), 32-64.

 

2. Weick, K.E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Kirlik, A.; Rothrock, L.; Walker, N.; & Fisk, A.D. (1996). Simple strategies or simple tasks? Dynamic decision-making in “complex” worlds. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 40th Annual Meeting, 184-188.

 

3. Lipshitz, R. & Strauss, O. (1997). Coping with uncertainty: A naturalistic decisionmaking analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69(2), 149-163.

 

KEYWORDS: Information Fusion, Reasoning under Uncertainty, Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Discovery, Information Extraction, Social Network Analysis, Pattern Learning

 

 

AF06-076               TITLE: Anticipatory Capabilities for Complex, Dynamic Environments

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: The development of anticipatory tools and techniques to assist command staff in the rapid generation and analysis of adversary and neutral courses-of-action, enabling the rapid diffusion of undesirable military or socio-political situations.

 

DESCRIPTION: Achieving Predictive Battlespace Awareness (PBA) through the products provided to us by the Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (IPB) process require that command staff eventually generate the most-likely and most-potentially-lethal courses of action that our adversaries are capable of taking against U.S. and coalition forces. Currently, this process is largely manual, and depends on the individual creativity of intelligence analysts and strategists, working with limited cognitive resources.  The objective of this SBIR is twofold: first, to harness the power of computation for exploring a wide range of potential enemy courses-of-action based on putative adversary objectives and resource considerations (i.e. only having trucks and crude bomb-making materials at hand, rather than a more conventional arsenal). Secondly, we would like to explore extrapolations of these courses-of-action with respect to perceived opportunism on behalf of our foes (i.e. our adversaries knowing that must operate according to a fairly strict code of conduct).  The automated tool that we envision will present a number of plausible options to the decision-maker, allowing the human decision-maker to explore skeleton courses-of-action generated in the description of objective #1, while allowing them to selectively explore various extrapolations of the same via the product produced to satisfy objective #2.

 

The choice of objectives in this topic parallels the classic bias-variance (overfitting-underfitting) tradeoff which must be established when constructing predictive models of any kind. Rapid generation of likely courses-of-action must take historical data into consideration without biasing the model toward certain modes of adversary operations (i.e. using one particular mode of transport in a suicide-bombing), while discovering enough structure to generate meaningful patterns of activity (i.e. the use of an arbitrary mode of weapons delivery in a suicide attack). Knowledge-intensive techniques may be applied to models constructed at these appropriate levels of resolution to generate a plausible set of candidate adversary courses-of-action.  Current technologies available for discovering parsimonious models may include mixed-resolution modeling for pruning otherwise unmanageable search-spaces; and the incorporation of adversary plan constraints utilizing adversary readiness, resource requirements, and assumed adversary knowledge of coalition constraints (i.e. rules of engagement, demonstrated thresholds of acceptable risk in coalition plans).  Technologies available for plan extrapolation will generally be knowledge-rich, enabling detailed step-by-step explanation/justification for each proposed adversary action within an adversary course-of-action.

 

PHASE I:  Selection of appropriate methodology to induce plan-skeletons, and choice of appropriate heuristics and priors to be incorporated in the inductive method. Selection of technique to facilitate human-in-the-loop plan extrapolation, complete with a mechanism to generate a justification for each adversary action.

 

PHASE II: Demonstrate a prototype for the system architecture developed in phase I.  Identify sources for real-world data (either from exercises, or operational sources), and show compatibility between the architecture developed in phase I, and the data sources used in phase II.  Work to identify potential customers for commercialization.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Tools developed in this effort will be of great use to planners operating at all levels of warfare, especially in joint and coalition operations. Industrial applications include generation of appropriate corporate business rules for pre-empting competition with rival corporations.

 

REFERENCES:

 

1. Air Force Pamphlet 14-118, Aerospace Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace, 5 June 2001, pp. 6-7.

2. Christopher M. Bishop (1995), Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition, Oxford University Press

3. “Anticipatory Planning Support”; John R. Surdu, John M. Hill, Udo W. Pooch; Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulations Conference.

4. “Dynamic Situation Assessment and Prediction (DSAP)”; Alex F. Sisti Air Force Research Laboratory/IFSB.

5. “Synthetic Cognitive Modeling of Adversaries for Effects-Based Planning”; Paul K. Davis; Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 471 operational anticipation, adversarial modeling, battlespace knowledge

 

KEYWORDS: Heuristic search, multi-resolution modeling, plan induction, knowledge representation, reasoning

 

 

AF06-077               TITLE: Command Decision Support and Explanation from Fused Structured and Unstructured Information Sources

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop decision support capability that reasons over fused structured/unstructured information sources and explains decision rationale

 

DESCRIPTION: Commanders are required to make mission-critical decisions based on information that is often distributed, non-integrated, and represented in many structured and unstructured formats (e.g. situation reports, database data, voice, email, etc.).  Currently, support staff must read many potentially relevant documents to extract information needed to create a situation report that assesses operational capability or mission risk in order to make go/no-go decisions.  Even where data access is automated, information is frequently not integrated into a “single integrated mission picture” to support decision-makers; and where data is integrated, the detailed domain analysis needed to support decision-makers is not automated.  At the 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base FL, for example, knowledgeable staff must analyze an assortment of information to make decisions as to whether or not range systems are ready to support a specific space launch as each launch has different requirements.  Significant domain knowledge goes into making these determinations, which is not captured in an automated form.   Capabilities are needed that (1) represent integrated information, on demand, from structured and unstructured sources, (2) aggregate integrated knowledge to support high level views of decision issues such as systems or mission status, (3) capture the decision analysis needed to assess those decision issues and related risk, (4) explain the underlying process to those responsible for making decisions, and (5) capture the decision history for after-action review and historical trend analysis.  Since decision-makers will never entrust final decisions to software applications, the decision support system must be capable of explaining its own analysis, including the reasoning it used to produce the analysis and the core data/information used in making its decisions.  This capability must also support decision-makers, and staff, in drilling down into detailed, semantically relevant information used to make the decisions (or trigger the rules).  In short, they must support a complete explanation of the “decision history” that gives commanders confidence that the readiness assessment is accurate, complete and appropriately classified.  The overall goal is to help commanders make better, more informed decisions more rapidly and to assess the analysis leading to recommended decisions.

 

While there are a number of technical areas that need to be addressed in order to achieve a high quality command-level decision support capability, the specific areas of interest for this topic are (1) the representation of decision analysis over semantically relevant information gleaned from fused structured and unstructured sources, (2) traceability/explanation of decision logic sufficient to give human decision-makers confidence in the decisions, and (3) access/visibility into detailed information that formed the basis for decisions.  Of particular interest are the problems associated with the integration of structured and unstructured data in a way that can support decision analysis and decision explanation.  In other words, the research must show that aggregate decision results can be unraveled down to the logical sequence of decisions made as well as down to the source data upon which that logic operated.

 

PAYOFF:  This research has high payoff in the area of using fused data to support command decision-making.  It makes the connection between the fused data and the decision process.  It would have high value to any commander with a “single integrated picture” and the need to make decisions based upon that picture.  An example could be the 45 Space Wing which is deploying systems to support a “single integrated range picture” of operations at the Eastern Range for the Wing Operations Control Center (WOOC), but has no tools to directly use that integrated view to aid in decision-making.  It contributes to the goal of the “Single Integrated Battlefield Picture” which is at the heart of military data fusion initiatives.   It will support Homeland Defense by showing how fused data can provide a rich source of knowledge that can be exploited by decision support systems with detailed decision histories tied to detailed data triggering proposed decisions.   This capability also offers a foundation for better alignment in command decision-making, since staff and contractors can assess the decision logic and conclusions.  Finally, this capability is critical to capturing domain knowledge and transferring it to new staff, since it offers a core capability needed to train staff in situation assessment and command decision-making under changing scenarios (represented by changing situational data).

 

PHASE I: Perform the initial research necessary to assess potential approaches. Develop a solution approach comprised of the most promising approaches, and assess its feasibility. Develop the initial design for a prototype and demonstrate its application.

 

PHASE II: Research, develop, and demonstrate the prototype designed in Phase 1 for creating decision support capability using information integrated from structured and unstructured sources.  Develop and demonstrate the prototype baseline capability using candidate actual data from operational systems such as integrated data on Eastern Range mission system status provided to the 45 Space Wing WOOC.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: The ability rapidly and accurately integrate operational data from multiple sources, assess readiness, and support command decisions is of high value to all services as well as to C-level staff in the commercial world.

 

REFERENCES: 1.http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/facility/patrick.htm

 

2. http://www.metadata-stds.org/OpenForum2003/Presentations/

 

3. [TANNENBAUM2001] Tannenbaum, Adrienne, Metadata Solutions, Addison-Wesly, 2001

 

KEYWORDS: data fusion,integrated information,single integrated picture

 

 

AF06-079               TITLE: Data Fusion of Eddy Current, Ultrasonic, and Radiographic Data

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop application-optimized data analysis and fusion/mining algorithms for multifrequency eddy current, ultrasonic and radiographic data.

 

DESCRIPTION: General corrosion induced material thinning in multilayered aircraft structures is already successfully inspected with conventional depot-based eddy current, ultrasonic, and radiography nondestructive inspection (NDI) platforms. While these NDI techniques are capable of detecting thickness loss at multiple interfaces, they cannot distinguish between these defects if they are located at the same lateral position. Furthermore, corrosion at each interface can occur at both the top and bottom layer; the ratio of this corrosion distribution cannot yet be determined. The complexity of the problem requires the acquisition of multiple NDI data sets which, after adequate data processing and fusion, can provide an overall assessment of the structure.

 

Multifrequency eddy current, ultrasonic, and radiographic approaches are considered especially suitable for defect detection in multilayered structures. Conventional coil probes and transducers can be employed if optimized for evaluation of thick structures in particular. In addition, the employment of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) probes can be investigated, since GMR probes have outstanding sensitivity in the low analyzing frequency range below 1 kHz, providing large penetration depth for the eddy current signals. Optimized eddy current sensors can measure with four or more different frequencies simultaneously, thus, providing multiple sets of NDI metrics for each scanner position. Research is needed to model these data sets and to use them in application-optimized data analysis and fusion algorithms. The planned output of this approach is two-dimensional mapping of each interface of the multilayered structure, indicating the corrosion related material losses at the respective interface. If necessary, the computation shall distinguish further between the top and bottom surface at each interface. The data analysis can be trained with appropriate specimens simulating aircraft structures and shall be validated by implementing the approach in actual depot or field inspection procedures required eddy current, ultrasonic, and radiographic data shall be obtained using sensors that are optimized for multifrequency data assessment including low frequencies below 1 kHz for deep penetration depth.  Conventional eddy current coil, GMR, ultrasonic, and radiographic sensors shall be considered.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of a software tool prototype that includes application-optimized data for use in fusion/mining algorithms with multifrequency eddy current, ultrasonic, and radiographic data.

 

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype product based on the results from Phase I to be used in support of an actual aging aircraft application.   If necessary, Phase II shall also include sensor development.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Multifrequency eddy current analysis software developed under this effort should have extensive government and commercial applications. The ability to distinguish and quantify multiple defects in an NDI data set is of high importance for improved aging aircraft inspection procedures.

 

REFERENCES: A. Yashan, R. Becker, G. Dobman, "Use of GMR-Sensors for Eddy Current Testing," Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation (V) (2001), pp. 187-1931.  Cole, G. K., G. Clark, and P. K. Sharp, The Implications of Corrosion with Respect to Aircraft Structural Integrity, DSTO Aircraft and Marine Research Library, Melbourne, 1997.

 

KEYWORDS: data fusion, multifrequency eddy current, ultrasound, radiography, corrosion defects, magnetoresistive probe, nondestructive inspection

 

 

AF06-080               TITLE: Nonfluid Transportable Aircraft Deicing System

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop an environmentally-friendly transportable aircraft deicing/anti-icing system based on nonchemical deicing technology. Fluid shall be used only to provide a holdover time to prevent refreeze.

 

DESCRIPTION: It is envisioned that a contractor will analyze the requirement, evaluate present and maturing technologies and develop an approach to apply one of them (or integrate more than one) into a transportable ground-based aircraft deicing system.

 

Experience to date in this area suggests that no single methodology may be sufficient to meet requirements. However, a system based on a single method cannot be ruled out. Three possible methods are air, heat, and a very small amount of fluid. 

 

If a heating method is used, the system must provide feedback to the user to prevent overheating of aircraft surfaces.

 

Regardless of the methodologies used, the design must incorporate the following requirements: (1) reduce overall fluid use by 90 percent; (2) provide a rate of deicing comparable to state-of-the-art fluid-based systems; (3) provide a reasonable anti-icing holdover time; (4) incorporate size and weight limitations for military air transport.

 

The design shall furthermore consider a cost-benefit business approach with the potential of providing a commercial product.  It has been estimated that 75 percent of current aircraft deicing operating costs are associated with containment and disposal of deicing fluid.  The design shall consider operating and capital costs of a commercially produced product in order to provide a return on capital equipment cost investment prediction.

 

The benefits expected to be realized by the Air Force include reduced environmental liability, reduced operating costs, and possibly reduced weather-related limitations on aircraft operational capabilities.

 

PHASE I: Determine a methodology, or an integrated set of methodologies, that are feasible for an environmentally-friendly groundbased transportable aircraft deicing system based on non-fluid technology.  Provide a conceptual design and feasibility report.

 

PHASE II: Based on an approved Phase I concept, design the system, build a prototype, and provide a technology demonstration.  The demonstration shall be conducted under controlled conditions, side-by-side with a state-of-the-art fluid-based system.  It is desired that the prototype system shall be provided to the Air Force at the end of the effort for further evaluation and testing.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: An alternative deicing system has many applications within both military and commercial aerospace operations.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Transport Canada, "Deicing with a mobile infrared system (TP 13489E),Dec. 1998, http://www.tc.gc.ca/tdc/summary/13400/13489e.htm

 

2.  Radiant Energy Corporation, "Radiant Energy," http://www.radiantenergycorp.com

 

3.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Preliminary Data Summary: Airport Deicing Operations (Revised)," EPA-821-R-00-016, August 2000

 

KEYWORDS: deicing, aircraft, laser, infrared, transportable, environmental 

 

 

AF06-081               TITLE: Recycling Composite Material

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate cost effective and environmentally-friendly recycling methods for weapons systems that contain organic matrix composite materials. 

 

DESCRIPTION: The Air Force (AF) is increasingly emphasizing environmental responsibility and liabilities relevant to weapon systems that have reached their design life cycle.  Many of these systems contain organic matrix composites at the airframe or subsystem level.  When a weapon system is retired, the aircraft is either scavenged for parts or eventually sold to salvage dealers who reclaim the high valued components and materials.  Some of these systems contain composite parts and coatings - materials not traditionally reclaimed.  The responsibility of dealing with the composite components and coatings then becomes the burden of the salvage dealer who may refuse to bid on the scrapped system to avoid the liabilities of disposing of waste that may be considered hazardous.  The design and material choices in these weapon systems affect the value of the aircraft to be reclaimed in the long run.  Therefore, these materials need to be disposed of in a cost effective and environmentally-friendly manner.  Disposal of these materials into landfills or consumed by methods involving incineration or chemical digestion are unacceptable since these processes may result in hazardous byproducts that require special attention.  Novel recycling techniques will offer the salvage dealers way of reclaiming these hard to avoid materials.

 

PHASE I: The contractor shall demonstrate the feasibility of a novel process that is capable of reclaiming the constituent materials of thermoplastic and thermoset organic matrix composites.  Cost effective and environmentally-friendly processes are desired. 

 

PHASE II: The contractor shall refine the process defined in Phase I, and demonstrate that the method is safe, cost effective, and able to be commercialized.  The AF will define the composite component to be recycled.  Phase II will conclude with a demonstration to interested AF organizations.  It is desired that the prototype system be delivered to the AF at the end of the effort for additional evaluation.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Successful demonstration and implementation of this technology has direct impact on commercial and military systems that utilize organic matrix composites.

 

REFERENCES: 1. “Tertiary Recycling Process to Reclaim Composite Aircraft Components,” Contract Number N00421-98-C-1032, Adherent Technologies, Inc., Naval Air Weapons Center, Pax River.

 

2. DoD Instruction 5000.2, “Operation of the Defense Acquisition System,” May 12, 2003.

 

3. Jost, K., "Sheet Molding Composite Recycling." Automotive Engineering, Vol 103, Issue 8, Aug 1995.

 

KEYWORDS: recycling process, pollution prevention, composite materials, carbon fibers, thermoplastic, thermoset

 

 

AF06-082               TITLE: Affordable Manufacturing for Lightweight High Thermal Conductivity Graphite Heat Sinks for Fighter Avionics Modules

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop an ultra lightweight thermally high conductive composite thermal plane heat sinks for various fighter avionics applications that are installed in liquid cooled avionics modular racks.

 

DESCRIPTION: The Air Force is seeking novel manufacturing approaches for lightweight Versa Modular Eurocard (VME) thermal plane heat sinks for various fighter aircraft on avionic modular racks compatibility. The thermal plane highlights are the following: 1) Utilization of high thermal conductivity pitch-based graphite to maximize rail-to-rail thermal conductivity. 2) Coefficient of thermal expansion(CTE) balance system for mechanical integrity. 3) Low cost through use of the following characterization: second generation affordable processed main graphite thermal plane and inexpensive composite in noncritical thermal areas that may emphasize structural requirements. The thermal plane will be designed to deliver as an affordable commercial off the shelf (COTS) approach to manufacturing a 3D composite heat sink. Goals are definite advantages in price, weight, stiffness, performance and manufacturing. Other design requirements are to minimize the thermal resistance between electronic components and the cooling media and minimized thermal resistance between the thermal plane interface, VME or standard electronic module Type-E  (SEM-E), type architecture avionic board. Other manufacturing requirements desired are coatings to demonstrate high or low electrical resistance, moisture/salt. The goal is to replace all aluminum and AlBeMet thermal plane heat sinks with high strength carbon fiber organic matrix composite (OMC) or low cost, high production carbon-carbon C-C materials with a 2X conductivity improvement, except for high heat load avionics, which requires a high graphite with a 3X conductivity improvements. Goals of heat power dissipation are 10 degrees F reduction and 20 percent cooling increase and 20 percent reduced weight.  Proof-of-concept subcomponent cores processing and manufacturing shall be fabricated and tested, and shall possess properties approaching the above goals for thermal plane heat sink applications. Critical material conductivity, strength/stiffness characterization shall be measured.  The concept(s) will be down-selected in Phase II for affordable composite manufacturing, high power, high production class, thermal plane heat sink insertion for a potential standard electronic module format circuit card, which will be developed in detail.  Affordable fabrications will be down-selected; thermal and structural material performance analysis shall be conducted for a typical fighter aircraft environment.  The modular composite heat sink fabrication, cost and thermal management models and implementation of potential aircraft transition plans will be analyzed.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed economical interface-type architecture avionics high conductivity thermal plane heat sink directed to replacing all metal heat sinks concepts.

