AIR FORCE

SBIR 09.3 Proposal Submission Instructions

 

 

The Air Force (AF) proposal submission instructions are intended to clarify the DoD instructions as they apply to AF requirements.

 

The Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is responsible for the implementation and management of the Air Force Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

 

The Air Force Program Manager is Mr. Augustine Vu, 1-800-222-0336.  For general inquiries or problems with the electronic submission, contact the DoD Help Desk at 1-866-724-7457 (1-866-SBIRHLP) (8:00 am to 5:00 pm ET).  For technical questions about the topics during the pre-solicitation period (27 July through 23 August 2009), contact the Topic Authors listed for each topic on the Web site.  For information on obtaining answers to your technical questions during the formal solicitation period (24 August through 23 September 2009), go to http://www.dodsbir.net/sitis/.  Please note that the SITIS system closes to receipt of new questions on September 9, 2009, but existing questions and answers in the system will remain available for viewing through the closing date of the solicitation.

 

The Air Force SBIR Program is a mission-oriented program that integrates the needs and requirements of the Air Force through R&D topics that have military and commercial potential.

 

PHASE I PROPOSAL SUBMISSION

 

Read the DoD program solicitation at www.dodsbir.net/solicitation for program requirements.  When you prepare your proposal, keep in mind that Phase I should address the feasibility of a solution to the topic.  For the Air Force, the contract period of performance for Phase I shall be nine (9) months, and the award shall not exceed $100,000.  We will accept only one Cost Proposal per Topic Proposal and it must address the entire nine-month contract period of performance.

 

The Phase I award winners must accomplish the majority of their primary research during the first six months of the contract.  Each Air Force organization may request Phase II proposals prior to the completion of the first six months of the contract based upon an evaluation of the contractor’s technical progress and review by the Air Force technical point of contact utilizing the criteria in section 4.3 of the DoD solicitation    The last three months of the nine-month Phase I contract will provide project continuity for all Phase II award winners so no modification to the Phase I contract should be necessary.  Phase I technical proposals have a 20-page-limit (excluding the Cost Proposal, Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a–h), and Company Commercialization Report).  The Air Force will evaluate and select Phase I proposals using review criteria based upon technical merit, principal investigator qualifications, and commercialization potential as discussed in this solicitation document.

 

 

 ALL PROPOSAL SUBMISSIONS TO THE AIR FORCE PROGRAM MUST BE SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY.

 

 

 

 

Limitations on Length of Proposal

 

The technical proposal must be no more than 20 pages (no type smaller than 10-point on standard 8-1/2" x 11" paper with one (1) inch margins).  The Cost Proposal, Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a-h), and Company Commercialization Report are excluded from the 20 page limit.  Only the Proposal Cover Sheet (pages 1 and 2), the Technical Proposal (beginning with page 3), and any enclosures or attachments count toward the 20-page limit.  In the interest of equity, pages in excess of the 20-page limitation (including attachments, appendices, or references, but excluding the Cost Proposal, Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a-h), and Company Commercialization Report, will not be considered for review or award. 

 

Phase I Proposal Format

 

Proposal Cover Sheets.   Your Cover Sheets will count as the first two pages of your proposal no matter how they print out.  If your proposal is selected for award, the technical abstract and discussion of anticipated benefits will be publicly released on the Internet; therefore, do not include proprietary information in these sections. 

 

Technical Proposal:  The Technical Proposal should include all graphics and attachments but should not include the Cover Sheet or Company Commercialization Report (as these items are completed separately).  Most proposals will be printed out on black and white printers so make sure all graphics are distinguishable in black and white.  It is strongly encouraged that you perform a virus check on each submission to avoid complications or delays in submitting your Technical Proposal.  To verify that your proposal has been received, click on the “Check Upload” icon to view your proposal.  Typically, your uploaded file will be virus checked and converted to a .pdf document within the hour.  However, if your proposal does not appear after an hour, please contact the DoD Help Desk at 1-866-724-7457 (8:00 am to 5:00 pm ET).

 

Key Personnel

 

Identify in the Technical Proposal all key personnel who will be involved in this project; include information on directly related education, experience, and citizenship.  A resume of the principle investigator, including a list of publications, if any, must be part of that information.  Concise resumes for subcontractors and consultants, if any, are also useful.   You must identify all U.S. permanent residents to be involved in the project as direct employees, subcontractors, or consultants.  For these individuals, in addition to resumes, please provide copies of the individuals’ Green Cards.  You must also identify all non-U.S. citizens expected to be involved in the project as direct employees, subcontractors, or consultants.  For these individuals, in addition to resumes, please provide countries of origin, copies of visas, and explanation of the individuals’ involvement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phase I Work Plan Outline

 

 

NOTE:   PROPRIETARY INFORMATION SHALL NOT BE INCLUDED IN THE WORK PLAN OUTLINE.  THE AF WILL USE THIS WORK PLAN OUTLINE AS THE INITIAL DRAFT OF THE PHASE I STATEMENT OF WORK (SOW).

 

At the beginning of your proposal work plan section, include an outline of the work plan in the following format:

1)      Scope

List the major requirements and specifications of the effort.

2)      Task Outline

Provide a brief outline of the work to be accomplished over the span of the Phase I effort.

3)      Milestone Schedule

4)      Deliverables

a.       Kickoff meeting within 30 days of contract start

b.      Progress reports

c.       Technical review within 6 months

d.      Final report with SF 298

 

Cost Proposal

 

Cost proposal information should be provided by completing the on-line Cost Proposal form and including the Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a-h) specified below.  The Cost Proposal information must be at a level of detail that would enable Air Force personnel to determine the purpose, necessity and reasonability of each cost element.  Provide sufficient information (a-h below) on how funds will be used if the contract is awarded. The on-line Cost Proposal, and Itemized Cost Proposal Information (a-h) will not count against the 20-page limit.  The itemized listing may be placed in the “Explanatory Material” section of the on-line Cost Proposal form (if enough room), or as the last page(s) of the Technical Proposal Upload.  (Note:  Only one file can be uploaded to the DoD Submission Site).  Ensure that this file includes your complete Technical Proposal and the Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a-h) information.

 

      a. Special Tooling and Test Equipment and Material:  The inclusion of equipment and materials will be carefully reviewed relative to need and appropriateness of the work proposed. The purchase of special tooling and test equipment must, in the opinion of the Contracting Officer, be advantageous to the government and relate directly to the specific effort. They may include such items as innovative instrumentation and/or automatic test equipment.

 

      b. Direct Cost Materials: Justify costs for materials, parts, and supplies with an itemized list containing types, quantities, and price and where appropriate, purposes.

 

      c. Other Direct Costs: This category of costs includes specialized services such as machining or milling, special testing or analysis, costs incurred in obtaining temporary use of specialized equipment. Proposals, which include leased hardware, must provide an adequate lease vs. purchase justification or rational.

 

      d. Direct Labor: Identify key personnel by name if possible or by labor category if specific names are not available. The number of hours, labor overhead and/or fringe benefits and actual hourly rates for each individual are also necessary.

 

      e. Travel: Travel costs must relate to the needs of the project. Break out travel cost by trip, with the number of travelers, airfare, per diem, lodging, etc. The number of trips required, as well as the destination and purpose of each trip should be reflected. Recommend budgeting at least one (1) trip to the Air Force location managing the contract.

 

       f. Cost Sharing: Cost sharing is permitted. However, cost sharing is not required nor will it be an evaluation factor in the consideration of a proposal. Please note that cost share contracts do not allow fees.

 

      g. Subcontracts: Involvement of university or other consultants in the planning and/or research stages of the project may be appropriate. If the offeror intends such involvement, describe in detail and include information in the cost proposal. The proposed total of all consultant fees, facility leases or usage fees, and other subcontract or purchase agreements may not exceed one-third of the total contract price or cost, unless otherwise approved in writing by the Contracting Officer.

 

(NOTE): The Small Business Administration has issued the following guidance:

     “Agencies participating in the SBIR Program will not issue SBIR contracts to small business firms that include provisions for subcontracting any portion of that contract award back to the originating agency or any other Federal Government agency.”  See Section 2.6 of the DoD program solicitation for more details.