 

PHASE II: The payoff and benefits of the technology will be demonstrated by the fabrication and environmental breadboard test of the selected unit(s).  The test data will be compared to the production, aircraft, avionics-type thermal plane heat sinks.  Merits and benefits shall be identified.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The use of an efficient thermal management composite material can enhance thermal performance and significantly reduce weight and increase performance of electronic cooled boxes.  Thermal management is an issue for commercial as well as DOD platforms.  Aerospace and transportation-type electronic boxes have similar requirement to reject heat.  Other potential applications include composite thermal management of the vast market of commercial satellite electronic boxes.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Newland, S “Applications for High Thermal Conductivity Graphite Heat Sinks for Fighter Aircraft,” 2004 IECS, Colorado Springs, CO, 2004.

 

2. Watts, R and Kistner, M “Thermal Conductivity and Structural Properties of Emerging Composites Materials,” 2004 Fall SAMPE, San Diego, CA, 2004.

 

3. Banisaukas, J Rawal, S Silverman, Ed “Carbon Composite for Spacecraft Thermal Management," 2005 STAIF, Albuquerque, NM, 2005.

 

4. Koch, R Watts, R and Benson-Tolle, T “Challenges and Opportunities for Thermal Management Materials,” 2003 Spring SAMPE, Long Beach CA, 2003.

 

5. Watts, R and Jenkins, L “Aerospace and Spacecraft Applications Opportunities,” 2004 Spring SAMPE, Long Beach CA, 2004.

 

KEYWORDS: organic matrix composites, carbon, thermal, planes, heat, sinks, radar, and transmitter/receivers

 

 

AF06-083               TITLE: Coolanol 25R Replacement for Military Aircraft Radar Cooling Systems

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop an environmentally safe coolant for military radar systems without requiring major hardware (H/W) replacement. The advanced coolant needs to be a drainable, purge and replace solution.

 

DESCRIPTION:   Many military radar cooling systems use Coolanol 25R as the coolant. Coolanol 25R is a hydrolytically unstable material that forms a flammable alcohol and silica gel when it decomposes. If leaks occur, this can cause extreme corrosion to coatings and potential fires.  Coolanol is approximately $500/ gal compared to $30/gal for MIL-PRF-87252 polyalphaolefin (PAO) which has previously been used for some AF systems without major H/W changes. While PAO coolant meets current requirements, advanced systems require improved performance in heat flux removal rate, heat capacity, thermal and hydrolytic stability, and low wear in pumps while still allowing the systems to operate without major modifications.  Eventual commercialization of the coolant is important and offerers should have an effective plan to provide the product to the AF if fully successful.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of developing an advanced coolant for use in military radar systems that will meet the requirements described above. Assess material compatibility issues and identify cooling capacitance of the coolant.

 

PHASE II: Fully develop and demonstrate an optimized coolant formulation.  Identify and solve any minor hardware modifications that cannot be totally eliminated and are required for an effective system solution. Deliver a cost impact estimate to convert advanced radar systems to the improved coolant.  Include any modifications necessary within the cost estimate.  Demonstrate the cooling performance in a laboratory environment simulating a flyable system.

 

PHASE III/DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:  Coolants are widely used for solar heat transfer, automotive cooling, nuclear industry cooling. Any such application is a potential use of this technology.

 

REFERENCES:   1.  PAO Coolant Conversion Workshop Proceedings," DTIC accession number ADB159981, 1991.

 

KEYWORDS: coolant, environmentally friendly, radar

 

 

AF06-084               TITLE: Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Machining Preforms

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop friction welding techniques for making near-net shape preforms for machining large (10 feet by 3 feet by 6 inch) structures from alloys in the strength range of 7050-T7451.

 

DESCRIPTION: The replacement of large aluminum structures in legacy aircraft is made difficult when the original assembly jigs are no longer available.  While the ability to reverse engineer the existing structure and machine a unitized structure exists, the size of the original structure often precludes being able to get a large block of the desired aluminum alloy in a timely fashion, if at all. Several concepts have been published or conceived to make near-net shapes, referred to as preforms, using friction stir welding and related friction joining technologies 1,2.  These would take smaller product forms of an alloy such as 7050-T7451 and friction stir join them together to make a preform from which the structure could be machined out of.  Development of detail part geometries, tool geometry and weld parameters is necessary to make these concepts suitable for implementation.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of proposed friction welding techniques for making near-net shape preforms.

 

PHASE II: Further develop the chosen technique demonstrated in Phase I and demonstrate the process on a representative full scale component. 

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The developed friction stir welding techniques will have applicability in both commercial and military aircraft as well as other industries such as recreational equipment and transportation applications.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Thomas, W.M. and Sylva, Gil Developments in Friction Stir Welding ASM Materials Solutions 2003, Pittsburgh, PA

 

KEYWORDS: friction stir welding, preforms, material

 

 

AF06-085               TITLE: Nanocomposites for Lightweight Electronic Enclosures

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a nanocomposite electronic enclosure to demonstrate lower weight with equivalent or better electronic performance.

 

DESCRIPTION: A new class of nanoconstituents, called vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCF) is a relatively mature, low cost material which may enable the use of very light weight electronic enclosures made of polymers rather than metals.  When incorporated at only a few percent into a polymer, VGCF can attenuate EM signals significantly over certain frequency ranges.  These materials could be produced by low-cost plastics fabrication methods and would weigh approximately half that of aluminum enclosures, possibly at lower cost.  The articles will be tested for electrical characteristics, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity.  A proposed full scale design and cost estimate would be required at the end of Phase I. If higher mechanical performance is required, VGCF can be incorporated into organic matrix composite (OMC) systems as well.  Previous results on VGCF OMCs have shown that significant attenuation can be achieved in these materials, saving about a third the weight over aluminum.  The Phase II demonstration article will be a full-scale electronic enclosure with reduced weight, while maintaining electronic and mechanical performance design properties at minimal cost increase per unit.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of building a fullscale electronic enclosure by fabricating subscale coupons and articles.

 

PHASE II: Develop, design, build, and test one or more fullscale electronic enclosures.  It is desired that the enclosure be delivered at the end of Phase II for additional testing and characterization by the government.  A cost estimate and draft material and process specifications would be required at the end of Phase II. 

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Commercial electronics, computers, commercial aviation, automotive body panels, commercial and military satellite structure

 

REFERENCES: 1. Lafdi, Khalid and Matthew Matzek, “Carbon Nanofibers as a Nano-Reinforcement for Polymeric Nanocomposites,” Proceedings of the 35th International SAMPE (Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering) Technical Conference, Dayton, Ohio, Sept. 28 – 2 Oct 2003 (ISBN 0-938994-95-6).

 

2. Tibbetts, G.G., C. Kwag, D.G. Glasgow, and M.L. Lake, “Conductivity of Thermoplastic Composites Compounded of Glass Fibers and Carbon Nanofibers,” Proceedings of the 35th International SAMPE (Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering) Technical Conference, Dayton, Ohio, Sept. 28 – 2 Oct 2003 (ISBN 0-938994-95-6).

 

KEYWORDS: electronic equipment, conductive polymers, nanotechnology, fiber reinforced composites, matrix materials, reinforced plastics

 

 

 

AF06-086               TITLE: Net Shape Forming of Ceramic Matrix Composites

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate  low cost net shape forming processes for preceramic polymer derived ceramic matrix composites (CMCs).

 

DESCRIPTION: Fighter and other military platforms are considering ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for engine applications due to their potential for weight reduction, reduced cooling, and durability improvements.  Cost and fabrication time are key issues that must be addressed, and low cost net shape processing will help address those needs.  Polymer derived CMCs, those fabricated by the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) method, share much in common with polymer matrix composites, and may benefit from processing methodology common in that industry.   Development of processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM) or one of its variants, tailored to CMCs, is required.  Teaming which includes a military engine manufacturer and a composite fabricator will be key to ensuring that materials and components of interest are selected and that methods conducive to volume production are developed.  A cost analysis to quantify the potential cost reduction and identify issues and needed process improvements should be accomplished in the first phase.  One or two components should be identified for demonstration in the second phase.

 

PHASE I: Address issues such as mold fill uniformity, distortion of the fibers/cloth/perform during infiltration, inclusion of particulate fillers in the preceramic polymer, and the type and composition of the mold.  Demonstrate the ability to fabricate composite material with acceptable properties.

 

PHASE II: Implement process improvements identified at the end of Phase I, and others that identified during subsequent development.   Fabricate and evaluate sufficient numbers of components to validate the capability and cost reduction potential of the methodology.  Evaluation will require NDE and thermal, physical, and mechanical property testing at a minimum.  Develop a detailed process cost model.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The processes developed will be applicable to a variety of ceramic composite materials and have applications in both military and commercial aircraft engines, rocket and satellite propulsion systems, and numerous industrial systems employing corrosion and heat resistant materials.

 

REFERENCES: 1. M. Erdal, L.A. Ambrosoni, and Z. Guo, "Structural Ceramics Through Particle-Filled Preceramic Polymers: Suspension and Particle Filtration Characterization," Cer. Eng. Sci. Proc., 21[4], pp 61-70, 2000.

 

2. M. Erdal, S Guceri, M. Allahverdi, W.R. Cannon, and S.C. Danforth, "Compression-Resin Transfer Molding of Particle-Filled Ceramic-Ceramic Composites," Cer. Eng. Sci. Proc., 19[3], pp 231-238, 1998.

 

KEYWORDS: ceramic matrix composite (CMC), processing, manufacturing, cost reduction

 

 

AF06-087               TITLE: Warpage/Distortion in Machining 7050-T7451 Alloy Components

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop design tools, models and processes for the efficient and distortion-free machining of complex integral aircraft airframe structures. 

 

DESCRIPTION: Current practice for machining aircraft structures is to end mill 90 to 95 percent of aluminum or titanium plate stock leaving precise, complex features typically on thin walled structures.  The resulting structures are lightweight and stiff typically consisting of open pockets with thin bottoms, each enclosed by walls of thin ribs perpendicular to the webs. These types of parts typically contain features on only one side.  In recent years the technique of high speed milling has become widely predominant in the manufacture of these parts.

 

However, these types of part geometries can be difficult to machine in a cost effective manner without inducing significant residual stresses and the resultant part distortions.  There is a definite need to develop a predictive capability for optimizing the machining practice while minimizing part distortion and residual stresses.

 

This project will develop an empirical model that provides the machine operator with specific guidelines for efficient machining while minimizing any distortion and warpage.  It will be important to consider both the machining induced residual stresses as well as bulk material residual stresses prior to machining.  Also consideration will be given to part layout with reference to the rolling direction of the plate stock material.  This model will provide best practices type recommendations/predictions for speeds, feeds, depth of cut, tool, fixturing etc for 7050-T7451 and part geometries. 

 

The Air Force (AF)is soliciting proposals to develop a shop floor model for speed machining which provides end mill process parameters specific to alloy and part geometry that increase efficiency, and accuracy while minimizing residual stresses and part distortion. Examples of these types of structures are complete wing skeletons, bulkheads and control surfaces. Select and design a pre-prototype model and carry out all the necessary computations to be ready for a feasibility demonstration and recommendation to build the prototype model for validation testing. Determine the characteristics so as to satisfy the use for several 7050-T7451 parts to be chosen by the AF. Compare the feasibility results with a current art baseline. Develop feasibility study for applying the model to other materials.  It is desired that the report and the prototype model be delivered to the AF for further testing and evaluation.

 

PHASE I: Design the model and validation testing plans, in principle, and carry out basic computations to compare and choose the more promising variant.

 

PHASE II: Build the prototype model and test its predictive capability of residual stresses and part distortions based on machining parameters during end-milling the required part features in aluminum 7050-T7451.  It is desired that the model be delivered to the AF at the end of the effort for further evaluation and testing.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The developed model and approach could be used with modification across all aerospace materials including aluminum, titanium and composites.  The technique can be equally applied to the machining of other military (helicopters, unmanned vehicles) and commercial aircraft components.

 

REFERENCES: 1. F. Huang-Hua, W. Chih-Fu, "A Residual Stress Model for the Milling of Aluminum Alloy", Journal of Materials Processing Technology 51, 1995, Pgs. 87-105

 

2. M.B. Prime, M.R. Hill, "Residual Stress Relief and Inhomogeniety in Aluminum Plate", Scipta Materiala 46, 2002, Pgs. 77-82    

 

KEYWORDS: aircraft machining, metals, affordability, alloys, machine tools, complex integrated structures, modeling, residual stress, distortion

 

 

AF06-088               TITLE: Protective Coating for Large-Diameter Bearing Races

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop and produce surface treatments and technologies to protect large size bearing races against wear and corrosion attack.

 

DESCRIPTION: Bearing materials of the jet engine thrust vector system experience severe loading conditions and are subject to corrosion attack from both aggressive environments and fluorinated lubricants.  Their size is nonconventionally large with an outside diameter of about 4 feet.  These bearing races are heavily preloaded to 3-4 GPa contact pressure and need to operate for thousands of hours while exposed to a marine environment and temperatures up to 320 degrees C. They are used to vector jet engine thrust through up to 90 degree angle and can be subjected to severe vibration and dithering motions.  High-performance stainless steel alloys (such as Pyrowear 675) are currently used to provide the required load support, corrosion resistance, and fracture toughness.  In order to achieve a high surface hardness and compressive residual stress, this alloy is case hardened.  However, this process can make the bearing races more susceptible to corrosion attack, reducing the expected service life.  These bearings are lubricated with fluorine-based greases with degradation products that can be highly chemically active.  Technologies are sought to provide a uniform protective coating on the case hardened surfaces of large size bearing races that will enhance high load wear and corrosion resistance; preserve mechanical properties and fatigue life of the core material; be compatible with fluorinated lubricants in hybrid metal-ceramic bearing systems; and, avoid geometrical distortions of the bearing during fabrication. The program should address both cost and weight considerations of the material system. Project coordination with component manufacturer is recommended.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of innovative surface coating technologies for the large hybrid bearings and evaluate service life extension, grease compatibility and corrosion resistance improvement. Demonstrate the improvement in corrosion and wear life through sample testing.

 

PHASE II: Develop a technological process to coat large sized bearings of the three-bearing swivel duct with advanced coating materials identified in the Phase I effort.  Coat and test prototype large size bearing races to demonstrate endurance improvements. Assess the benefits of using these technologies for large sized bearing races based on bearing performance and lifetime cost savings.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The new coating technology could have numerous mechanical applications for both military and commercial systems. These developments could be employed in almost any mechanical system where large sized bearing races can be subjected to wear and corrosion attack.

 

REFERENCES: 1. M. G. H. Wells, J. C. Beck, R. M. Middleton IV, P. J. Huang, and D. E. Wert, "Rolling contact fatigue behaviour of Pyrowear 675," Surface Engineering 15, pp. 321-323, (1999).

 

KEYWORDS: protective Coating, bearing, jet engines, corrosion, high friction

 

 

AF06-089               TITLE: Innovative Corrosion Protection via Cold Spray Kinetic Metallization

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a methodology for using a cold spray kinetic metallization process to apply a corrosion-resistant coating to the surface of aluminum alloy aerospace components.

 

DESCRIPTION: Current high-strength aluminum alloys are not inherently corrosion resistant.  Hence, protection schemes are employed to control corrosion.  Common protection methods include anodizing, cladding, and priming.  However, these methods have significant drawbacks.  For instance, cladding can only be applied to sheet materials, while anodizing and priming require special safety precautions to comply with increasingly stringent environmental regulations and also have a limited useful lifetime in harsh environments.  Cold spray kinetic metallization offers the potential to revolutionize corrosion protection for aluminum alloys by enabling the application of an environmentally friendly, durable, and corrosion-resistant coating to complex-shaped aerospace aluminum components. During the evaluation, consideration should be given to technical issues (e.g., imparted corrosion protection, coating adherence/strength/durability, impact on fatigue behavior of the substrate, galvanic potential with respect to graphite, titanium, and steel, etc.), process issues (e.g., automatability, ability to apply in areas with tight access, quality/repeatability/inspectability), and affordability/schedule issues (e.g., cost/availability of capital equipment, feedstock, trained personnel). At the end of Phase I, the feasibility of using one or more of the evaluated processes to apply corrosion-resistant coatings to aircraft components without degrading structural performance should be demonstrated.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of one or more cold spray kinetic metallization processes in terms of their corrosion protection capability and their applicability to coating complex-shaped aerospace aluminum alloy structures without degrading structural performance. 

 

PHASE II: Phase II will fully develop the process selected during Phase I.  It is desired that specific test plans will be developed and possibly coordinated with representatives from one or more aircraft original equipment manufacturers.  Target applications would be identified, and commercialization plan identified.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Both military and commercial aircraft employ high-strength aluminum alloys in their construction.  Should a successful technique be developed, it is likely to be used in many commercial and military applications.

 

REFERENCES: 1. T. H. Van Steenkiste. "Aluminum coatings via kinetic spray with relatively large powder particles," Surface and Coatings Technology 154, 237-252 (2002).

 

2. Chang-Jiu Li. "Deposition characteristics of titanium coating in cold spraying," Surface and Coatings Technology 167, 278-283, (2003).

 

3. Howard Gabel. "Kinetic Metallization Compared with HVOF," Advance Materials and Processes, 47-48, May 2004.

 

KEYWORDS: corrosion, aluminum, cold spray, kinetic metallization, cladding, anodizing

 

 

AF06-090               TITLE: Clutch Material for Aircraft Vertical Takeoff Systems

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop and produce a reliable clutch material for high-speed and high-torque rotation generated by a jet engine.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Lift systems for vertical take-off and landing is powered by a rotational moment transferred from the main turbine engine through a clutch.  The clutch is dry and similar in configuration to an aircraft brake, but operates at a significantly higher speed (up to approximately 8500 rotations per minute).  The design constrains the size of the clutch plates to approximately one foot in diameter.  The clutch plates are required to withstand a high shear load, resist sliding wear, withstand high peak temperatures, and have high static and dynamic friction coefficients to minimize slippage.  The clutch plates need high thermal capacity and thermal conductivity to dissipate large amounts of frictional energy introduced at a very high rate during engagement.  It is desirable to have rapid heat dissipation through the clutch material to avoid hot spot formation and achieve reliable, consistent operation.  A long service life in a marine environment is required.  The current carbon/carbon clutch plate material is challenged to meet the life/wear and friction coefficient requirements.