 

      Support subcontract costs with copies of the subcontract agreements. The supporting agreement documents must adequately describe the work to be performed (i.e. Cost Proposal). At the very least, a Statement of Work (SOW) with a corresponding detailed cost proposal for each planned subcontract should be included.

 

      h. Consultants: Provide a separate agreement letter for each consultant. The letter should briefly state what service or assistance will be provided, the number of hours required and hourly rate.

 

PHASE I PROPOSAL SUBMISSION CHECKLIST

 

Failure to meet any of the criteria will result in your proposal being REJECTED and the Air Force will not evaluate your proposal.

 

1) The Air Force Phase I proposal shall be a nine-month effort and the cost shall not exceed $100,000.

 

2) The Air Force will accept only those proposals submitted electronically via the DoD SBIR Web site (www.dodsbir.net/submission).

 

3) You must submit your Company Commercialization Report electronically via the DoD SBIR Web site (www.dodsbir.net/submission).

 

It is mandatory that the complete proposal submission -- DoD Proposal Cover Sheet, Technical Proposal with any appendices, Cost Proposal, and the Company Commercialization Report -- be submitted electronically through the DoD SBIR Web site at http://www.dodsbir.net/submission. Each of these documents is to be submitted separately through the Web site. Your complete proposal must be submitted via the submissions site on or before the 6:00 am ET, 23 September 2009 deadline.  A hardcopy will not be accepted.  Signatures are not required at proposal submission when submitting electronically.  If you have any questions or problems with electronic submission, contact the DoD SBIR Help Desk at 1-866-724-7457 (8:00 am to 5:00 pm ET).

 

 

The Air Force recommends that you complete your submission early, as computer traffic gets heavy near the solicitation closing and could slow down the system.  Do not wait until the last minute.  The Air Force will not be responsible for proposals being denied due to servers being “down” or inaccessible.  Please assure that your e-mail address listed in your proposal is current and accurate.  By the end of September, you will receive an e-mail serving as our acknowledgement that we have received your proposal. The Air Force is not responsible for notifying companies that change their mailing address, their e-mail address, or company official after proposal submission without proper notification to the Air Force.

 

 

AIR FORCE SBIR/STTR VIRTUAL SHOPPING MALL

 

As a means of drawing greater attention to SBIR accomplishments, the Air Force has developed a Virtual Shopping Mall at http://www.sbirsttrmall.com.  Along with being an information resource concerning SBIR policies and procedures, the Shopping Mall is designed to help facilitate the Phase III transition process. In this regard, the Shopping Mall features: (a) SBIR Impact / Success Stories written by the Air Force; and (b) Phase I and Phase II summary reports that are written and submitted by SBIR companies. Since summary reports are intended for public viewing via the Internet, they should not contain classified, sensitive, or proprietary information. Submission of a Phase I Final Summary Report is a mandatory requirement for any company awarded a Phase I contract in response to this solicitation.

 

AIR FORCE PROPOSAL EVALUATIONS

 

Evaluation of the primary research effort and the proposal will be based on the scientific review criteria factors (i.e., technical merit, principal investigator (and team), and Commercialization Plan).  Please note that where technical evaluations are essentially equal in merit, and as cost and/or price is a substantial factor, cost to the government will be considered in determining the successful offeror. The Air Force anticipates that pricing will be based on adequate price competition. The next tie-breaker on essentially equal proposals will be the inclusion of manufacturing technology considerations.

 

The Air Force will utilize the Phase I evaluation criteria in section 4.2 of the DoD solicitation in descending order of importance with technical merit being most important, followed by the qualifications of the principal investigator (and team), and followed by Commercialization Plan.  The Air Force will use the Phase II evaluation criteria in section 4.3 of the DoD solicitation with technical merit being most important, followed by the Commercialization Plan, and then qualifications of the principal investigator (and team).      

 

 

NOTICE:  Only government personnel and technical personnel from Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Mitre Corporation and Aerospace Corporation, working under contract to provide technical support to Air Force product centers (Electronic Systems Center and Space and Missiles Center respectively) may evaluate proposals.  All FFRDC employees at the product centers have non-disclosure requirements as part of their contracts with the centers.  In addition, Air Force support contractors may be used to administratively process or monitor contract performance and testing.  Contractors receiving awards where support contractors will be utilized for performance monitoring may be required to execute separate non-disclosure agreements with the support contractors.

 

 

On-Line Proposal Status and Debriefings

 

The Air Force has implemented on-line proposal status updates and debriefings (for proposals not selected for an Air Force award) for small businesses submitting proposals against Air Force topics. At the close of the Phase I Solicitation – and following the submission of a Phase II via the DoD SBIR/STTR Submission Site (https://www.dodsbir.net/submission) – small business can track the progress of their proposal submission by logging into the Small Business Area of the Air Force SBIR/STTR Virtual Shopping Mall  (http://www.sbirsttrmall.com). The Small Business Area (http://www.sbirsttrmall.com/Firm/login.aspx) is password protected and firms can view their information only.

 

To receive a status update of a proposal submission, click the “Proposal Status / Debriefings” link at the top of the page in the Small Business Area (after logging in). A listing of proposal submissions to the Air Force within the last 12 months is displayed. Status update intervals are: Proposal Received, Evaluation Started, Evaluation Completed, Selection Started, and Selection Completed. A date will be displayed in the appropriate column indicating when this stage has been completed. If no date is present, the proposal submission has not completed this stage. Small businesses are encouraged to check this site often as it is updated in real-time and provide the most up-to-date information available for all proposal submissions. Once the “Selection Completed” date is visible, it could still be a few weeks (or more) before you are contacted by the Air Force with a notification of selection or non-selection.  The Air Force receives thousands of proposals during each solicitation and the notification process requires specific steps to be completed prior to a Contracting Officer distributing this information to small business. 

 

The Principal Investigator (PI) and Corporate Official (CO) indicated on the Proposal Cover Sheet will be notified by e-mail regarding proposal selection or non-selection.  The e-mail will include a link to a secure Internet page to be accessed which contains the appropriate information. If your proposal is tentatively selected to receive an Air Force award, the PI and CO will receive a single notification. If your proposal is not selected for an Air Force award, the PI and CO may receive up to two messages. The first message will notify the small business that the proposal has not been selected for an Air Force award and provide information regarding the availability of a proposal debriefing. The notification will either indicate that the debriefing is ready for review and include instructions to proceed to the “Proposal Status / Debriefings” area of the Air Force SBIR/STTR Virtual Shopping Mall or it may state that the debriefing is not currently available but generally will be within 90 days (due to unforeseen circumstances, some debriefings may be delayed beyond the normal 90 days). If the initial notification indicates the debriefing will be available generally within 90 days, the PI and CO will receive a follow-up notification once the debriefing is available online. All proposals not selected for an Air Force award will have an online debriefing available for review. Available debriefings can be viewed by clicking on the “Debriefing” link, located on the right of the Proposal Title, in the “Proposal Status/Debriefings” section of the Small Business Area of the Air Force SBIR/STTR Virtual Shopping Mall.  Small Businesses will receive a notification for each proposal submitted. Please read each notification carefully and note the Proposal Number and Topic Number referenced. Also observe the status of the debriefing as availability may differ between submissions (e.g., one may state the debriefing is currently available while another may indicate the debriefing will be available within 90 days).

 

IMPORTANT: Proposals submitted to the Air Force are received and evaluated by different offices within the Air Force and handled on a Topic-by-Topic basis. Each office operates within their own schedule for proposal evaluation and selection. Updates and notification timeframes will vary by office and Topic. If your company is contacted regarding a proposal submission, it is not necessary to contact the Air Force to inquire about additional submissions.  Check the Small Business Area of the Air Force SBIR/STTR Virtual Shopping Mall for a current update. Additional notifications regarding your other submissions will be forthcoming.

 

We anticipate having all the proposals evaluated and our Phase I contract decisions within approximately four months of proposal receipt.  All questions concerning the status of a proposal, or debriefing, should be directed to the local awarding organization SBIR Program Manager.  Organizations and their Topic Numbers are listed later in this section (before the Air Force Topic descriptions).