 

Innovative clutch materials and their manufacturing technologies are sought to provide reliable, long life, cost effective operation of the clutch.  Goals include a 3000 engagement life and a friction coefficient consistently greater than 0.1 and more typically closer to 0.2.  Innovative materials such as carbon nanotubes may provide significant improvement in the heat energy dissipation, but need to be incorporated into a composite to satisfy the operational requirements.  The program should also address both cost and weight implications of the proposed material system.  Project coordination with the component manufacturer is highly recommended.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of innovative clutch materials to provide long wear life, stable static and dynamic friction coefficients, heat dissipation, and corrosion resistance.  Produce sample materials and demonstrate expected improvements via testing.

 

PHASE II: Develop the fabrication process and produce a prototype clutch with the advanced material. Test  the prototype clutch to demonstrate performance and endurance improvements. Assess the benefits of using the new clutch material, including lifetime cost savings associated with the improvements. Deliver the prototype clutch to the AF at the end of the effort for additional testing and evaluation.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The new clutch material could have numerous mechanical applications for both military and commercial applications. These developments could be employed in almost any mechanical system where high-speed high-torque momentum from turbine engines needs to be directed to other mechanical systems.

 

REFERENCES: 1. K.C.Ludema, “Sliding and Adhesive Wear”, in Friction Lubrication and Wear Technology, ASM Handbook, vol. 18, p.236, 1992.

 

2. E.M.Tatarzycki and R.T.Webb, "Friction and Wear of Aircraft Brakes", in Friction Lubrication and Wear Technology, ASM Handbook, vol. 18, p.582, 1992.

 

KEYWORDS: turbine engine, clutch, vertical takeoff, carbon/carbon, wear, friction coefficient, shear strength, high temperature

 

 

AF06-091               TITLE: Corrosion Modeling and Life Prediction Supporting Structural Prognostic Health Management

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative statistical tools/models/techniques to provide algorithm capabilities to initiate inspections/predict corrosion health status (damage/useful life remaining) of aircraft.

 

DESCRIPTION: Corrosion and Control Plans seek to minimize life cycle costs due to environmental degradation, including deterioration of nonmetallic materials as well as corrosion of metals in aircraft (A/C) structures. The development and demonstration of the latest techniques for predicting corrosion will support the effective implementation of Structural Prognostics and Health Monitoring (SPHM) and the Autonomic Logistic Information System (ALIS) within the program. The approach selected can focus on the use of corrosion sensors but more importantly on modeling and an understanding of the basic mechanisms of corrosions effect on material and component life. The first objective should be to eliminate the need for periodic corrosion inspections. This may be accomplished through the merging of sensor inputs, an understanding of the particular physics of failure, analytical models, physical models, statistical techniques, and actual failure experience data. It is just not practical to saturate an aircraft with corrosion sensors; thus the heavy need and influence on valid modeling techniques supported by a minimal number of sensors.

 

PHASE I: Define the architecture including techniques/processes/minimum number of sensors to relate useful life remaining predictions to detectable corrosion in A/C structures. Demonstrate the feasibility of proposed solution. Develop required inputs to models and methods of extracting them from A/C.

 

PHASE II: Fully develop and demonstrate a prototype of these advanced models, techniques, and programs for the specific fighter aircraft Structural PHM design. Assess the application boundaries, accuracy, and limitations for these modeling techniques. It is desired that the model be delivered to the Air Force at the end of the effort for additional testing and evaluation.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The corrosion models developed will have applications for aging aircraft in both commercial and military settings.

 

REFERENCES:  1.  Wei, R.P. and Harlow, D.G., “Materials Aging, Prognostics, and Life-Cycle Engineering and Management,” 2003 TMS Annual Meeting, Materials Prognosis: Integrating Damge-State Awareness and Mechanism-Based Prediction: Role of Probabilistics in Prognostics, March 2-6, San Diego, CA

 

2.  Harlow, D.G. and Wei, R.P. "Life Prediction - The Need for a Mechanistically Based Probability Approach," Key Engineering Material: Probabilistsic Methods in Fatigue and Fracture, Chapter 6, 200, 119-138, 2001.

 

3.  Defense Science Board Report on Corrosion Control, Washington, D.C.: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, 2004, DTIC accession number ADA428767.

 

KEYWORDS: diagnostics, prognostics, corrosion, useful life remaining, prognostic health management

 

 

AF06-092               TITLE: Automated Delamination Onset and Growth Prediction in Composite Structures

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a software package with which to perform automated delamination onset and growth prediction in composite structures containing an initial crack. 

 

DESCRIPTION: A working relationship with a commercial software vendor is recommended. Demonstration of predictive abilities versus data will also be required. Important features of this product shall include (a) use of any common commercial off the shelf (COTS) finite element solver such as ABAQUS, ANSYS, LS-DYNA and/or NASTRAN; (b) use of PATRAN for common pre and postprocessing tasks; (c) ability to efficiently define initial crack geometry, including node duplication, connectivity, and contact algorithm definition; (d) ability to determine 3D strain energy release rates (SERRs) for multiple delamination areas on a single plane (i.e., G versus A);  (e) ability to determine SERRs at mesh corners and in growth directions that are not normal to the as-meshed crack front, see [1]; and (f) ability to automatically determine efficient delamination area step sizes based on growth-rate gradients.

 

PHASE I: Provide theoretical justification and demonstrate the feasibility of the model.  Commercialization strategy for a potential Phase II effort will also be identified.

 

PHASE II: Implement as a user subroutine for potential inclusion in a common COTS finite element package. A graphical user interface suitable to such a production environment is required, so pre-release software testing at government and/or industry sites will be encouraged. It is desired that the software and users manual be delivered at the end of the effort for further evaluation and testing by the AF.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: This technology can be applied to all composite structures in DoD or civilian applications.

 

REFERENCES: Ferrie, C. H. and Rousseau, C. Q. A Method of Applying VCCT to Corner Crack Nodes. 16th American Society for Composites Technical Conference, Blacksburg, VA, Sep 9-12, 2001.

 

KEYWORDS: automated delamination, software package, composite structure

 

 

AF06-093               TITLE: Techniques for Producing High Strength, Affordable Spinel Windows

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Identify and then validate techniques for producing affordable magnesium aluminate spinel windows with improved strength.

 

DESCRIPTION: The military demand for affordable yet increasingly accurate infrared imaging and targeting systems has led to challenging requirements for transparent ceramics.  For many applications, weapon system designers seek window and dome materials with excellent broadband transmission that are erosion-resistant in variable environments at high speeds and are inexpensive enough for single-use munitions.  Single crystal sapphire serves as the baseline material in many of these systems; however, its cost will likely be prohibitively high for large-volume applications.

 

Recent developmental efforts in aluminum oxynitride (ALON), magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4), and other transparent ceramics have led to their consideration as alternatives for sapphire in numerous military systems.  They exhibit similar infrared transmission, ballistic performance, and hardness, and they can potentially be manufactured at a cost significantly lower than that for sapphire [1-2].  Magnesium aluminate spinel is generally considered the preferred substitute for infrared (IR) applications because of its superior broadband transmission, but spinel windows may have to be thicker (and therefore heavier) than sapphire windows to provide equivalent mechanical performance.

 

The goal of this program is to identify and validate techniques for producing spinel windows with improved strength for applications such as IR sensor windows for manned and unmanned aircraft.  The strengthening improvements may target any part of the manufacturing process from the raw material through polishing; however, the prime contractor must be able to produce the window blanks.  The windows must provide excellent optical properties such as approximately 80 percent transparency from the visible through at least the midwave infrared and index of refraction variation of less than 10 ppm over the full window.  The window must also provide sufficient erosion resistance and strength to survive extended exposure at high speeds in varied environments.  A goal of the effort is to demonstrate biaxial tensile strengths in excess of 300 MPa, with a weibull modulus of at least 5, for spinel samples.

 

In addition to identifying techniques for producing spinel windows with improved strength, the contractor should also consider the feasibility of implementing these methods at a scale and cost appropriate to produce 2,000-3,000 windows per year approximately 10 inches by 15 inches in size.  The cost impact associated with the various strengthening methods should be identified. The strengthening techniques demonstrated should be practical on a production scale.  The steps and costs to implement these techniques should also be identified.  This demonstration should show batch-to-batch consistency for both optical and mechanical properties. 

 

PHASE I: Identify and demonstrate techniques that would produce spinel windows with improved strength that meet the optical and mechanical requirements described above.  Estimate the cost impact and determine the feasibility of implementing the techniques identified.

 

PHASE II: Demonstrate and optimize one or more of the most successful strengthening methods identified in Phase I by producing several large spinel windows (at least 10 inches x 15 inches) that meet the optical and mechanical requirements described above. It is desired that one of the windows be delivered to the Air Force at the end of the effort for additional evaluation and testing.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Many of the process improvements that enable spinel window strengthening will likely be transferable to transparent ceramic armor.  Transparent ceramic armor provides lightweight protection against small munitions and other threats and is used for armored vehicles, face and body shields for law enforcements officers, and aircraft windows among other applications.

 

REFERENCES: 1. M.C.L. Patterson, et.al. in R.W. Tustison, ed., Window and Dome Technologies VIII, SPIE, Bellingham, WA, pp. 71-79, 2003.

 

2. L.M. Goldman, et.al. in R.W. Tustison, ed., Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VII, SPIE, Bellingham, WA, pp. 71-78, 2001.

 

KEYWORDS: spinel, strengthening, IR windows

 

 

AF06-094               TITLE: High Performance Cage Sensors for Rolling Element Bearing Health Monitoring

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop and produce "smart bearing" technology for real time monitoring of the health of rolling element bearings in operation.

 

DESCRIPTION: Future aircraft will benefit from integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) technologies that will allow aircraft performance to be monitored and assessed real time.  This information will be used to determine performance as well as maintenance requirements.  A critical concern that would benefit the IVHM concept is health monitoring of rolling element bearings in turbine engine, gear box and other accessories.  These bearings, especially at internal locations, are in demanding/hostile environments.  Severe temperatures, vibrations and physical location make it difficult to use commercial off the shelf (COTS) sensors with hardwiring for data capture.  This program seeks to identify and develop unique technologies that can provide real time input of bearing temperature and vibration. The goal is to develop a robust sensing system that is integrated into the bearing, thus requiring no design changes to the system in which the bearing is installed. The data from the sensor is to be transmitted to an external unit by telemetry. This information should be easily integrated into a total health monitoring system for the aircraft without significant design change. The bearing health monitoring system should be durable and able to withstand high vibrations, and temperatures up to 300 degrees C.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of a high performance bearing health monitoring system using prototype bearing assemblies for level testing and validate signal/environmental condition relationships.

 

PHASE II: Develop prototype bearing assemblies and associated data acquisition systems for flight hardware.  Demonstrate performance and reliability in engine/component tests.  Assess the cost and performance of smart bearing technologies for fighters.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Smart bearing technology would have pervasive application in commercial and military systems.   The intent of this program is aircraft engines and subsystems. However, this bearing health monitoring system may find application in many other subcomponents or in automotive applications where performance enhancement or maintenance reduction warrants the use of a higher cost investment.

 

REFERENCES: Marble, S., Sadeghi, F., Nickel, D., and Hoeprich, M., "Micro Telemetry for Bearing Component Temperature Measurement," Proceedings of the May 2000 Annual Meeting of the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, Nashville, TN, 2000.

 

KEYWORDS: aircraft engines, bearings, sensors, vehicle health monitoring, high temperature, maintenance reduction

 

 

AF06-095               TITLE: Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Structural Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Metallic Components and Component Assemblies

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop three-dimensional nonlinear structural analysis methods necessary to enable prognosis systems applicable for aerospace gas turbine engine metallic components and component assemblies. 

 

DESCRIPTION: US Air Force (USAF) engines are required to satisfy both crack initiation (safe-life) and fatigue crack growth (damage tolerant) design criteria under the engine structural integrity program (ENSIP) [1].  Nondestructive inspection techniques such as fluorescent penetrant and eddy current have been implemented by the USAF to detect small cracks at critical locations.  This approach, based on systematic inspections of critical life-limiting locations in components, is used to detect cracks that can potentially grow to failure within the next inspection interval.  The inspection intervals are determined as 50 percent of the predicted crack growth life from an assumed initial flaw size.  These nondestructive inspections require removal of the engine from the wing followed by complete disassembly.  Hence, the current life management approach is time consuming and expensive.   Advanced and efficient life management practice and increased time-on-wing can be achieved by implementation of diagnostic and prognostic systems being developed under various programs [2,3].  Many of these prognosis systems rely on close coupling between damage-state sensors and component or material failure algorithms [3,4].  The component and material damage evolution and failure prediction tools will be required to utilize signals from limited number of sensors.  Hence, analysis methods are required to predict the response of single components and assemblies of components.  In addition, these approaches should enable detailed three-dimensional nonlinear structural analysis and damage evolution under complex engine loading conditions.  We seek three-dimensional nonlinear structural analysis methods that will enable prognosis systems applicable for aerospace gas turbine metallic engine components and component assemblies.   These methods should incorporate newly developed and/or available physically based probabilistic models that either describe damage evolution under service conditions or enable coupling between damage-state sensors and component or material failure algorithms. The proposed models should be based on key damage mechanisms including three dimensional crack growth in components and assemblies of components, non-linear material behavior, surface-treatment induced residual stress effects, and complex mission loading, coupled with detectable sensor parameters.  Since the implementation of such advanced prognosis systems requires integration with the operation of the engines, close technical collaboration with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) is strongly recommended in all phases.

 

PHASE I: Identify efficient three-dimensional methods that can be utilized for prediction of damage progression and sensor-detectable parameters at the component level. Demonstrate the feasibility of using the computational techniques in a prognosis system. OEM collaboration is encouraged.

 

PHASE II: Implement, demonstrate and validate computational techniques developed in Phase I that can be used for materials-damage based prognosis of gas turbine engine components and component assemblies. Demonstrate and validate prediction of damage evolution, deformation and life, and coupling with sensor-based technologies under turbine engine operating conditions. OEM collaboration is encouraged.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The technology is directly applicable to military turbine engine components.  Commercial benefits include improved life management of components for commercial aircraft engines and land-based turbines.

 

REFERENCES: 1.  Engine Structural Integrity Program (ENSIP), MIL-STD-1783 (USAF), 30 November 1984.

 

2.  Christodoulou, L. and Larsen, J.M., "Using Materials Prognosis to Maximize the Utilization Potential of Complex Mechanical Systems," Journal of Materials, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 15-19, March 2004.

 

3.  Russ, S. M., Rosenberger, A. H., Larsen, J. M., Berkley, R. B., Carroll, D., Cowles, B. A., Holmes, R. A., Littles, J. W., Jr., Pettit, R. G., and Schirra, J. J., “Demonstration of Advanced Life-prediction and State-awareness Technologies Necessary for Prognosis of Turbine Engine Disks,” Health Monitoring and Smart Nondestructive Evaluation of Structural and Biological Systems III, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5394, Edited by Tribikram Kundu, SPIE, Bellingham, WA, pp. 23-32, July 2004.

 

4.  Brockman, R.A., Huelsman, M.A., and John, R., “Simulation of Deformation Modes for Damage Detection in Turbine Engine Disks,” in Materials Damage Prognosis, Edited by J. M. Larsen, L. Christodoulou, J. R. Calcaterra, M. L. Dent, M. M. Derriso, W. J. Hardman, P. Hoffman, J. W. Jones, and S. M. Russ, The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, (TMS), 2005.

 

KEYWORDS: 3D, component assembly, crack growth, damage, fatigue, metals, nonlinear, sensor, structural analysis, three-dimensional, gas turbine

 

 

AF06-096               TITLE: Wear Resistant Coatings for Aluminum and Titanium Alloy Housings and Flanges

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop surface modification technology to reduce wear of housings and flanges made of aluminum and titanium alloys.

 

DESCRIPTION: Aluminum and titanium alloys are widely used for bearing housing and flanges in aerospace propulsion systems due to a low density, good mechanical strength, and high thermal conductivity.  However, these alloys can experience an excessive fretting wear, when matched to harder steel surfaces under adverse vibrations, loads, and temperature cycling.   LiftFan systems include bearing housings and flanges made of aluminum cast alloys (e.g. A357), aluminum wrought alloys (e.g. 2219), and titanium alloys (e.g. Ti6-4).  Fretting wear of their surfaces is traditionally solved using steel inserts or bushings, which are press-fit into aluminum alloy casing, and interface with the bearings.  Such approach increases a number of the manufactured parts and weight of the entire mechanism. A replacement of the steel inserts with surface treatment technologies is sought to provide wear resistance to aluminum and titanium alloy housings and flanges. A particular interest is in technologies, which can economically modify surface of aluminum and titanium alloys into a hard alumina and/or titania-based ceramic by a gradual transition from the core metal to the top ceramic layer.  A thickness of the ceramic transition layer should be at an order of 100 to 500 micrometers to distribute thermal and mechanical stresses and provide a good load support.  Such layer could replace steel inserts, while simplifying design and reducing mechanism weight.  For example, a microarc discharge treatment technology can be explored to convert the surface of aluminum and titanium alloys into a complex Al-Si-O and/or Ti-Si-O ceramics and provide relatively thick layers with good wear resistant properties.  Developed processes must not affect the bulk mechanical characteristics of the aluminum and titanium housings and flanges and should be resistant to fretting wear at temperatures between –60 to 300 F. A combination of the coating adhesion tests, corrosion tests, fretting wear tests, and fatigue tests of the coated specimens or parts is required for coating qualifications. An attention should be paid to thermal expansions in the bearing – coated housing couple to eliminate loose fittings.  Project coordination with lift system manufacturer is recommended.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of a surface modification to reduce fretting wear at the surface of aluminum and titanium alloys in contact with steel for application to housings and flanges of the lift system mechanisms. Produce samples and perform testing to demonstrate surface modification benefits.

 

PHASE II: Develop and validate a manufacturing process for surface modification of housings and flanges made of aluminum and titanium alloys. Produce and test prototypes of new housings and flanges.  Assess the benefits of using these surface modification technologies for LiftFan system housings and flanges.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: New surface modification technologies for aluminum and titanium alloys could have numerous mechanical applications for both military and commercial applications. These developments could be employed in almost any mechanical system where wear of aluminum and titanium alloys is a limiting factor.  The new process may also help to widen the use of aluminum and titanium alloys for mechanism weight minimization. Both aerospace and automotive industry will benefit form the new technology.