 

PHASE II PROPOSAL SUBMISSIONS

 

Phase II is the demonstration of the technology that was found feasible in Phase I.  Only those Phase I awardees that are invited to submit a Phase II proposal and all FAST TRACK applicants will be eligible to submit a Phase II proposal. Phase I awardees can verify selection for receipt of a Phase II invitation letter by logging into the “Small Business Area” at http://sbirsttrmall.com.  If “Phase II Invitation Letter Sent” and associated date are visible, a Phase II invitation letter has been sent.  If the letter is not received within 10 days of the date and/or the contact information for technical/contracting points of contact has changed since submission of the Phase I proposal, contact the appropriate AF SBIR Program Manager, as found in the Phase I selection notification letter, for resolution.  Please note that it is solely the responsibility of the Phase I awardee to contact this individual.  There will be no further attempts on the part of the Air Force to solicit a Phase II proposal.  The awarding Air Force organization will send detailed Phase II proposal instructions to the appropriate small businesses.  Phase II efforts are typically two (2) years in duration and do not exceed $750,000. (NOTE) All Phase II awardees must have a Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) approved accounting system. Get your DCAA accounting system in place prior to the AF Phase II award timeframe. If you do not have a DCAA approved accounting system, this will delay / prevent Phase II contract award. If you have questions regarding this matter, please discuss with your Phase I Contracting Officer.

 

All proposals must be submitted electronically at www.dodsbir.net/submission.  The complete proposal – Department of Defense (DoD) Cover Sheet, entire Technical Proposal with appendices, Cost Proposal and the Company Commercialization Report – must be submitted by the date indicated in the invitation.  The Technical Proposal is limited to 50 pages (unless a different number is specified in the invitation).  The Commercialization Report, any advocacy letters, SBIR Environment Safety and Occupational Health (ESOH) Questionnaire, and Cost Proposal Itemized Listing (a-h) will not count against the 50 page limitation and should be placed as the last pages of the Technical Proposal file that is uploaded.  (Note:  Only one file can be uploaded to the DoD Submission Site.  Ensure that this single file includes your complete Technical Proposal and the additional Cost Proposal information.)  The preferred format for submission of proposals is Portable Document Format (.pdf).  Graphics must be distinguishable in black and white.  Please virus check your submissions.

 

FAST TRACK

 

Detailed instructions on the Air Force Phase II program and notification of the opportunity to submit a FAST TRACK application will be forwarded with all AF Phase I selection e-mail notifications.  The Air Force encourages businesses to consider a FAST TRACK application when they can attract outside funding and the technology is mature enough to be ready for application following successful completion of the Phase II contract.

 

NOTE:

1)      Fast Track applications must be submitted not later than 150 days after the start of the Phase I contract.

2)      Fast Track Phase II proposals must be submitted not later than 180 days after the start of the Phase I contract.

3)   The Air Force does not provide interim funding for Fast Track applications.  If selected for a Phase II award, we will match only the outside funding for Phase II.

 

For FAST TRACK applicants, should the outside funding not become available by the time designated by the awarding Air Force activity, the offeror will not be considered for any Phase II award.  FAST TRACK applicants may submit a Phase II proposal prior to receiving a formal invitation letter.  The Air Force will select Phase II winners based solely upon the merits of the proposal submitted, including FAST TRACK applicants.

 

AIR FORCE PHASE II ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM

 

On active Phase II awards, the Air Force will select a limited number of Phase II awardees for the Enhancement Program to address new unforeseen technology barriers that were discovered during the Phase II work.  The selected enhancements will extend the existing Phase II contract award for up to one year and the Air Force will match dollar-for-dollar up to $500,000 of non-SBIR government matching funds.  Contact the local awarding organization SBIR Manager for more information. (See Air Force SBIR Organization Listing).  If selected for a Phase II Enhancement, the company must submit a Phase II Enhancement application through the DoD Submission Web site at www.dodsbir.net/submission.

 

AIR FORCE SBIR PROGRAM MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS

 

The Air Force reserves the right to modify the Phase II submission requirements.  Should the requirements change, all Phase I awardees that are invited to submit Phase II proposals will be notified.  The Air Force also reserves the right to change any administrative procedures at any time that will improve management of the Air Force SBIR Program.

 

PHASE I SUMMARY REPORTS

 

In addition to all the Phase I contractual deliverables, Phase I award winners must submit a Phase I Final Summary Report at the end of their Phase I project. The Phase I Summary Report is an unclassified, non-sensitive, and non-proprietary summation of Phase I results that is intended for public viewing on the Air Force SBIR/STTR Virtual Shopping Mall. A Summary Report should not exceed 700 words, and should include the technology description and anticipated applications/benefits for government and/or private sector use. It should require minimal work from the contractor because most of this information is required in the final technical report. The Phase I Summary Report shall be submitted in accordance with the format and instructions posted on the Virtual Shopping Mall Web site at http://www.sbirsttrmall.com.

 

AIR FORCE SUBMISSION OF FINAL REPORTS

 

All Final Reports will be submitted to the awarding Air Force organization in accordance with the Contract.  Companies will not submit Final Reports directly to the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC).

 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS

 

These special instructions apply only to Air Force topic AF093C-122, “Rapid Boot Installation”, and are in addition to the regular instructions listed at the beginning of the Air Force section of the solicitation.

 

The primary focus of Phase I of this effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing, integrating and transitioning innovative manufacturing process technologies to support the production of DoD weapon system(s).   In addition to demonstrating the proposed technology solution, successful offerors should also consider the technical, business and transition plans necessary to lower the risk of technology insertion into the targeted manufacturing/inspection processes of a DoD weapon system Production floor.

 

The Air Force plans to award multiple Phase I awards on this topic.  Each Phase I will be limited to $100K.  These Phase I awards will be normal nine month efforts with six months planned for the technical effort and an additional three months allowed for reporting.  The Air Force plans on awarding one Phase II contract worth up to $5M and lasting for 24 months.  Phase II proposals will be by invitation only.  At that time, special instructions will be provided for the Phase II proposals.

 

As this effort is focused on AF weapon system production, successful offerors may find it useful to dialog and/or partner with an AF/DoD prime in order to understand their specific system requirements, implementation risks, and transition windows.  Successful offerors may also benefit from consideration of technical, manufacturing, and business readiness levels when preparing responses to manufacturing SBIRs.  Guidance and information on these three readiness measures can be found on the Air Force SBIR Web site located at http://sbirsttrmall.com/Library/Default.aspx Identification of return on investment (ROI) through a quantitative cost analysis should be addressed since this topic stresses the production implementation-developed technologies over existing baseline capabilities.

 

These special instructions apply only to Air Force Topic AF093C-123, Aircraft Outer Mold Line (OML) Control”, and are in addition to the regular instructions listed at the beginning of the Air Force section of the solicitation.

 

The primary focus of Phase I of this effort is to identify and demonstrate measurement technologies which will be able to provide the accuracy (+/- 0.001”) and consistency needed for controlled fit-up, in terms of step and gap, of upper and lower aircraft skins.  The measurement technology must be amenable to being automated and able to be used, eventually, in a production environment.  In addition to demonstrating the proposed technology solution, successful offerors should also consider the technical, business, and transition plans necessary to lower the risk of technology insertion into the integration processes of a DoD weapon system.

 

The Air Force plans to award no less than two Phase I awards on this topic.  Phase I awards will be limited to $100K.  These Phase I awards will be executed at an accelerated pace, a six-month effort, with four months planned for the technical effort and an additional two months allowed for reporting.  The accelerated pace of the Phase I (and Phase II) efforts is needed in order to meet the expected schedule for implementation into F-35 LRIP IV.

 

The Phase I effort will identify and demonstrate the measurement technique and provide a plan for the overall system concept and architecture.

 

The Air Force plans on awarding one Phase II effort worth $3+M with an 18-month period of performance.  Examples of the additional information needed in the Phase II proposal package include the following:  innovative technical approaches to address the critical processes, associated return on investment (ROI), and potential related uses.  Also, it is expected that the Phase II proposal will include both a business plan and a transition plan.  Phase II proposals will be by invitation only.  At that time, special instructions will be provided for the Phase II proposals. 