 

REFERENCES: 1. A.L. Yerokhin, X. Nie, A. Leyland, A. Matthews, S.J. Dowey, Plasma electrolysis for surface engineering, Surface and Coatings Technology 122, 73-93, (1999).

 

2. A.A. Voevodin, A.L. Yerokhin, V.V. Lyubimov, M.S. Donley, J.S. Zabinski, Characterization of wear protective Al-Si-0 coatings formed on

Al-based alloys by micro-arc discharge treatment, Surface and Coatings Technology 86-87, 516-521, (1996).

 

KEYWORDS: aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, wear, surface treatment   

 

 

AF06-097               TITLE: Damage Identification Algorithms for Composite Structures

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop an innovative damage identification algorithm for composite structural systems.

 

DESCRIPTION: The integrity of in-service composite structures needs to be inspected to determine their physical condition throughout their lifetime. Such inspection will be crucial for the future aircrafts due to the increased use of composites which will be expected to perform near their limit conditions. In order to respond to any structural anomaly as a result of impact loads and environmental stresses, associated damages should be detected, identified, quantified, and, if possible, continuously monitored. The damage such as delamination and matrix cracks can be extensive, yet hidden. Consequently, accurate detection, identification, quantification, and monitoring of internal damage are of major concern in the operational environment. Therefore, acquiring knowledge into the nature, extent, and distribution of damage and degradation in a structure while in service using structural health monitoring (SHM) systems is critical to develop subsequent timely strategies to retard deterioration and enhance the air safety.

Innovative and commercially viable concepts are being solicited for the development of structural health monitoring for signal processing and data interpretation to establish quantitative characterization of damages occurred in composite structures. The proposed damage identification algorithms should have capability to identify, quantify, and monitor damage of various forms. The proposed approach should go beyond a simple monitoring system that merely detects the presence of damage without identifying its importance of the safety of the airframe structure.The methodology is expected to recognize the size, forms of the failure modes such as matrix cracks, delamination, etc. The methodology also would have the capability of identifying the multiple damages.  The damage modeled must be compatible with sensing schemes that can be practically implemented on Air Force (AF) aircraft.The sensing scheme may include only types that can be practically implemented on AF aircraft. The enhancement of damage image resolution through different excitation signals and filtering techniques should be addressed in the simulation and experimental results. Optimal placement of sensors and actuators by using techniques such as optimization techniques or genetic algorithms should be developed and verified. The product must be implementable on an AF system with a minimum of effort, preferably within 2 years following the completion of the phase II program.

 

PHASE I: Develop an accurate and efficient damage identification methodology for detecting, locating, and quantifying the damages in the fiber reinforced composite laminates.

 

PHASE II: Fully develop and validate the methodology by integrated composite structural systems with sensors and actuators through experiments. It is desired that the prototype version of the software be delivered to the AF at the completion of the effort for addtional testing and evaluation.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Use of composite materials in civil and spacecraft will require an accurate and fast assessment of damages under the conditions to be experienced during service. The system developed could be used in any DoD platform, since they all have critical structural components that require health monitoring. Significant cost savings could be achieved by using a wide area inspection system of this nature since real time health monitoring would decrease inspection costs by reducing unnecessary inspections and tear-downs for inspection.

 

REFERENCES: The First and Second International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford University, 1997 and 1999

 

KEYWORDS: composite structures, structural health monitoring, matrix cracks and delamination, multiple damages, damage identification algorithms.

 

 

AF06-098               TITLE: Erosion Resistant Coatings for Polymer Matrix Composites

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop erosion resistant coatings on high temperature polymer matrix composites for application to turbine engines.

 

DESCRIPTION: New aircraft will use polymer matrix composites (PMCs) to replace traditional metallic materials for many components.  PMCs offer a tremendous benefit for weight reduction that is critical for enhanced performance.  One particular application where PMCs are appealing is the outer fan stator vanes where temperatures up to 600 F will be experienced.  A drawback for the use of PMCs is the excessive erosion that occurs when sand is ingested.  Erosion resistant coatings offer a solution; however, obstacles would have to be overcome.  Thicker coatings, such as plating or thermal spray, rely on mechanical bonds for adhesion.  These coatings may be susceptible to bond failure, especially since a large difference in thermal expansion is inherent between the coating and substrate.  Thinner coatings, such as physical vapor deposition (PVD), can be applied with chemical bonding for improved adhesion; however, they have not been developed specifically for polymer matrices, and sufficient thickness would be required to deter erosion for the life of the engine component.  This program will focus on the optimization of PVD coating processes for application of erosion resistant thin films to polymer surfaces that can withstand high temperature applications.

 

PHASE I: Develop a PVD process/coating for application to PMCs that provides erosion resistance from ambient up to 600 F.  Demonstrate the feasibility using bench level testing that includes erosive wear and thermal cycling.

 

PHASE II: Fully optimize and develop the selected PVD coating system.  Apply PVD coatings to selected aircraft subcomponents for erosion evaluation in engine/component tests to demonstrate durability and performance.  Scaleup process for manufacturing.  Evaluate the economic feasibility (initial costs and replacement costs) for inclusion of the coating technology on flight hardware.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The use of PMCs is becoming more widespread and therefore the ability to coat for wear, erosion and low friction performance will increase.  This technology will greatly promote the use of PMCs for many commercial and military applications including aircraft, automotive and heavy machinery.  Basically, anywhere PMCs are being considered for moving mechanical assemblies will benefit from this technology.

 

REFERENCES: 1.  NASA Tech Memorandum,  Erosion Resistant Coatings for Polymer Matrix Composites in Propulsion Applications", NASA/TM-2003-212201, March 2003, J.K. Sutter, S.K. Naik, K. Miyoshi, C. Bowman, K. Ma, G. Leissler, R. Sinatra, and R. Cupp.

 

KEYWORDS: turbine engines, composites, coatings, physical vapor deposition, adhesion, erosion, wear resistance, high temperature.

 

 

AF06-099               TITLE: Methodologies for Integration of Prognostic Health Management Systems with Maintenance Data

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative tools/techniques that would support the integration of prognostic/accurate assessment of actual material condition information within the maintenance/logistics support system.

 

DESCRIPTION: Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) is a system function that provides comprehensive assessment and reporting of system health, and detection of performance degradation for safety critical and/or maintenance significant functions [1].  Diagnostic and prognostic tools are being developed and implemented for accurate prediction of the remaining life or time span of proper operation of a component [2,3].  This information on the current damage state, predicted damage accumulation and remaining life coupled with the availability of resources and expected mission requirement, will enable the system user to make appropriate decisions about maintenance actions.  The PHM approach is significantly different from the conventional mission-cycle-based or time-based life management of aircraft components. Key to accomplishing PHM is being able to integrate prognostic and accurate assessment of actual material condition information from a number of sources to provide a material condition assessment. This assessment should be optimized to work within the maintenance and logistics infrastructure in place on this program.

 

PHASE I: Define techniques/processes to merge PHM data within military maintenance and logistics infrastructure. Develop initial list of required inputs to models and outline method of extracting them for selected military application. Develop models that are optimized to utilize minimum computing resources.

 

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype of these advanced models, techniques, and programs for a selected military system and applications. Assess the application boundaries, accuracy, and limitations for these modeling techniques.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The models and methodologies developed under this program will have applicability to both commercial and military aircraft as well as potential transition to other transportation systems.

 

REFERENCES: 1.  Hess, A., “The Joint Strike Aircraft Prognostics and Health Management,” 4th Annual Systems Engineering Conference, 22-25 October 2001.  Available at http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2001systems.

 

2.  Journal of Materials, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 14-42, March 2004.

 

3.  Christodoulou, L. and Larsen, J.M., “Using Materials Prognosis to Maximize the Utilization Potential of Complex Mechanical Systems,” Journal of Materials, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 15-19, March 2004.

 

KEYWORDS: Diagnostics, Prognostics and Health Management, PHM, data integration, useful remaining life, health management, prognostics, maintenance

 

 

AF06-100               TITLE: Improved Additives for Perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPAE) Lubricants with Silicon Nitride Rolling Elements

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop additives for perfluoropolyalkylether fluids and greases that will reduce their negative interaction with silicon nitride bearing materials

 

DESCRIPTION: Hybrid bearings utilizing silicon nitride rolling elements in conjunction with steel inner and outer bearing races are being developed for use in gas turbine engines.  As the operating temperatures of gas turbine engines continue to increase, the stability of the conventionally used ester and hydrocarbon-based lubricants will no longer be adequate to provide long service life.  The primary technology for higher temperature lubricating oils and greases is perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPAE) chemistry.  These perfluorinated materials are well known for their superior thermal and oxidative stability over the ester and hydrocarbon-based lubricants.  However, this same unique chemistry that provides their higher stabilities also creates some potential problems.  One of these is the lack of compatibility with silicon nitride materials.  Similar incompatibilities of the PFPAE-based lubricants with conventional bearing metals have been successfully addressed by a combination of PFPAE base oils with maximized stabilities coupled with new, soluble performance-improving additives that significantly improve the compatibility of these lubricants with bearing metals at high temperature.  The materials that improve the compatibility of the PFPAE lubricants with metals are not effective at improving their compatibility with silicon nitride.  In order to enable the incorporation of the hybrid bearings with the higher temperature PFPAE lubricants, an improved oil that demonstrates excellent compatibility with silicon nitride materials is required.  This oil must be based on PFPAE chemistry, as it is obvious that the inherent stability of those fluids will be required in gas turbine engines and accessories.  Any additive chemistry developed will have to: be effective over the temperature range of –40 to 650 degrees Fahrenheit, be soluble over that temperature range, and not adversely affect their stability.  In addition, it must work in conjunction with and not adversely affect the performance of other additives in the lubricant.

 

PHASE I: This phase shall demonstrate promising additive chemistry that abates negative interaction between PFPAE fluids and silicon nitride bearing rolling elements.   The effectiveness of the PFPAE lubricant developed shall be demonstrated in thermal exposure tests as well as in tribological experiments.

 

PHASE II: Complete development of a fully formulated PFPAE lubricant demonstrating excellent compatibility with silicon nitride rolling elements.  Bench tests and high temperature, highly loaded bearing tests using hybrid bearings composed of silicon nitride rolling elements and steel inner and outer races shall be used.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: This technology is directly applicable to a large number of commercial and military applications where the combination of PFPAE lubricants and hybrid bearings are needed for reliable service.

 

REFERENCES: 1.  The Effect of Additives on the Wear Behavior of Bearing Steels with RfO(CF2O)x(CF2CF2O)y(CF2CF2CF2O)zRf Perfluoropolyalkylether Fluids, Tribology Transactions, 41, 78-86 (1998).

 

2.  High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Hydraulic Fluid Development, Tribology Transactions, 45, 185-192 (2002).

 

KEYWORDS: lubricant, grease, perfluoropolyalkylether; perfluorinated, perfluoropolyether, high temperature

 

 

AF06-101               TITLE: Advanced Prognostic Health Management Technologies Using Integrated Detection Techniques with Physics of Failure Mode

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative techniques/algorithms/sensors/capabilities to enable prognostic technologies at the micromaterial level while supporting the overall aircraft system capabilities.  

 

DESCRIPTION: Prognostics and health management is a system function that provides comprehensive assessment and reporting of system health, and detection of performance degradation for safety critical and/or maintenance significant functions.  There exists a need to establish an innovative and effective means of performing micromaterial level prognostics, within the current fighter aircraft capabilities set and architecture. These methods of detection should be performed in realtime and incorporate the development and use of physics of failure models for the particular component/material at the micro level. 

 

PHASE I: Determine feasibility of providing techniques for micromaterial level prognostic technologies using integrated detection/physics of failure models. Provide approach for recommended combination of techniques/algorithms/sensors/models to accomplish objective. Show capability on a JSF design material.

 

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a final application for the combination of techniques, algorithms, sensors, and models produced in Phase I. Provide the architecture required to implement the above combination of capabilities. Demonstrate the recommended combination of these capabilities on specific JSF component designs.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military application: The advanced technologies and capabilities are applicable to advanced military aircraft as well as commercial aircraft.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Challenges for SHM transition to future aerospace systems, Goggin, P, Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford University,Stanford, CA, September 15-17, 2003, pp. 30-41. 2003

 

2. Enhancement of physics-of-failure prognostic models with system level features, Kacprzynski, G L; Roemer, M J; Modgil, G; Palladino, A; Maynard, K, 2002 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings. Vol. 6, Big Sky, MT;

UNITED STATES; 9-16 Mar. 2002. pp. 6-2919 to 6-2925. 2002

 

KEYWORDS: diagnostics, prognostics, physics of failure, micromaterial, JSF, PHM

 

 

AF06-102               TITLE: Aircraft Damage Locator

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a system that can quickly and accurately interpret visual damage location on an aircraft structure in three-dimensional space and transfer the information to a computer model of the aircraft.

 

DESCRIPTION: Military aircraft often receive damage to their structure and special features due to a variety of causes. The damage is typically detected visually or through the aid of handheld nondestructive inspection devices. Determining the exact location and spatial orientation of the damage is critical for a number of reasons including: determination of effect of damage to system capability, transfer of information for offsite consultation, and accurate documentation of damage for future reference. Typically, measurements are made from structural features such as fasteners, doors, or panels and then transferred manually to paper, which is an inaccurate, insufficient, and time-consuming process. The purpose of this program is to develop an inexpensive, portable data collection system that can be quickly setup in a remote location, map the damage on military aircraft in a three-dimensional coordinate system, and translate that information to a digital model of the aircraft. The goal is to provide the warfighter with a tool that can be used to digitize fixed points on the aircraft for mapping the aircraft to a digital model. Then, the warfighter can outline the damage using the tool to accurately identify the damage location relative to the digital model. This three-dimensional representation of the damage can then be used to feed other models for onsite engineering analysis or can be sent offsite electronically for rapid evaluation and documentation.Identify key requirements from users including input data, system setup, hardware, system speed and accuracy, output data. Demonstrate capability to quickly and accurately capture damage location on a system and map it to a digital model.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system including the identification of input parameters and output tolerances/requirements for accurate damage assessment.  It is desired that "breadboard" prototype system be demonstrated to show how the system would perform.  This may not include full integration as in the Phase II prototype.

 

PHASE II: Fully develop, integrate, and demonstrate a prototype aircraft damage locator system utilizing a selected AF aircraft model.  The prototype system will include a users manual and necessary hardware/software.  Innovative commercialization strategies are encouraged such a teaming with an aircraft prime contractor, software vendor, etc..  It is desired that the prototype system be delivered to the AF at the end of the effort for further evalaution and testing.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: With minor modification, the aircraft damage locator can be adapted to work on vehicles of any type as well as buildings and static structures such as bridges. This might become a cost effective means for automobile insurance agencies to speed the time and improve the accuracy of performing automobile repair estimates. Insurance estimators might also be able to use a tool like this to evaluate computer designed tract homes experiencing damage due to hurricanes, earthquakes or fire.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Aircraft Survivability?, JTCG/AS Newsletter, Spring 2002. Available at www.bahdayton.com/surviac/PDF/JTCGAS_spr02.pdf

 

KEYWORDS: aircraft battle damage repair, aircraft battle damage, damage location, defect modeling

 

 

AF06-103               TITLE: Advanced Manufacturing Processes for Reduced Cost of Ceramic Matrix Composite Engine Components

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Reduce the cost and cycle time to manufacture ceramic matrix composite components for gas turbine engine applications.

 

DESCRIPTION: Requirements for advanced propulsion systems call for significant increases in performance.  Advanced materials enable longer life, reduced weight, and increased performance.  Ceramic Matrix Composites(CMC) offer a huge potential to increase the performance of gas turbine engines, however the cost of CMC make wide implementation impractical.  Advanced manufacturing techniques can reduce the cost

and cycle time to implement advanced CMC in gas turbine engines.  Particular areas of interest include:  simulation of CMC manufacturing processes to enable the application of lean manufacturing, weaving, coating, machining, quality control, nondestructive inspection, and effects of defects.  Proposals shall demonstrate a reasonable expectation that new manufacturing approaches will lead to lower cost and/or cycle time for producing CMC. The ability to achieve mechanical properties suitable for the particular gas turbine engine application shall also be demonstrated.  The potential cost savings and cycle time reductions of the demonstrated processes shall be validated.  Commercialization plans and qualification requirements shall be established to offer these new techniques to the aerospace industry for production, transition, and qualification in Phase III.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of innovative manufacturing methods that will result in substantial cost and cycle time reductions to produce ceramic matrix composites for turbine engine applications. 

 

PHASE II: Fully develop the manufacturing techniques developed in Phase I and demonstrate that these techniques can be easily implemented to achieve the cost and/or cycle time reductions claimed.  The manufacturing techniques shall be demonstrated in a pilot-scale manufacturing environment for the chosen component applied to a current Air Force CMC component.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The manufacturing process improvements for the ceramic matrix composite engine components will have applications to turbine engines in both military and commercial aircraft.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Walter Krenkel, Roger Naslain, and Hartmut Schneider (Editors), High Temperature Ceramic Matrix Composites, January 2002.

 

KEYWORDS: ceramics, fiber weaving, composites, lean manufacturing, machining

 

 

AF06-104               TITLE: Three-Dimensional Deformation and Life Prediction Methods for Ceramic Matrix Composite Components

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate three-dimensional mechanism-based long-term deformation and life prediction methods for advanced ceramic matrix composites under aerospace gas turbine engine loading conditions.

 

DESCRIPTION: Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are targeted for use in advanced aerospace turbine engine components which are exposed to temperatures greater than 1000C [1-3].  The current understanding of CMC behavior is based on extensive work on materials employing two-dimensional fiber architectures.  However, in many cases, the complexity of the thermal and mechanical loading conditions in a gas turbine engine may require the use of a CMC fabricated using a three-dimensional (3D) fiber architecture.  In addition, the CMC components also contain stress concentration sites such as corners, holes, fasteners and joints.  Limited investigations have been conducted to understand the durability of CMC containing three-dimensional fiber architectures [4,5].  Hence, we seek fully validated three-dimensional mechanism-based models that are capable of predicting the long-term deformation and life under aerospace gas turbine engine loading conditions.  The proposed work should develop or adapt full-field test techniques required to assess and predict long-term durability under multiaxial stress states and steep stress gradients.  The models should be validated using subelement characterization based on targeted applications under complex environmental and thermal-mechanical loading conditions similar to that expected in engines.  The ability of the models to predict the local and global deformation during these experiments should be verified using appropriate measurements.  Multiaxial stress states due to rapid transient through-thickness thermal gradients should also be considered. The test techniques and models should be applicable to 3D architectures and component features or shapes that are expected in CMC components.  Active participation by propulsion contractors in all phases of this program is encouraged to ensure transition of these modeling and subelement validation technologies.