 

These special instructions apply only to Air Force Topic AF093C-137, “Multi-Function Laser Radar (LADAR) for Rotorcraft Brownout and Cable Warning/Obstacle Avoidance”, and are in addition to the regular instructions listed at the beginning of the Air Force section of the solicitation.

 

The primary focus of the Phase I effort is to develop and demonstrate innovative laser radar (LADAR) technologies to provide situation awareness during brownout approach and landing and cable warning/obstacle avoidance during all mission phases.  In addition to demonstrating the proposed technology solution, successful offerors should also consider the technical, business, and transition plans necessary to lower the risk of technology insertion into the integration processes of a DoD weapon system.

 

The Air Force plans to award four Phase I awards on this topic.  Each Phase I will be limited to $100K. These Phase I awards will be nine-month efforts with six months planned for the technical effort and an additional three months allowed for reporting.  The Phase I effort will develop the system concept and architecture.  Collaborative efforts are encouraged to reduce the risk on critical component technologies including, for example, multi-function laser, variable field-of-view scanning, real-time signal and data processing, and display processing techniques.

 

The Air Force plans on awarding one Phase II effort worth $3+M with a period of performance of 18-24 months.  Examples of additional information needed in the Phase II proposal package include the following:  innovative technical approaches to address the critical processes and associated return on investment (ROI).  Also, it is expected that the Phase II proposal will include both a business plan and a transition plan.  Phase II proposals will be by invitation only.  At that time, special instructions will be provided for the Phase II proposals. 


 

Air Force Program Manager Listing

 

 

 

 

Contracting Authority

 

Topic Number

 

Activity

 

Program Manager

(for contract questions only)

 

 

 

 

AF093-001 thru AF093-007

Air Vehicles Directorate

Larry Byram

Brad Kneisly

 

AFRL / RB

(937) 904-8169

(937) 656-9027

 

2130 Eighth Street

 

 

 

Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-008 thru AF093-016

Directed Energy Directorate

Ardeth Walker

Susan Thorpe

 

AFRL/RD

(505) 846-4418

(505) 846-3404

 

3550 Aberdeen Ave SE

 

 

 

Kirtland AFB NM 87117-5776

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-017 thru AF093-033

Human Effectiveness Directorate

Sabrina Davis

(937) 255-3737

Gerema Randall

(937) 656-9833

 

AFRL/RD

 

 

 

2610 Seventh, St, Bldg 441

 

 

 

Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-034 thru AF093-055

Information Directorate

Janis Norelli

Lynn White

 

AFRL/RI

(315) 330-3311

(315) 330-4996

 

26 Electronic Parkway

 

 

 

Rome NY 13441-4514

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-056 thru AF093-094

Space Vehicles Directorate

Danielle Lythgoe

Jean Barnes

 

AFRL / RV

(505) 853-7947

(505) 846-4695

 

3550 Aberdeen Ave SE

 

 

 

Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-095 thru AF093-108

Munitions Directorate

Jill Barfield

Melissa St. Vincent

 

AFRL / RW

(850) 882-3920

850-883-2682

 

101 West Eglin Blvd. Suite 143

 

 

 

Eglin AFB, FL 32542-6810

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-109 thru AF093-130

 

Materials & Mfg. Directorate

 

Debbie Shaw

 

Kim Yoder

AF09C-122,  AF093C-123

AFRL / RX

(937) 255-4839

(937) 255-4628

 

2977 Hobson Way, Rm 406

 

 

 

Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433

 

 

 

Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7033

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-131 thru AF093-161

 

Sensors Directorate

 

Claudia Duncan

 

Debbie Bucher

AF093C-137

AFRL / RY

(937) 904-9764

(937) 255-3585

 

2241 Avionics Circle, Rm N2S24

(937) 904-9155

 

 

Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-162 thru AF093-185

Propulsion Directorate

Mary Kruskamp

Mary Lykins

 

AFRL / RZ

(937) 904-8608

(937) 656-9752

 

1950 Fifth Street

Barb Scenters

 

 

Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433

(937) 255-9255

 

 

AF093-186 thru 190

 

Propulsion Directorate West

 

Chanda Smith

 

Sun McGuinness

 

AFRL / RZO

(662) 275-5930

(661) 277-3524

 