 

PHASE I: Identify three-dimensional loading configurations, fiber architectures and environments simulating life-limiting locations in CMC components. Demonstrate feasibility of manufacturing corresponding subelements.  Demonstrate feasibility of 3D mechanics-based deformation and life prediction models.

 

PHASE II: Implement, demonstrate and validate modeling techniques developed in Phase I that can be used for durability assessment, and deformation and life prediction of three-dimensional CMC components targeted for use in gas turbine engines.  Demonstrate and validate applicability of models to accurately predict the full-field three-dimensional behavior at life limiting locations in the CMC components.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Commercial benefits include incorporation of advanced CMC materials in commercial aircraft engines and land-based turbines.

 

REFERENCES: 1.  Integrated High Performance Turbine Technology (IHPTET) Brochure, Edited by C. Lykins and K. Watson, Wright Laboratory (WL/POT), Materials Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 1995.  Information also available at http://www.pr.afrl.af.mil.

 

2.  Hill, R.J., "The Challenge of Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET)," in Eleventh International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, Edited by F.S. Billig, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 19 September 1993.

 

3.  Fohey, W.R., Battison, J.M., Nielsen, T.A., and Hastings, S., "Ceramic Composite Turbine Engine Component Evaluation," in Ceramic Engineering and  Science Proceedings, Edited by G.N. Pfendt, American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH, July-August 1995.

 

4.  Morscher, G.N., Yun, H.M., and DiCarlo, J.A., "Matrix Cracking in 3D Orthogonal Melt-Infiltrated SiC/SiC Composites with Various Z-Fiber Types," Journal of American Ceramic Society, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 146-153, 2005.

 

5.  Ogasawara, T., Ishikawa, T., Ohsawa, Y., Ochi, Y., and Zhu, S., "Tensile Creep Behavior and Thermal Stability of Orthogonal Three-Dimensional Woven Tyranno ZMI Fiber/Silicon-Titanium-Carbon-Oxygen Matrix Composites," Journal American Ceramic Society, Vol. 85, No. 2, pp. 393-400, 2002.

 

KEYWORDS: 3D, architecture, ceramic matrix composite, CMC, damage, durability, gas turbine, holes, joints, life prediction, mechanisms, three-dimensional

 

 

AF06-105               TITLE: Solid Rocket Motor Nozzles Made From Tantalum Carbide Continuous Fiber Composites for Boost Applications

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Space Platforms

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Produce and characterize tantalum carbide (TaC) tow-based fibers and TaC/TaC composites for aggressive environments such as nozzle throats of solid rockets using highly aluminumized propellant.  

 

DESCRIPTION: The missile and rocket community requires higher performance solid rocket motors for boost applications. New boosters require increased thrust so that they can travel at higher speeds and/or carry bigger payloads than current systems. To meet these requirements, high aluminum propellants that operate at temperatures in excess of 6000°F and at pressures greater than 2000 psi are being formulated. Current metallic nozzles, made from tungsten and rhenium, are not able to contain these high temperature blasts without melting or ejecting due to creep.

 

A possible solution is to exploit the many attractive properties of tantalum carbide (TaC) for this application.  TaC has the second highest melting point of any known material and it does not undergo a destructive phase change upon heating or cooling. Additionally, it has high erosion resistance in an aluminumized propellant. It resists grain boundary attack from both molten and vapor phase aluminum and alumina. Furthermore, it has high hardness which makes it resistant to ablation from high velocity impact of alumina particles produced in the blast.  Therefore, TaC is expected to be an excellent candidate for next generation rocket nozzle throats for boost applications such as the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV).

 

Unfortunately, monolithic structures made from TaC lack the strength or strain capability to accommodate the thermal stresses generated in a nozzle during the first few seconds of blast. There are only a few ways to accommodate this stress, i.e. elastic/plastic deformation or cracking. In a monolithic ceramic, a single crack forms and grows until catastrophic failure occurs.  However, in a ceramic matrix composite (CMC), many matrix microcracks form and deflect along fiber/matrix interfaces without fracturing the fibers. Fibers bridge the cracks and hold the composite together. Microcrack damage is spread over a large area without catastrophically failing the component.

 

In the past, carbon fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites have been fabricated by both chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) and polymer infiltration pyrolysis (PIP). Both of these processes have problems associated with insufficient matrix yield, extreme matrix cracking, spalling, and fiber debonding during processing. The matrix degradation problem is caused by the generation of large tensile stresses due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the carbon fiber and the ceramic matrix.  The development of TaC continuous tow-based fibers that can be incorporated into TaC matrices should eliminate the CTE mismatch problem and prevent matrix cracking and spalling during the processing phase. A pyrolytic carbon or boron nitride (fiber/matrix) interface coating may provide the toughness mechanism needed to hold the system together during operation. 

 

Offerors must present a rational argument as to why their process will result in a high volume yield, tow-based fiber with the desired properties and performance. The process must have potential for economical production of a large quantity of tow-based fibers and/or woven-tow preforms. The process should produce fine diameter fibers of less than 10 microns that are amenable to tow forming. Contamination control and volatile species in the processing phase are major concerns for these materials. Low melting point impurities tend to segregate to the grain boundaries resulting in poor strength and creep resistance. Impurities vaporize inside the material during calcinations causing pores that limit strength. Extreme care must be taken to minimize these effects.

 

PHASE I: The offeror will develop high volume yield processes to synthesize high tensile strength, continuous tow-based TaC fibers. Phase I deliverables will be a small quantity of the raw or precursor materials, 10 high-strength (1 GPa) fibers that are 10 inches in length and 10 microns in diameter.

 

PHASE II: The offeror will scaleup the fiber manufacturing process and produce TaC/TaC composites in both plate and subscale nozzle forms. Tow-based fibers will be produced for property evaluation, weaving studies, and compositing studies. Deliverables will be 200 feet of high strength (1 GPa) tow-based fiber for tensile and creep tests. A plate and two small nozzles should be manufactured and delivered.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The technology developed by this effort will have use for miitary rockets and missiles, while commercial applications of ceramic rocket nozzles include boost capabilities for space-based systems such as the space shuttle solid rocket motors and telecommunication satellites. 

 

REFERENCES:  1. E. L. Courtright et al., "Ultrahigh Temperature Assessment Study: Ceramic Matrix Composites," WL-TR-91-4061 (ADA262740), Air Force Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, September 1992.

 

2. A.J. Perry, "The Refractories HfC and HfN - A Survey I and II," Powder Metall. Int., 19, No. 1, 29 (1987).

 

3. Aviation Week & Space Technology, "New Nozzle Shows Potential for Increased Efficiency", p. 15, March 24, 2003. 

 

KEYWORDS: solid rocket nozzle throats, ceramic, zero erosion, tantalum carbide.

 

 

AF06-106               TITLE: Lightweight Conformal Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a lightweight polymer system capable of providing broadband EMI suppression.

 

DESCRIPTION: EMI is defined as any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics/electrical equipment. It can be induced intentionally, as in some forms of electronic warfare, or unintentionally, as a result of spurious emissions and responses, intermodulation products, and the like (1). Current state-of-the-art EMI shielding materials that are polymer based typically contain up to 87 percent silver or similar metals in order to meet generic shielding requirements on the order of 2dB/mil. These materials suffer substantially from loss of mechanical integrity due to their highly loaded nature, resulting in easy tearing and breakdown under friction. In an attempt to overcome this challenge, some manufactures of polymer-based EMI materials have typically based materials on thermosetting systems that have a high hardness (i.e., > 100 A). This, however, limits the scope of use of these systems and can lead to embrittlement. These systems also tend to have a very high specific gravity or density due to the large amount of metal found in the system.

 

We seek new and novel methods to produce low density, highly versatile polymer-based EMI shielding materials. These materials should have the ability to be easily processed and maintain mechanical and electrical integrity under harsh environmental conditions. Materials developed should be able to be fabricated into forms such as spray-on shielding, conformal dip-coated shielding, extrudable case components, caulking-gun-delivered flexible materials for joining panels, and be used as adhesives.

 

PHASE I: Develop and demonstrate a shielding effectiveness greater than 5 dB/mil, in a polymer matrix over broad frequency range (min 200 kHz to 20 GHz). The system should demonstrate a density of less than 2.0 g/cc, an ability to be coated conformably onto complex surfaces, and harness of 40 to 70 Shore A.

 

PHASE II: Further develop and demonstrate scalability of the process to make materials from Phase I efforts. Refine shielding effectiveness to 8 dB/mil (minimum 200 kHz to greater than 20GHz). Demonstrate performance in a platform-specific configuration by implementing technologies into and constructing prototypes for test and evaluation.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Transition technologies to provide lightweight conformally coatable EMI materials. Commercial benefits include improved coaxial cable shielding, static-dissipating carpet adhesives, and reduced piece parts in electronics enclosure manufacture.

 

REFERENCES: 1. United States, Joint Chiefs of Staff. DOD Dictionary of Military Terms and Associated Terms. Joint Publication 1-02. Washington, DC: JCS, 1997.

 

2. Baker-Jarvis J., Janezic M., Riddle B., Holloway C., Paulter N., and Blendell J., "Dielectric and Conductor-Loss Characterization and Measurements on Electronic Packaging Materials," NIST Technical Note 1520, 2001. Available at http://www.boulder.nist.gov/div813/rfelec/properties/Publications/Baker-Jarvis%20TN%2001.pdf

 

3. Joint Spectrum Center Website, MIL-STD-462(x) MEASUREMENT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE CHARACTERISTICS, http://www.jsc.mil/jsce3/emcslsa/stdlib/docs/MilStd/History/MIL-STD-462.pdf

 

4. Joint Spectrum Center Website, MIL-STD-461(x) ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE CHARACTERISTICS REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT, http://www.jsc.mil/jsce3/emcslsa/stdlib/docs/MilStd/history/MIL-STD-461.pdf

 

KEYWORDS: electromagnetic interference shielding, electromagnetic pulse shielding, polymer, spray coating, roller brush painting

 

 

AF06-107               TITLE: Air Sensor for Hydraulic Fluid

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a sensor to measure the amounts of free and dissolved air in the hydraulic fluid

 

DESCRIPTION: Excessive air in hydraulic fluid can cause severe problems in aircraft hydraulic systems.  Not only does excess air cause poor response from the system to inputs from the pilot, but it also reduces the stiffness of the control surfaces.  An additional problem caused by excess air is cavitation that occurs when the air comes out of the fluid resulting in severe damage to the components as well as localized degradation of the hydraulic fluid.  These problems are manifested when there is free air in the hydraulic fluid.  At normal temperature and pressure, approximately 18 percent of air by volume is soluble in the military hydraulic fluids, (MIL-PRF-83282, MIL-PRF-87257 and MIL-PRF-5606).  In order to prevent free air from forming in the fluid, the sensor must be capable of measuring both the free air and the dissolved air in the hydraulic fluid.  The sensor must be compatible with the hydraulic fluids and functional over the anticipated temperature range of the hydraulic fluid of -40 to 275 degrees F.  The sensor is not to be mounted on aircraft but on ground support equipment, e.g., hydraulic fluid purifier or  hydraulic test stand.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of the technical approach proposed to measure the dissolved and free air content of military aerospace hydraulic fluids over the temperature range of -40 to 275 degrees F.

 

PHASE II: The Phase II effort will build on the technology demonstrated during the Phase I contract and will develop it into a working prototype.  The long term compatibility of the sensor with MIL-PRF-87257, MIL-PRF-83282 and MIL-PRF-5606 will be demonstrated.  Calibration procedures will be developed that will be simple enough to use in the field.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: If necessary, modification may be needed to make it compatible with commercial aerospace hydraulic fluids, such as Skydrol and Hy-Jet hydraulic fluids, which are phosphate ester based rather than hydrocarbon based like the military aerospace hydraulic fluids.  Additionally, the sensor could also be modified for use in other fluids where the air content requires to be measured.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Military Aerospace Fluids and Lubricant Workshop Proceedings, November 2004.

 

KEYWORDS: hydraulic fluid, sensors, air sensors, hydraulic fluid purification

 

 

AF06-108               TITLE: Integrated Materials for Efficient Airframe Structures

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop integrated material solutions that combine thermal protection concepts with warm airframe structures for next generation reusable hypersonic and reentry vehicles.

 

DESCRIPTION: Current state-of-the-art reentry and hypersonic vehicles consist of low temperature structural materials, such as aluminum alloys, with insulating ceramic tiles bonded to the surface. This approach has worked relatively well for the Space Shuttle, but there are several disadvantages to this approach including the following:

 

1. The current approach is maintenance intensive, requiring thousands of man-hours after every flight for inspection, repair and waterproofing of the fragile ceramic tiles. This is not acceptable for future USAF applications in which the vehicle must be operationally responsive.

2. The tiles provide insulation, but they are parasitic in that they do not carry any structural loads. The result is a heavy structure, not optimized for weight, and expensive to operate.

3. The system can result in catastrophic failure if an insulating tile is lost and the underlying cold structure is exposed to extreme temperature.

 

An alternative approach for future hypersonic vehicles involves utilizing novel materials and innovative design and manufacturing techniques to integrate the thermal protection system with the airframe to create efficient load-carrying structures. In addition, it is estimated that by using a 600 degrees F airframe material, a 15 percent weight savings over traditional lower temperature airframe materials can be realized.  An integrated approach will encounter challenges of how to combine and join different materials together optimally to form an efficient structure.  This topic will focus on the modeling, selecting, joining, processing, and testing of materials for integrated structures.

 

PHASE I: Design integrated structures based on mechanical/thermal models, and address the joining, processing and fabrication of the warm airframe and thermal protection.  The contractor shall demonstrate the feasibility of the most promising concept experimentally or analytically.

 

PHASE II: The most promising integrated concept defined in Phase I will be refined using analytical and empirical methods. Coupon and subcomponent specimens will be fabricated and tested in representative environments to assess performance objectives.  The contractor shall deliver an optimized structural component and a manufacturing maturation plan to the Air Force for further assessment.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: This effort will produce integrated structures for miltary hypersonic vehicles. Commercial applications of the technology include commercial launch and space vehicles. Integrated structures consisting of different types of materials will have broad applicability to commercial rocket engines, aircraft engines and other extreme environment applications.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Airframe Technology Development for Next Generation Launch Vehicles, David E. Glass, IAC-04-V.5.09

 

2. D. J. Rasky, H. K. Tran, and D. B. Leiser, “Thermal Protection Systems,” Launchspace, pp.49, June 1998.

 

3. Polyimide Composites in Launch Vehicle Propulsion,” High Temple Workshop XXIV, Sacramento, CA, February 2004

 

KEYWORDS: thermal protection systems, hypersonic vehicles, high temperature materials                  

 

 

AF06-109               TITLE: Photo-Electrochemical Generation of Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Operation

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE: Explore and develop high-efficiency, low cost, safe, light-weight photo-electrochemical systems for the solar production of hydrogen for micro fuel cell operation.

 

DESCRIPTION: The development of low cost, renewable energy capabilities is critical to the Air Force for air, terrestrial, and space applications.  The current dependency on fossil fuels and traditional batteries has resulted in a variety of problems including: dependence on foreign countries for fuel, pollution of our environment, and the need to transport bulky, heavy generators and batteries with deployed troops.

 

A variety of alternative energy sources are currently being investigated by the Materials and Manufacturing Directorate including: low cost photovoltaics for solar power, improved fuel cells for low cost, cleaner and quieter power production, light-weight thin-film batteries, and the generation of hydrogen via photoelectrochemical (solar) process to fuel emerging fuel cell systems.  The focus of this program is the development of a high efficiency photoelectrochemical system for the production of hydrogen using solar energy.

 

Providing fuel and batteries to power small unmanned aircraft in remote locations presents a logistical challenge.  The purpose of this program is to explore and develop the harvesting of energy from the environment to power small unmanned air vehicles.  Studies using hydrogen fuel cells to power large aircraft are currently underway at Boeing, NASA, and other aircraft companies(1).  Prototype aircraft have been flown to demonstrate the technology.  In these systems, the hydrogen is stored onboard to provide the fuel needed for flight.  In this study we propose the development of the technologies needed for onboard, real-time hydrogen production from water using solar energy.  Through the integration of in situ hydrogen production with fuel cell systems the fuel cell becomes regenerative.  The goal of this program is to explore and develop high efficiency, low cost, safe, lightweight photoelectrochemical systems for the production of hydrogen for energy harvesting micro fuel cell operation in small unmanned aircraft.

 

PHASE I: Provide a feasibility demonstration of an improved approach to hydrogen generation using solar energy.

 

PHASE II: Develop a prototype solar powered hydrogen generation unit. The contractor will work with Air Force personnel to design and fabricate a working hydrogen generation unit which integrates into operational fuel cells. The system will be evaluated relative to current technologies. It is desired that prototype hydrogen generation system be demonstrated at the end of the Phase II effort.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Military applications include the production of power via fuel cells in remote applications. Useful for airbase, special operations, aircraft, UAV and satellite applications.  Commercial applications involve a variety of consumer uses including automobiles and power supply in remote locations.

 

REFERENCES: 1.  Michael Gratzel, "Photoelectrochemical Cells,"  Nature 414, 338 - 344 (15 November 2001).

 

2. Michael Gratzel, "Mesoscopic Solar Cells for Electricity and Hydrogen Production from Sunlight," Chemistry Letters Vol.34, No.1 (2005).

 

3. Licht S., Halperin L., Kalina M., Zidman M., Halperin N., "Electrochemical Potential Tuned Solar Water Splitting," Chem Commun (Camb),(24):3006-7, 2003 Dec 21.

 

4. Zou Z., Ye J., Sayama K., Arakawa H., "Direct Splitting of Water Under Visible Light Irradiation with and Oxide Semiconductor Photocatalyst," Nature,

414(6864):625-7, 2001 Dec 6.

 

KEYWORDS: hydrogen generation, photoelectrochemical, solar, water splitting, fuel cell, photocatalysis 

 

 

AF06-110               TITLE: Materials for Terahertz Frequencies

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop materials that enable systems utilizing electromagnetic radiation at terahertz (THz) frequencies.

 

DESCRIPTION: The Terahertz portion of the frequency spectrum (0.3-30 THz) has attracted interest for various potential for urban warfare and hidden weapons discovery, checking personnel and packages for guns and explosives, and even communications.  However, the spectral region has been underutilized because of the inadequacy of THz sources and detectors that are in turn limited by materials. We seek novel materials development that enables significant improvement in the operation of these systems in terms of all or some of the following measures: component size and weight, wall-plug efficiency for generating THz radiation, average power generation, instantaneous power generation, detectivity, room temperature operation, and coherent generation/detection for low noise and background subtraction. Our interest is in both laser-based and electronic-based approaches for generating and detecting THz radiation, primarily in the 0.5-3 THz regime. The materials to be developed may be either bulk or engineered.

 

PHASE I: Develop processing techniques for material(s) that enable significant improvement in the operation of THz systems.  The materials shall also be characterized, and demonstrations shall be performed that show the potential for improvement in system performance.

 

PHASE II: Develop the proposed material and/or the relevant material processes and demonstrate the materials properties and their usefulness for commercial and military applications. As part of the development activity, the material(s) may be integrated into a component or device.  Manufacturing processes for commercialization of the material and/or product shall be developed.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Follow-on activities are expected to be aggressively pursued by the offeror, namely in seeking opportunities for integrating the novel material into THz system hardware.  Commercial benefits would be for airport security and wideband data transmission if the right materials are developed.

 

REFERENCES: 1. J. Federici et al, "Terahertz Imaging Using an Interferometric Array," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, p. 2477 (2003).

 

2. F.C. DeLucia, "Science and Technology in the Submillimeter Region," Optics and Photonics News, August 2003.

 

3. W. Shi, Y.J. Ding, N. Fernelius, & K. Vodopyanov, "Efficient, Tunable, and Coherent 0.18-5.27 THz Source Based on GaSe Crystal," Optics Letters 27(16), 1454 (2002)

 

KEYWORDS: terahertz, materials, novel, power, efficiency, detectivity, transmission

 

 

AF06-111               TITLE: Materials for Midinfrared (mid-IR) Laser Sources

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop materials and material structures that enable improved midinfrared (mid-IR) laser sources.

 

DESCRIPTION: The mid-IR spectral band (2 to 5 microns) has long been important for numerous military and commercial applications, primarily because the spectral band is an atmospheric window or region with low optical attenuation in the earth’s atmosphere.  For many applications, there is a need for generating laser light in the sub-bands of this range, and such laser sources have significantly improved during the past two decades.  However, important limitations to laser performance still exist, especially for wavelengths closer to 5 microns, and many of these limitations are fundamentally due to inadequate materials. We seek novel materials development that enables significant improvement in the operation of mid-IR solid-state laser sources in terms of average power, energy per pulse, and wall-plug efficiency. Our interest is in nonlinear optical crystals (bulk and engineered structures), laser-host crystals (bulk and diffusion bonded constructs), and the associated coatings and/or surface structures for antireflection or partial reflection.  The potential contractor is encouraged to consider material solutions that surpass the commercially available materials. Suitable approaches could involve major improvements to the properties of existing materials or new materials with significantly improved properties.  In either case, the potential for this improvement must be demonstrated in the proposal to be based upon solid scientific evidence.

 

PHASE I: Materials and/or material processing techniques shall be developed that enable significant improvement in the operation of mid-IR laser sources as described above.  The materials shall also be characterized, and demonstrations performed that clearly show the potential for this improvement.

 

PHASE II: The contractor shall further develop the proposed material and/or the relevant material processes as well as to fully demonstrate the materials properties and their usefulness for commercial and military applications. All necessary manufacturing processes for commercialization of the material and/or product shall be developed as well.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Follow-on activities are expected to be aggressively pursued by the offeror, namely in seeking opportunities for integrating the improved material into laser-based systems.  Commercial benefits would be for remote chemical detection, medical laser procedures, and scientific instruments.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Reference 1  P. Schunemann, "Non linear crystals provide high power for the mid-IR," Laser Focus World 35, 85 (Apr 1999).

 

2. Reference 2  C. Aydin, A. Zaslavsky, G. J. Sonek, & J. Goldstein, “Reduction of reflection losses in ZnGeP2 using motheye antireflection surface relief structures,” Applied Physics Letters 80 2242 (2002)

 

3. Reference 3  F.K. Hopkins, "What Drives Nonlinear Optics R&D? Military Laser Applications," Optics & Photonics News 9, 32 (Feb 1998).

 

KEYWORDS: midinfrared, mid-IR, laser-host, nonlinear-optical, antireflection, laser

 

 

AF06-112               TITLE: Continuous Runway Load-Deflection Evaluation Methodology

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE: To develop rapid nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies to determine the load carrying capacity of runways for various aircraft operations.

 

DESCRIPTION: The deployment of US military forces often requires aircraft operations on runways of unknown construction, roughness, and load carrying capacities. Air Combat Control Teams are deployed to the airfields of interest to rapidly determine the condition and operational capability of the airfields. Part of this process requires determining the strength of the concrete and subgrades, and is commonly determined by coring the runways, and /or the use of falling weight deflectometers (FWD) and dynamic cone penetrometers (DCP). These techniques are slow, laborious, and only check discrete points on the runway. Recent developments in ground penetrating radar technologies provide data on layer thicknesses, voids, and other geometric properties of pavement systems, but provide little if any strength data. Some research has been completed on rolling weight deflectometers, but to date the devices built are of questionable accuracy, cumbersome, heavy, and not very mobile. It is desirable to produce air droppable lighter weight devices that will rapidly collect continuous data using sensor technologies that are capable of accurately measuring deflection profiles around a loaded wheel as a function of time and space. It is envisioned development will be completed of software and data reduction algorithms to reduce deflections to a pavement classification number used to qualify a given aircraft on a given pavement.

 

PHASE I: Sensor technologies for measuring small deflections over an area as a function of space and time (optical, electro/mechanical, etc) will be considered. Select a technology that is most effective.  Design, built, and test a bench scale rolling weight system to demonstrate the technical feasibility.

 

PHASE II: Design, build, and test a lightweight prototype rolling weight deflectometer that can evaluate the load carrying capacity of any runway. It should be air droppable and capable of reducing deflection data into load carrying capacity of the runway.  It is desired that the prototype unit will be a deliverable of the Phase II program for additional government evaluation.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: A successful development of a compact and efficient unit will have a multitude of commercial applications in addition to Air Force operations.  They can be used to evaluate operations and maintenance on airport runways, roads and bridge systems.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Bay, J.A. Stokoe, K.H., and Hudson II, W.R., Continuous Highway Pavements Deflection Measurements Using a Rolling Dynamic Deflectometer (RDD), DTIC accession number ADD341143, January 01, 1996.  

 

2. Bush, A. J. and Cox III, B., Evaluation of Laser Profile and Deflection Measuring System, DTIC accession number ADA147630, September 01, 1984. 

 

3. Weil, Gary J., Non-Destructive Testing of Bridge, Highway and Airport Pavements, DTIC accession number ADD335322, June 01, 1993.

 

4. Johnson, R.F. Bondurant, P.D. Marvin, M.H., Rolling Weight Deflectometer for Quantitative Pavement Measurements, DTIC accession number ADD340177, January 01, 1996

 

5. Rish, Jeff W., Adcock III, Avery, Tuan, D., Baker, Christopher Y., Welker, Samuel L., and Hugh II, W., Electro-Optical Approach to Pavement Deflection Management, DTIC accession number ADD338748, January 01, 1995.    

 

KEYWORDS: rolling weight deflectometer, NDE of pavements, deflection profiles of pavements, runway

 

 

AF06-113               TITLE: Advanced Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop advanced materials or nondestructive evaluation/inspection technologies that enable the capability to detect improvised explosive devices (IEDs) carried or hidden within motor vehicles.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Recent global events confirm IEDs are being used repeatedly against U.S. military and coalition forces for military and political gain. Explosive materials are frequently carried within vehicles as “car bombs” or “truck bombs”, also known as vehicle-borne IEDs (VBIEDs), that are typically abandoned along roadsides and are detonated by remote control as U.S. or coalition motor vehicle convoys pass it. VBIEDs are also driven by suicide drivers and are detonated as the vehicle approach a stationary checkpoint or other intended target. A VBIED commonly consists of explosive materials placed within the passenger compartment, carried in the trunk, engine or other compartments, or otherwise hidden within or under any part of the vehicle or its components.

 

In order to maximize the protection of U.S. and coalition forces, it is desirable to provide early detection, identification and advanced warning of an approaching or proximal VBIED with sufficient warning time that permits the ability to take appropriate action at a sufficient distance to protect personnel and other assets.  As a “car bomb” or “truck bomb” may be used in a stationary or mobile mode of attack, the proposed technology should be able to address at least one and preferably both of these modes of VBIED attack.

 

Innovation and creative concepts based on advanced materials and/or traditional or non-traditional non-destructive evaluation/inspection (NDE/NDI) approaches and methods are being sought for the development of VBIED detection capabilities to address the aforementioned need.  It is expected that multiple approaches may be submitted in response to this SBIR Program that provide equally viable solutions for the detection of VBIEDs.  Novel detection approaches incorporating innovative use of advanced materials and advanced sensing and detection technologies are expected to play a key role in creating this new capability.  It is important for potential Offerors to submit proposals that are within the mission structure and core technology areas of the Materials & Manufacturing Directorate (AFRL/ML).  A description of ML core technology areas is available at http://www.afrlhorizons.com/.  This topic is not intended to be duplicative of related Department of Defense efforts; rather, it is focused on exploiting advanced materials and/or NDE/NDI materials interrogation and characterization technologies that will provide increased performance and capability over various VBIED detection approaches currently available.

 

The Offeror's proposed capability to address detection of VBIEDs should enable detection, identification, and provide warning of the approaching VBIED at sufficient distances when the detection capability is deployed at a fixed location.  Alternatively, the proposed capability could be mounted to a vehicular platform that will accompany a convoy, and would be used to detect and warn against a stationary VBIED as the moving convoy approaches it.

 

The proposed detection capability should: (1) be safe for use in populated areas and occupied vehicles; (2) enable accurate and rapid detection, identification, and warning of a variety of commonly used explosive materials configured as a VBIED; (3) accomplish vehicle interrogation and detection in real-time or near-real-time such that a timely warning of the approaching VBIED can be provided to the operator; (4) reliably operate under a variety of local environmental conditions (e.g., wind, dust, temperature, humidity, precipitation, etc.); (5) indicate the relative position (or at a minimum, the relative direction) of the VBIED; (6) be reliable such that "false positives" and “false negatives” are minimized; (7) enable detection of the VBIED in a manner that maximizes the separation distance between the VBIED and personnel operating the detection system; (8) minimize the deployment/logistical footprints; (9) minimize adverse impacts to the user’s current operational practices; and (10) be fully operable, usable, and maintainable by a soldier-operator having a basic level of computer or similar skills.

 

The proposed detection capability would ideally enable: (1) interrogation of the vehicle such that occupants could remain in the suspected vehicle, and with the doors, trunk lid, and hood remaining closed; (2) detection to be accomplished discretely, without the vehicle occupants’ knowledge that the vehicle had been interrogated for the presence of explosive materials; (3) detection that would not utilize an expensive, infrastructure-intensive design that, if in close proximity to the suspected VBIED, could become a high-value target itself; and (4) autonomous operation that provides a clear warning of a VBIED without dependence on operator interpretation or interaction.

 

It is intended for all advanced technologies developed as part of this SBIR program to be demonstrated in a laboratory environment.  No sensitive or classified information will be needed or developed as part of this technology development program.  As the program proceeds towards a Phase II Enhancement or Phase III Program and prior to development of an actual fieldable system, security and classification issues will be addressed and a determination will be made at that time relative to program classification, handling procedures, and DD Form 254 applicability in accordance with existing AF security Policies.  The Phase I and Phase II Programs WILL NOT involve classified information. 

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing advanced materials and/or NDE/NDI technologies to detect, identify and locate moving and/or stationary “car bomb” and “truck bomb” VBIEDs.  The conceptual system should be identified as well as how advanced, high performance materials and/or advanced NDE/NDI technologies will enable and/or enhance detection capability.

 

PHASE II: Develop and integrate the advanced materials and/or NDE/NDI technologies into a prototype VBIED detection capability.  Demonstrate VBIED detection performance and limitations in a laboratory environment.  Detection performance shall be accomplished as a “best effort” without regard to predetermined objectives.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:   The Department of Homeland Security has identified as a priority the need to detect VBIEDs hidden in the vicinity of transportation hubs and other domestic infrastructure, creating the opportunity to transfer the developed technology to the civil sector.  The actual technology developed may also have applications to advanced NDE/NDI of complex structural systems.

 

REFERENCES: 1. S. Doctor, Y. Bar-Cohen, and A. E. Aktan, editors, "Nondestructive Detection and Measurement for Homeland Security," San Diego, CA, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5048, 4-5 March 2003.

 

KEYWORDS: bomb detection, explosives detection, car bomb, improvised explosive device (IED), IED detection

 

 

AF06-114               TITLE: Improved Manufacturing Technology for Investment Casting Cores

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE: Explore and demonstrate innovative manufacturing technologies that reduce the cost of core manufacturing in investment casting processes for complex turbine blades.

 

DESCRIPTION: The offeror is encouraged to examine processes associated with the manufacture of cores used in investment casting of advanced turbine blades.  Advanced engines are making use of complex cavity designs to provide unique cooling schemes in turbine blades. The cooling schemes include complex cavity shapes with tight tolerances, thin walls, and multiple walls.  Core materials, design, coatings, fabrication, placement in tooling, survival of metal pouring, removal and process yield are all key aspects affecting cost, cycle time and performance of advanced turbine blades.  The offeror shall develop innovations that will reduce core manufacturing cost and cycle time. These innovations should be generic enough to be applicable to the greatest possible number of Air Force engines. The offeror shall demonstrate the engineering, manufacturing and economic feasibility of the innovation to produce the targeted engine component(s) by specifically addressing the high cost and long cycle time elements of the current manufacturing method.  Additionally, a detailed process assessment shall be made to document the potential of the innovation to reduce cost, cycle time, and process yield. An initial commercialization plan shall be developed and a business case established to quantify future investments, including equipment changeover and/or qualification expenses.  Commercialization plans and qualification requirements shall be established to offer these new techniques to the aerospace industry for production, transition, and qualification in Phase III.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility to produce economically and superior quality cores for advanced turbine blade castings.  Prototype cores and/or core structures shall be produced and characterized to demonstrate the feasibility of the innovation.

 

PHASE II: Demonstrate that the innovation selected will reduce cost and cycle time while improving quality.  Tooling and processes to produce full-scale prototypes will be described and demonstrated to establish process reproducibility under relevant production conditions. The potential cost savings and cycle time reductions of the demonstrated processes shall be validated.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The developed technologies will have applications for both military and commercial engines.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Investment Casting, Perer R. Beely and Robert F. Smart (Eds.), London, Institute of Materials, 1995.

 

2. M. Donachie Jr. and S. Donachie, Superalloys: A Technical Guide, Materials Park, OH, ASM International 2002.

 

3. Investment Casting Institute, Standard Test Procedures for Pattern Materials, 1999.

 

KEYWORDS: Casting, manufacturing, titanium, superalloys

 

 

AF06-115               TITLE: Improved Manufacturing Technologies for Polymer Matrix Composite Engine Components

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE: Investigate and demonstrate innovative manufacturing technologies that reduce the cost of polymer matrix composites as they relate to military engine components.

 

DESCRIPTION: The offeror is encouraged to examine processes associated with the manufacture of polymer matrix composites as they relate to military engine components.  Advanced engines are planning the increased use of polymer matrix composites to reduce the weight and increase the engine thrust to weight ratio. However, the cost of polymer composites can be prohibitive especially when considering hand layup in some of these engine applications.  The innovative manufacturing approaches must significantly reduce the acquisition cost of polymer composite engine components so they are cost comparable to alternate metal designs.  The offeror shall consider innovations that will reduce both manufacturing cost and cycle time. These innovations should be generic enough to be applicable to the greatest possible number of Air Force engines.  The offeror shall demonstrate the engineering, manufacturing and economic feasibility of the innovation to produce the targeted engine component(s) by specifically addressing the high cost and long cycle time elements of the current manufacturing method.  Additionally, a detailed process assesment shall be made to document the potential of the innovation to reduce cost, cycle time, and process yield. An initial commercialization plan shall be developed and a business case established to quantify future investments, including equipment changeover and/or qualification expenses. Commercialization plans and qualification requirements shall be established to offer these new techniques to the aerospace industry for production, transition, and qualification in Phase III.

 

PHASE I:  Demonstrate the feasibility of their innovation to produce economically and superior quality polymer matrix composites as they relate to military engine components.  Prototype structures shall be produced and characterized to demonstrate the feasibility of the innovation.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate that the innovation selected will reduce cost and cycle time while improving quality.  Tooling and processes to produce full-scale prototypes will be described and demonstrated to establish process reproducibility under relevant production conditions. The potential cost savings and cycle time reductions of the demonstrated processes shall be validated.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The developed technologies will have applications for both military and commercial engines.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Sanjay K. Mazumdar, Composites Manufacturing: Materials, Product and Process Engineering, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press 2002.

 

2. A.G. Bratukhin and V.S. Bogolyubov (Eds.), Composite Manufacturing Technology,  London: Chapman and Hall, 1995.

 

3. P.K. Mallick (Ed.), Composites Engineering Handbook,  New York: M. Dekker, 1997.

 

KEYWORDS: polymer, composites, manufacturing

 

 

AF06-116               TITLE: Corrosion Prediction for Nonchrome Based Coatings Systems

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a degradation model for nonchromate containing aircraft coating systems, which can be used to predict the service life of the coatings and the onset of substrate corrosion.

 

DESCRIPTION: Military aircraft coatings systems are multifunctional, providing appearance, signature and barrier properties to the aircraft.  The aircraft coatings experience combined stress from ultraviolet (UV) light, moisture and temperature and pollutants in the air such as chlorides and nitrates.  Exposure of coating systems to environmental and operational stresses leads to chemical and physical changes, which alter the mechanical properties, and eventually result in coating degradation followed by corrosion of the substrate.  Typical US Air Force aircraft have a multilayer coating system comprised of a chromate conversion coating, an epoxy primer (containing chromates such as strontium chromate) and a polyurethane topcoat.  Chromates present in the pretreatment and primer provide excellent corrosion protection to the substrate.  

 

As long as the chromates are present in the pretreatment and primer, the topcoat barrier properties are not critical for corrosion prevention.  The hexavalent chrome present in the coating system, however, is carcinogenic and requires substantial maintenance costs for hazardous waste disposal. DoD wide, nonchrome paint systems are being used or considered more widely. Both nonchrome pretreatments and primers have been developed to replace hexavalent chrome containing materials.  In the absence of chromates, the barrier properties of the topcoat may play a more significant role in protecting the aircraft structure from corrosion.  Research is sought to model the performance of non-chrome containing aircraft coating systems.  The model should incorporate the effects of environmental stresses on coating degradation, estimate service life as a function of service environment, and estimate the onset of substrate corrosion. The model should be validated with appropriate field experiments.

 

PHASE I: A commercially available nonchromium based coating system shall be identified for analysis.  Critical corrosion and combined stress factors shall be identified and analytical models developed to predict their performance.  Laboratory testing on the identified system will verify model predictions.

 

PHASE II: A nonchrome coating system service life/corrosion prediction model will be developed based on the laboratory testing of multiple nonchrome systems, and field validation. The product from Phase I would be further developed to include the effects of all primary environmental stresses. Service data should be used where applicable to verify model results.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Models developed under this effort should have extensive government and commercial applications. Protection of structural and nonstructural elements exposed to corrosive environments is of key concern in transportation, construction, and electronics industries.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Gordon P. Bierwagen, “Reflections on corrosion control by organic coatings," Progress in Organic Coatings, 28, 1996, p. 43-48.

 

2. L.B. Reynold, R. Twite, M. Khobaib, M.S. Donley and G.P. Bierwagen, Progress in Organic Coatings, 32, 1997, p. 31-34.

 

3. J. W. Martin, S. C. Saunders, F. L. Floyd, and J. P. Wineburg, “Methodologies for Preicting the Service Lives of Coating Systems,” NIST Building Science Series 172, 1994.

 

KEYWORDS: corrosion, prediction, nonchrome, coating

 

 

AF06-118               TITLE: Resistant Coatings for Metal Turbine Blades

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop advanced erosion resistant coatings for turbine blades.

 

DESCRIPTION: Operation in arid environments presents a challenge to modern aircraft engines.  Sand ingestion causes severe erosion resulting in high engine maintenance costs and reduced efficiency.  One method to mitigate the problem is the use of resistant coatings on fan and compressor blades.  Erosion is of great concern for fighters as current designs use blisk technology where the blade and disk are one structural unit.  Therefore, severe wear on the blades will cause significantly greater maintenance issues than legacy aircraft.  Current thin film resistant coatings are based on physical vapor deposition techniques using multilayer structures.  These films are thin, 5 to 10 micron, because of residual stress buildup which can make the coating spall.  Tremendous strides in physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques and coatings have been made over the past 10 years.  This program seeks to identify new PVD coatings for erosion resistance.  Of primary importance is adhesion to the surface, coating toughness, and stress control (to allow thicker coatings).  Also, the coatings cannot cause increased fatigue in the blisk.

 

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of a PVD coating for steel and titanium alloys.  Focus on coating toughness, adhesion and thickness.  Verify coating performance with level erosion tests and thermal cycling.   Validate coating mechanical properties/performance at temperatures up to 600 degrees C.

 

PHASE II: Fully develop and optimize the PVD coating system.  Apply a PVD coating to selected aircraft subcomponents for erosion evaluation in an engine test.  Scaleup the process for manufacturing.  Evaluate the economic feasibility (initial costs and replacement costs) for inclusion of the coating technology on flight hardware.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Erosion resistant coatings have application to other Air Force systems including legacy aircraft.  This technology is also useful for aircraft and helicopters of other DoD agencies.

 

REFERENCES: ASM Handbook Vol.18, "Friction, Lubrication and Wear Technology," 1992, pg. 199, 1992.

 

KEYWORDS: jet engines, compressors, fans, coatings, physical vapor deposition, adhesion, erosion, wear resistance, high temperature.

 

 

AF06-119               TITLE: High Temperature Sensors for In Situ Interrogation of Damage States in Structural Materials Components

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop durable sensing technologies that enable interrogation of either material damage state or parameters (temperature, speed, etc.) essential for life management of turbine engine components.

 

DESCRIPTION: Current life management of aerospace gas turbine engine components is typically based on expensive and time consuming nondestructive inspections (NDI) at fixed cycle and/or time intervals.  Since the actual operation is expected to be different for each aircraft even within the same unit and the material behavior is inherently probabilistic in nature, NDI based on current state of damage as opposed to fixed cycle or time intervals will be more efficient.  The estimation or prognosis of the current damage state requires reliable sensors that can provide damage (e.g. cracks, damage precursors, etc.) or loading (e.g. temperature, vibration, speed etc.) signatures at various locations in the engine [1-3].  The implementation of these in situ sensors coupled with prognostic systems will enable advanced and efficient life management practice and increased time-on-wing [1-3].  Recent investigations [4] have shown the applicability and advantages of continuous monitoring of structural response and thermal loading conditions using various types of sensors.  Ideally, a network of sensors could be located such that damage at various locations is monitored during system operation.  These local and global sensing technologies could be based on active and/or passive interrogation.  Sensors are sought for components and locations with different temperature capability requirements: 500 degrees to 1500 degrees F for rotating disks and 1300 degrees to 1500 degrees F for near-blade locations.  The deliverables of this program include reliable and durable sensors for in situ monitoring of damage states and validated signature analysis and prognosis methods to predict the remaining life of structural components in near- or actual-vehicle operating environments. Since the implementation of such advanced prognosis systems requires integration with the operation of the engines, close technical collaboration with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) is strongly recommended in all phases.

 

PHASE I: Identify and/or develop low-power sensor technologies that will enable quantification of degradation states, failure modes, and usage conditions of structural components.   Demonstrate the feasibility of using these sensors for materials damage prognosis in a simulated operating environment. 

 

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate sensor technologies to quantify damage in components under simulated gas turbine engine operational conditions.  Demonstrate sensor durability, low false-alarm rate, ability to track material and/or structural damage states, and ability to predict remaining life capability through prognostic methods.  Delivery of a prototype system for further evaluation is encouraged.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Commercial benefits include improved life management of turbine engine and/or airframe components for commercial aircraft.

 

REFERENCES: 1.  Christodoulou, L. and Larsen, J.M., “Using Materials Prognosis to Maximize the Utilization Potential of Complex Mechanical Systems,” Journal of Materials, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 15-19, March 2004.

 

2.  Cullinane, W.F. and Strange, R.R., “Gas Turbine Engine Validation Instrumentation: Measurements, Sensors, and Needs,” Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 3852, Harsh Environment Sensors II, Editor: Anbo Wang, SPIE, Bellingham, WA, pp. 2-13, December 1999.

 

3.  Hess, A., “The Joint Strike Aircraft Prognostics and Health Management,” 4th Annual Systems Engineering Conference, 22-25 October 2001.  Available at http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2001systems.

 

4.  Russ, S. M., Rosenberger, A. H., Larsen, J. M., Berkley, R. B., Carroll, D., Cowles, B. A., Holmes, R. A., Littles, J. W., Jr., Pettit, R. G., and Schirra, J. J., “Demonstration of Advanced Life-prediction and State-awareness Technologies Necessary for Prognosis of Turbine Engine Disks,” Health Monitoring and Smart Nondestructive Evaluation of Structural and Biological Systems III, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5394, Editor: Tribikram Kundu, SPIE, Bellingham, WA, pp. 23-32, July 2004.

 

KEYWORDS: damage, durability, engine, high temperature, in situ, life management, prognosis, sensor

 

 

AF06-120               TITLE: Manufacturing Structures in a Limited Production Environment

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop tools and techniques to enable fast, affordable manufacture of aircraft structures for small production runs.

 

DESCRIPTION: With the advent of spiral development for military weapon systems, the trend for military production runs appears to favor small lot sizes.  Spiral development offers the chance to field a limited initial capability.  Subsequent lots can spiral in advances in technology to improve warfighting capability.  Today, structures are not seen as a technology that can be spiraled in as technology improves.  The structure is seen as the basic building block of the weapon system that will not change throughout its life.  This is due to many factors such as high up front costs for tooling and prohibitive costs to recertify a structure for flight if significant changes are made.

 

Innovative approaches are needed to put the structure in play for spiral development as technological improvements for structures offer reduced weights, lower costs, or shorter manufacturing cycle times for subsequent cycles.  These approaches can look across many areas.  Areas of interest include but are not limited to:  1.)  rapid design and manufacturing approaches to building and assembling airframe structures to military specifications; 2.)  low cost, flexible tooling.  This tooling needs to be as durable as invar tooling.  It should also offer precision control for aerospace manufacturing tolerances and military aircraft performance requirements that invar tooling offers; and 3.)  rapid, efficient demonstration of flight safety of the airframe.

 

PHASE I: The contractor shall identify candidate tools and techniques for enabling spiral development of aircraft structures and demonstrate their feasibility.

 

PHASE II: It is expected that the small business will team with an airframe parts manufacturer for Phase II, although Phase I interaction with a manufacturer is highly encouraged.  The contractor shall demonstrate the applicability of their tools and techniques to the aircraft structures manufacturing environment.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: The Navy and Army have similar applications in shipbuilding, rotorcraft, and ground vehicles.  Commercial applications include heavy earthmoving equipment, exotic automobiles, recreational sporting industry, commercial aircraft and ship building.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Wanthal, S. and Butler, B.  “The Composites Affordability Initiative-Phase 3 Update.”  Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering, 35th International Technical Conference, Dayton OH, September 2003.

 

KEYWORDS: spiral development, manufacturing, structures, assembly, tooling, design, certification

 

 

AF06-121               TITLE: Graphical User Interface for Fire Modeling Codes

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a graphical user interface (GUI) for scenario development, processing and post processing major existing fire modeling codes for improved usability by fire research and engineering personnel.

 

DESCRIPTION: Fire modeling has been used to evaluate fire spread and damage for a wide variety of applications of Air Force interest.  These models have been used to design and evaluate key aircraft structures and air base facilities, they have also been used to determine sources of accidental fire damage and evaluate fire extinguishing agents and techniques.  At present these codes are difficult to use and require an extended training period before they can be successfully applied.  The GUI should provide a method of importing 2D and 3D CAD models of structures and other key fire environments including pool and spray fires and converting these models for actual model computation.  The GUI should also allow the user to operate the modeling software in interactive or batch modes in desktop and parallel processing environments.  The following government developed codes should be supported at a minimum:  CFAST , FDS , both from NIST.  Support for additional software codes including VULCAN and FUEGO from Sandia National Laboratory would be preferred.  It is also desired to provide desktop and high performance computing interfaces to permit for FDS permitting installation in a multiprocessor environment under an MPI scheme.

 

PHASE I: Evaluate fire modeling codes and interface requirements for developing modeling scenarios and for connecting the fire scenarios with the models.  Demonstrate an interface that can be used on an Intel PC platform under both Windows 2000 or later and X-Windows in UNIX related operating systems.

 

PHASE II: Fully develop the GUI and implement scenario generation, model execution and post processing routines.  Provide interactive and batch mode control/execution interfaces for the minimum case models.  Provide an Application Programming Interface to permit ready implementation of other codes.  It is desired that initial software be delivered at the end of the effort for further government evaluation.

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Easily used fire modeling software would enhance both commercial and defense fire protection engineering permitting effective application of modern “performance based” fire protection codes and standards.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Jones, W. W., et al, Technical Note 1431, A Technical Reference for CFAST: An Engineering Tool for Estimating Fire and Smoke Transport, National Institute of Standards and Technology Building and Fire Research Laboratory Gaithersburg, MD 20899, April 2003

 

2.  Smokeview/FDS Version 4.0, http://fire.nist.gov/fds/svtest. NISTIR 6784, 2003 Ed.

 

3. Fire Dynamics Simulator (Version 4) – User’s Guide, Fire Research Division Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology Building and Fire Research Laboratory Gaithersburg, MD 20899, November 2003.

 

KEYWORDS: fire modeling, software

 

 

AF06-123               TITLE: Analytical Techniques for Complex Logic Devices in Safety-Critical Applications

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop robust techniques to verify and validate the functionality and reliability of complex logic devices for safety-critical applications.

 

DESCRIPTION: Due to the strong potential for rapid fielding of weapon systems, hardware miniaturization, increased computational capacity and a significant decrease in parts obsolescence a significant increase in the use of high density (10 million plus gates) reprogrammable logic devices for Safety-critical and safety-related weapon system applications (i.e., cockpit reprogrammability, suspension and release equipment (S&RE), electronic safe and arm devices [ESADs] etc.).  Implementing systems for air-delivered conventional weapons and platforms into these high density complex logic devices posed challenges to safety analysis and approval process.  Industry has been adopting the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO-254 standard, entitled “Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware" as the required analysis and documentation for safety critical hardware devices in conjunction with RTCA DO-178B standard for software.  DO-254 was developed by the avionics industry to establish hardware deployment guidelines for developers, installers, and users, when microcomputer hardware, including Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs), Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are deployed in weapon and aircraft equipment designs.  Simulation based techniques (using test vectors) as well as formal methods are mature for hardware verification and validation; however significant research is still needed for dense complex reconfigurable hardware.  Formal methods of verifying and validating models in C-language and Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) are readily available, however, formal methods/techniques are not available to verify and validate similar designs created by higher level tools once they are implemented in reconfigurable hardware.  Formal methods used for software verification and validation may be applicable to reconfigurable hardware.  Innovative techniques and approaches for verifying and validating the functionality and reliability of reconfigurable hardware are needed.  New design tools (Viva, Celoxica, Clearspeed etc…) have significantly enhanced capability to design and implement complex high density reconfigurable circuits and computationally intense algorithms into programmable logic devices.  Techniques to verify and validate such complex designs and insure that they meet safety-critical requirements have not kept pace with the design tools. The recently released, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL) Standard # AS5506, for modeling and analyzing embedded systems may be useful for this research effort.  This standard defines a language for describing both the software architecture and the execution platform architectures of performance-critical, embedded, real-time systems.  An XML based resource (processors, memory, interface, intellectual property core, algorithms etc…) description language may also be useful.  Phase I, investigate alternative techniques and approaches to verify and validate intellectual property (IP) cores both hard and soft (processors, memory, interface, algorithms etc…) implemented in reconfigurable hardware perform as specified.  Techniques and approaches should be compatible with commonly available design tools from vendors such as Xilinx, Mentor Graphics and Synplicity to name a few.  In Phase II develop and demonstrate a prototype tool environment based on the most promising alternatives investigated and defined in Phase I.

 

PHASE I:  Investigate alternative techniques and define approaches to verify and validate reconfigurable hardware based systems reliably perform as specified.

 

PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a framework environment based on the most promising alternative investigated and defined in Phase I.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Commercial applications include commercial airliners, trains and mining equipment.  Military applications include air-delivered conventional weapon, jets and bombers.

 

REFERENCES:

 

1. Munitions Directorate, Http://www.mn.afrl.af.mil

 

2. Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO-254 Standard, Http://www.DO254.com

 

3. Society of Automotive Engineers, Standard AS5506, http://www.sae.org

 

4. SAE AADL Information Site, http://www.aadl.info/

 

5. Specication-driven Validation of Programmable Embedded Systems, http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~prabhat/Publications/mishraThesis.pdf

 

KEYWORDS: reconfigurable systems verification, safety-critical, fuzes, ASIC, FPGA, RTCA DO-254, RTCA DO-178B, AADL

 

 

AF06-124               TITLE: Air Target Sensor Techniques for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Investigate the use of RF waveforms as well as signal processing and Doppler exploitation techniques for air targets.  The techniques developed should address issues like clutter cancellation, innovative phenomenology of waveform and/or signal processing for exploring Automatic Target Recognition techniques for application to future air-to-air missiles.

 

DESCRIPTION: Major strides have been accomplished in lowering the cost and manufacturing of RF components and materials in the development of transmit/receive (TR) modules, direct digital synthesis, and signal processing techniques. The cost of energy efficient electronically steered antenna (ESA) apertures and output power of TR modules have made it possible for development of low cost effective ESA seekers for air-to-air applications to be investigated. Most of the ESA TR module-based sensors lend themselves to natural applications of multi-channel radar seeker systems.  The use of waveform diversity, multi-channel sensor and Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) techniques provide a great capability for exploring the benefits for use in ATR, and clutter canceling techniques for applications for countering small air targets flying low to the ground.  This topic encompasses exploring the utilization of new digital waveforms, munition based multi-channel AESA, and adaptive digital signal processing for clutter canceling, generating target signature phenomenology and for use in Automatic Target Recognition of air targets. Techniques must be feasible in the presence of electronic countermeasures. Research efforts should include novel methods of applying the new techniques and for generating research into possible munition applications. Derivation of techniques as well as modeling and simulation will be conducted to include expected performance of techniques developed. Analysis will focus around the requirements of waveform and signal processing techniques that lend themselves to attaining possible target signatures and phenomena that could be characterized and used for ATR applications. An analysis will be conducted for determining possible surrogate system and/or development of hardware and signal processing techniques for a demonstration that will assess the performance gained with the ATR techniques on air targets. A possible demonstration could be conducted for assessing performance. A final report detailing possible benefits and candidate techniques developed for applications will be delivered. The report will also include a plan for implementation and/or demonstration, and.will include the expected development and applicability of implementation for a demonstration.

 

PHASE I: Study the various waveform and adaptive signal processing techniques for air target sensors and possible exploitation of signature for mitigating clutter, and applications for ATR approach for air targets.

 

PHASE II: Demonstration of derived techniques from Phase I using computer modeling and simulations. A level of effort should also be conducted on demonstrating clutter mitigation and ATR signature benefits. Address implementation and or incorporation into existing surrogate system for demonstration.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: These waveform and adaptive processing digital processing techniques have direct application to homeland defense, and air borne UAV collision avoidance.  This technology is critical to the development of advanced military munitions, asymmetric warfare, and aircraft radar systems.

 

REFERENCES:

 

1. Nilubol, Chanin, Pham, Quoc H., Mersereau, Russell M., Smith, Mark J.T., Clements, Mark A, "Translational and Rotational Invariant Hidden Markov Model for Automatic Target Recognition," SPIE vol. 3374 (Apr. 1998).

 

2. Antonik et al., "Intelligent Use of CFAR Algorithms", AD-A267 755/7/XAB, Kaman Sciences Corp., Utica, N.Y. May 1993.

 

3. Antonik et al., Record of the 1993 IEEE National Radar Conference (Cat. No. 93CH3253-2), Lynnfield, Mass., Apr. 1993.

 

4. K.F. McDonald et al., "Performance Characterization of STAP Algorithms with Mismatched Steering and Clutter Statistics", IEEE Proceedings, Oct. 2000, pp. 646-650.

 

5. A.J. Zejak et al., "Doppler Optimised Mismatched Filters", Electrocics Letters IEE Stevenage, Mar. 1991, pp. 558-560. 

Keywords: HRR, ATR, automatic target recognition, range Doppler processing, automatic target algorithms 

 

KEYWORDS: HRR waveform, ATR, automatic target recognition, range Doppler processing,clutter canceling STAP algorithm, multi channel ESA radar, automatic target detection

 

 

AF06-125               TITLE: Miniature Wide Band Power Amplifiers for Miniature Munitions

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop low cost and reduced sized power amplifiers to be integrated into a miniature weapon.

 

DESCRIPTION: There is a continuing trend in today's electronics market for compact packaging. Conventional weapons are becoming smarter and smaller in an effort to increase accuracy and minimize collateral damage. Future systems will employ a data link that can provide such information as targeting updates, bomb damage information, location, and health status. The weapon will have improved standoff ranges leading the weapon data link to require greater power output in a reduced package to fit in the smaller munition. This leads to the need for a low cost and easily manufactured miniature power amplifier. The power amplifier needs to be robust to withstand high thermal operating environments. General requirements for a new reduced-size power amplifier: a) less than 25 cubic inches; b) operating frequency range from at least 225 MHz to 2 GHz; c) threshold power output of 25 to 50 Watts; d) method of dispersing excess heat.  The ability to trade power output, size, and still be able to disperse heat for the weapon’s flight time needs to be investigated. Project effort can be enhanced by working with a weapon prime manufacturer to introduce weapon realistic environmental conditions to be added to a modeling effort and looking towards Phase III.

 

PHASE I: Investigate state of the art or potential candidate wide band gap materials for coverage of the frequency range.  Develop path to show approach to meeting 25 cubic inch form factor and have output power at the antenna between 25 and 50W.

 

PHASE II: Demonstrate with breadboard electronics or better the approach developed in Phase I to meet the general goals stated above. Testing in a laboratory environment to show operation over the desired frequency range and power level out. Modeling of the potential hardware design to show size and thermal heat dispersal. 

 

DUAL USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Small, wide frequency range power amplifiers are needed for commercial communication radios for law enforcement.  Besides weapons, the AF, Navy, and Army have requirements for radios for numerous platforms - handhelds, UAVs, and aircraft, all of which could be potential users for a small, low cost power amplifier with an output of 25-50 Watts.

 

REFERENCES: 1. ADA321667 “On the Possibility of Harmonic Operation of Cyclotron Wave Parametric Amplifiers”, 28 FEB 1997, Wallace M. Manheimer

 

2. ADA300785 “Recent Developments in Inductive Output Amplifiers”, 12 OCT 1995, Kodis, M. A.; Jensen, K. L.; Zaidman, E. G.; Goplen, B.; Smithe, D. N.

 

3. ADB011607 “FET Power Amplifier”, APR 76, Wisseman, W. R.; Adams, R. L.; Macksey, H. M.; Sokolov, V.; Tserng, H. Q.

 

4. ADP006987 “The Future Role of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers”, 22 MAY 92, Marshall, I. W.

 

KEYWORDS: Power Amplifier, Wide Band gap materials, Munition, wide frequency band, broad band

 

 

AF06-126               TITLE: Airframe Materials for Hypersonic Tactical Missiles

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop low cost materials and fabrication technologies for hypersonic (Mach 5 to 8) tactical missiles.

 

DESCRIPTION: A need exists to significantly increase our capability in tactical, air-to-ground missile systems. There is a desire to vastly increase the range capability of future missiles while keeping the time to target low. Meeting all these requirements will place a large burden on the airframe design. Long-range requirements drive the external vehicle shape to high lift-to-drag airframe configurations. The low time-to-target requirement means the missile will need to accelerate quickly and then maintain high-speed flight. These requirements will drive the airframe configuration to be lightweight yet capable of retaining very high strength while at high temperature. Standard high temperature metal alloys such as nickel-steel or columbium-based alloys have too high a weight penalty to be used. Existing coated carbon matrix composite, ceramic, or graphite-polyamide materials have the potential to meet the needs of advanced missiles; however, innovative advances must be made to make these materials affordable for tactical missile use. Whatever material is pursued, it must be suitable to low-cost processing and part manufacturing.

 

PHASE I: Identify and define candidate materials and/or material processing techniques for high strength applications at temperatures experienced during hypersonic flight (Mach 5 to 8) for minimum 15-minute flight duration. Materials shall be evaluated through analysis and/or test of small specimens.

 

PHASE II: Demonstrate the benefit of the material concept generated in Phase I by fabricating, processing, and characterizing an airframe structural component or subcomponent such as a fuselage section, wing, or control fin.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Demonstration of a lightweight, high strength, high temperature material suitable for structural applications will have a large variety of uses in the aerospace industry. Such materials can be used for aircraft and missile fuselage, wing, and tail surfaces. Potential applications would also be in high temperature regions of commercial aircraft engines and commercial space launch vehicles.

 

REFERENCES:

 

1. Fleeman, E.L., Licata W. H., Berglund, E., "Technologies for future precision strike missile systems,", NATO Research and Technology Organization Lecture Series, RTO-EN-018, June 18-29, 2001. (ADA394520)

 

2. Douglas, Mitchell; Lindgren, John, “Hypersonic weapons technology for the time critical mobile ground threat”, DMSTTIAC-SOAR-99-01, January 1999. (ADA361137)

 

KEYWORDS: high temperature materials, carbon-carbon composites, polymer-matrix composites, hypersonic, missile airframe

 

 

AF06-127               TITLE: Techniques for Remotely/Autonomously Detecting and Destroying Chem/Bio Agents

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense, Weapons

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop technology, enhanced with nano-technology, to remotely and autonomously, detect and neutralize chemical and biological agents.

 

DESCRIPTION: Recent advances in chemical and biological (chem/bio) sensors devices, especially those that can detect more commonly used threat agents on the nano-scale level, are making possible a new generation of chem/bio sensors.   This technology has been demonstrated in commercial chemical sensor devices that recognize agents by their molecular make-up, commercial biological sensor devices that recognize the DNA sequence of agents, and such sensors that have been enhanced with the use of nanotechnology to significantly improve their sensitivity, selectivity, response time, and affordability.  The current effort would use existing technology to develop a device, enhanced with nano-technology that has revolutionary chem/bio detection performance, and has the additional capability of neutralizing both chem/bio agents.  A detection system, designed on the nano-scale, will significantly increase the accuracy in the selecting correct agents (>95% probability), while reducing the frequency of false alarms (<5% probability).  Ideal techniques for neutralization in the device, like the use of catalytic materials against chemical agents, should be relatively benign to humans and the environment.  The use of new mechanisms to neutralize both chem/bio agents is highly encouraged. These devices need to be able to collect the detected agent, possibly with high surface area templated absorbents, and present it, maybe by suctioning it, to the neutralizing system in the device. The device should also be autonomous, inexpensive, be miniaturized, be able to monitor surroundings, operate in real time (milliseconds), have low power consumption, be redundant, and be deployable for use in highly threat environments. The device should be intelligent with information processing electronics and have a communication capability easily accessible to operators. With an Air Force goal to deploy autonomous devices that significantly reduce collateral effects, the development of this technology will offer an “all-in-one” ideal solution for detection and neutralization in chem/bio targets.

 

PHASE I:  Further identify the key requirements for a device that will detect, monitor, collect, and deactivate agents.  Evaluate the neutralization of simulant agents, develop techniques that fulfill requirements, and develop the hardware.

 

PHASE II:   Develop a production–scalable process to implement the device identified in Phase I.  Evaluate this device for its ease of manufacture.  Conduct long term reliability testing to measure effectiveness.

                                               

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:  The sensor/neutralizing device developed for the Department of Defense is equally applicable for use as a commercial air purification system.

 

REFERENCES:

 

1. Fitzpatrick, Tony. “Device Detects, Traps, and Deactivates Airborne Viruses and Bacteria.” Washington University, 2004. www.eurekalert.org/pub.

 

2.  https://intranet.munitions.eglin.af.mil/index.html

 

KEYWORDS: Agent detection, entrapment, deactivation, neutralization, chemical/biological agent

 

 

AF06-128               TITLE: Modeling and Simulation of Biological Agent Response to Combustion Effects

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense, Biomedical, Weapons

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Investigate combustion neutralization technologies for biological agents; develop a model compatible with existing lethality assessment codes.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Weapons directed at enemy stores of chemical and biological agents can cause extreme collateral damage by venting live chemical and biological (chem/bio) agents from broken containers in to the surrounding area. This is severely hazardous for friendly forces, noncombatants, and the surrounding environment.  An Agent Defeat weapon is specifically designed to cause substantial damage to the target, while minimizing collateral damage.  Recent advances in the development of agent defeat weapons have shown that High Temperature Incendiary (HTI) devices are an ideal solution.  While causing minimal damage to the exterior of target, HTI weapons depend on their extremely high temperatures to inactivate vented threat agents within the target. Currently, the defeat of biological agents is considered the most serious challenge.  Most of the published research on thermal inactivation of agents has been connected with food preservation, biological agent inactivation in liquid media at temperatures less than 120 Celsius for heat exposure times of minutes to hours, and heat inactivation of biological agents in gas-flows at only ten milliseconds or greater.  The current effort would be to investigate, validate, and develop a lethality model that correctly estimates the neutralization of biological agents due to combustion, and not just thermal diffusion.  Develop a research plan that investigates the combustion of biological agents and includes a series of testing.

 

Since the effect of heat on spores ranges from recoverable injury, to thermal kill, up to incineration at very high temperatures in the presence of oxygen, it would be very useful to collect test data that show the required the temperatures and time boundaries between each of these processes.  To replicate characteristics of a bomb explosive environment, document the effects of the composition of the gas environment surrounding the agent during each of these processes.  It would be useful to gather test data that shows the required high temperatures needed to neutralize biological agents in from hours, to minutes, to less than ten milliseconds. In parallel, based on allthe test data gathered, create new or modify existing computer codes to model biological agent combustion, with respect to agent neutralization.

 

PHASE I:  Evaluate all identified research for phenomenology and efficacy of biological agent neutralization. Evaluate all identified models for their ability to accurately assess biological agent combustion, with respect to neutralization.    Perform combustion tests on biological agents for the purpose of collecting data for use in modeling all aspects of the combustion of biological agents and deliver test data.

 

PHASE II:  Use test data from Phase 1 to develop a biological agent combustion model suitable for use with or in existing lethality assessment codes. Coordinate with responsible assessment code agency to ensure suitability and compatibility of combustion model with these codes.    Conduct reliability testing to measure effectiveness.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:  Biological combustion models of this type would be of use not only to the Department of Defense, but also to organizations such as the Department of Homeland Security or commercial decontamination Companies.

 

REFERENCES:

 

1. Stock, T. and De Geer, A., ‘Chemical and biological weapons: developments and destruction’, SIPRI, SIPRI Yearbook 1995: World Armaments and Disarmament (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1995), chapter 10.

 

2. Stock, T., ‘Chemical and biological weapons: developments and proliferation’, SIPRI, SIPRI Yearbook 1993: World Armaments and Disarmament (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1993), chapter 7.

 

3. Chemical Weapons: Better Management Tools needed to Guide DOD’s Stockpile Destruction Program, GAO-04-221T, October 30, 2003

 

4. Chemical Weapons: Lessons Learned Program Generally Effective but Could Be Improved and Expanded, GAO-02-890, September 10, 2002

 

KEYWORDS: Biological and Chemical Agents, Combustion, Burning, Decontamination, Neutralization, Computer Modeling

 

 

AF06-130               TITLE: Improved Omnidirectional Multiband Antenna for Miniature Munitions

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics, Weapons

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop an antenna capable of use over multiple frequencies.

 

DESCRIPTION: The antenna system will be affordable and suitable for high data rate applications with weapon data links. The antenna should be capable of providing simultaneous communication of various frequency ranges within the UHF band, be structurally integrated on the airframe, and be compatible with the weapon data link. Current smart weapon concepts incorporate weapon data links to provide health status and bomb damage information (video or data) back to the aircraft. There is a trend towards making smaller smart weapons to increase attack accuracies, resulting in limiting collateral damage. General requirements for a multi-band antenna for munition applications covering both missile and bomb type airframes should be: a) its size will need to be minimized and conformal to both missile and bomb body; b) the antenna should be omni directional; c) heat dissipation must be adequate; d) novel antenna should operate at improved levels of efficiency; e) it should operate within 200 to 1206 MHz. Analysis will cover dome material and expected electromagnetic properties and ground plane effects. Validated simulations should be used to predict efficiency, effective gain, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), bandwidth coverage, and insertion loss. Analysis or simulation on the predicted performance of the antenna design will be conducted. Several antennas will be fabricated and tested in RF chamber to measure the performance and compare to prediction. Analysis or simulation will be conducted to predict estimated range capability given a certain signal to noise and transmitter power. A final report will be written to include test results and an update to the antenna design.

 

PHASE I: Analysis will be conducted in determining the type of antenna needed for conformal adaptation to the munition aeroshell with minimum interference and degradation of omni coverage.

 

PHASE II: 1) Define the objective antenna material specification and conduct limited testing on the materials and subsystems for fabricating several antennas. 2) Establish expected performance of antenna through experiments and fabrication and testing of prototype antenna.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Military application: Military applications include munition data links, unmanned air vehicle data links, and wireless communications. This technology has an industrial use in wireless information communications. Applications could include hand held computer devices, automobile communications, and mobile computer networking.

 

REFERENCES:

 

1. Evans, J.B., et al. "The Rapidly Deployable Radio Network" IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Inc., New York, US, vol. 17, No. 4, Apr. 1999, pp. 689-703, XP000824312.

 

2. Yoshihide and Kijima, "Low sidelobe and tilted beam base station antennas for smaller cell systems," (IEEE pp. 138-141, 1989).

 

3.  Gong et al., "Characterization of Cavity-Backed Conformal Antennas and Arrays Using a Hybrid Finite Element Method with Tetrahedral Elements", The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1992, pp. 1629-1632.

 

4. Auckland et al., "A Procedure to Calculate the in situ Contribution to Body Scattering Caused by Conformal Cavity-Backed Apertures", Atlantic Aerospace Electronics Corp., Greenbelt, Maryland, 1995, pp. 1764-1767.

 

5.  Baudou et al., "Analysis of a Conformal Cavity-Backed Patch Antenna Using a Hybrid MoM/FEM Technique", University Paul Sabatier, Cedex, France, 2001, pp. 354-357.

 

KEYWORDS: Antenna, Multi-band, UHF, Conformal, Munition, Missile

 

 

AF06-131               TITLE: Measuring Particulate Entrained Mass-Flow from Internal Detonations

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons

 

STATEMENT OF INTENT: This topic holds the greatest potential for meeting the technical needs of our warfighters supported by PEOs and Centers.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop cost-effective, robust, and accurate techniques to capture the dynamic pressure/time history during a detonation event.

 

DESCRIPTION: Many structures are specifically designed to protect against damage from conventional air-launched munitions. Underground hardened bunkers and tunnels are prime examples and contain heavily reinforced walls, doors, etc. If a weapon does successfully penetrate into the airspace and detonate, the effects are usually confined because of the heavy protection incorporated into the walls, floors, etc. However, the gases produced will flow from this confined high pressure region to areas of lower pressure. Historically, we have referred to this air-flow phenomenon as “dynamic-pressure”.  If the flow was simply gases the dynamic pressure could be measured by current various techniques, such as hot-wire anemometer, pitot-tube, stagnation gauges, etc.  Accurate measurement of the dynamic pressure is necessary to calculate the total pressure.  However, testing has demonstrated that the dynamic pressure from an internal detonation is far from “clean”, but instead contains massive amounts of particulate and debris. This hostile environment precludes use of the measurement techniques employed in a “clean” air-flow situation yet the need to measure and quantify this flow is critical because this mass-flow is responsible for understanding the damage mechanisms observed in the structures of interest.  Thus, a new technique is needed that will survive the hostile environment and provide an accurate time history of the mass flow of interest.  Adequately show how this approach will survive the event, capture the mass-flow properties throughout the time event, the physics utilized in the technique, and a plausible packaging and employment method that would be used. Demonstrate the capability of this technique in a relevant environment. Demonstrate that this technique is cost effective and will survive the event, will capture the mass-flow properties throughout the time event. Provide fabrication-level engineering drawings of the recommended packaging of the device and recommendations for manufacturing.

 

PHASE I: Develop a feasible cost-effective approach to capturing the dynamic pressure/time history during a detonation event containing extremely hostile mass-flow composed of high temperatures, high velocity gases and particulate flow.

 

PHASE II: Develop the brass-board hardware capable of capturing the dynamic pressure/time history during a detonation event containing extremely hostile mass-flow composed of high temperatures, high velocity gases and particulate flow.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: flame Spray, Plasma Coating, Etc.—provides a wide selection of coatings without compromising any characteristics of the substrate on which they are applied. Coating material groups include Ceramics, Carbides, Pure Metals, Metal Alloys, Abradables, Stainless and more. Coating methods include Wire Arc Spray, Combustion Wire Spray, Combustion Powder Spray, Plasma Spray, High Velocity Plasma Spray etc.  During these processes the flow of gas contains entrained particles in a very hostile environment.  Techniques to measure the dynamic pressure in this flow could be used to characterize the flow to improve the process and/or develop new materials, applications, etc or to provide flow information in a control circuit.   Flame Spray techniques are used to provide resistance to abrasion, cavitation, fretting, and oxidation.  It can be used for dimensional buildup, EMI/RFI shielding, dielectric and thermal barrier, etc.  Flame spray is currently used in the following industries: Aerospace, turbine engines, oil, marine, textile, electronics, etc.

•               Process Industry – Measuring the mass flow in applications where hot, corrosive, or abrasive materials are being pumped could improve process control.

•               Mining Safety – Characterizing the dynamic pressure (which causes the most damage to personnel and equipment from an accidental mine explosion) will allow development of safety barriers and techniques to mitigate the hazard.

•               Turbines – the intake and exhaust of turbine engines are exposed to particulate environments that can cause high wear to pressure sensors.  This is especially true for operations in environments where dust, sand, and other particulate matter are abundant.

•               Boilers – pulverized coal-fired burners require process control for efficiency.  A dynamic pressure measurement that operates within the flow of particulate coal and that does not clog will provide improved process control 

•               Environmental –

1.             Flue gases often contain particulate matter that can clog pitot-type pressure sensor or restrict long-term measurement devices.  Since the static pressures in typical flue pipes is m