5 Pollux Drive

 

 

 

Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7033

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-191 thru AF093-196

Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center

 

Becky Medina

 

LaLinda Harrison

 

OC-ALC / ENET

(405) 736-2158

(405) 739-3464

 

3001 Staff Drive, Suite 2AG70A

 

 

 

Tinker AFB, OK 73145-3040

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-197 thru AF093-203

Ogden Air Logistics Center

John Jusko

Michael Allred

 

OO-ALC / LHH

(801) 586-2090

(801) 586-3335

 

6021 Gum Lane

 

 

 

Hill AFB, UT 84056-2721

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-204 thru AF093-208

Warner Robins Air Logistics Center

Frank Zahiri

(478) 327-4127

Mr. Craig Polk

(478) 468-9501

 

WR-ALC / ENSN

 

 

 

450 Third Street, Bldg. 323

 

 

 

Robins AFB, GA 31098-1654

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-208 thru AF093-213

46 TW / XPXR

101 West D Avenue Bldg 1

Eglin AFB, FL 93524-6843

Ramsey Sallman

(850) 883-0537

Daniel Burk

(850) 882-0168

 

101 West D Avenue Bldg. 1

 

 

 

Eglin AFB, FL 93524-6843

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-214 thru AF093-219

Arnold Engineering Development Center

Ron Bishel

(931) 454-7734

Sue Tate

(931) 454-7801

 

AEDC / XRS

 

 

 

1099 Schriever Ave

 

 

 

Arnold AFB, TN 37389-9011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AF093-220 thru AF093-223

 

Air Force Flight Test Center

 

Abe Attachbarian

 

Glenda Downing

 

AFFTC / XPR

(661) 277-5946

(661)  277-7708

 

1 S. Rosamond  Blvd,

Bldg 1, Rm 103A

 

 

 

Edwards AFB, CA 93524-6843

 

 

 


Air Force SBIR 093 Topic Index

 

 

AF093-001                           Novel Experimental and Analytical Methods for Designing Damage Tolerant Composite Structures

AF093-002                           Ground Mobility and Landing Gear for a Bird-Sized Perching Micro Air Vehicle (MAV)

AF093-003                           Robust Optic Signal Distribution within Enclosures for Aerospace Applications

AF093-004                           Innovative Aerodynamic Measurement for Integrated Hypersonic Inlets

AF093-005                           Technologies for Cost-Effective Mixed-Criticality Flight Control Systems

AF093-006                           Structurally Embedded Power and Signal Cabling for Air Vehicles

AF093-007                           High Speed Store Separation Data Acquisition Techniques

AF093-008                           Components and Compact Packaging of Fiber Laser Amplifier Arrays

AF093-009                           Measurement of laser irradiance on target for directed energy weapons

AF093-010                           Spatial-Temporal Control Applied to Atmospheric Adaptive Optics

AF093-011                           Conformal High Energy Laser Weapon System

AF093-012                           Advanced Estimation and Data Fusion Strategies for Space Surveillance/Reconnaissance

AF093-013                           Autonomous and Adaptive Technique to Collect and Analyze RF Effects Data

AF093-014                           Advanced Dielectric Insulation Techniques for High Voltage Pulsed Power Systems

AF093-017                           Holographic Waveguide Visor Display (HWVD)

AF093-018                           Dichoptic Vision System (DiVS)

AF093-020                           Eye Tracker for Avionics Helmet Systems (ETAHS)

AF093-021                           Ultrahigh Definition Microdisplay (UDM)

AF093-023                           Kinetic Power Technologies for the Dismounted Warrior

AF093-025                           Visualization of Cross-Domain C2ISR Operations

AF093-026                           C2-ISR Capability-Need Pairing Framework to Support Resource-Task Pairing such as Sensing-Target Pairing and Weapon-Target Pairing

AF093-027                           Voice-Interactive Training Environment for Tactical Exercise Familiarization

AF093-028                           Network-Centric Supervisory Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

AF093-029                           Short Pulse Radio Frequency (RF) Field Measurement System

AF093-030                           Automated Analysis and Classification of Anomalous 3-D Human Shapes and Hostile Actions

AF093-031                           Intuitive Interfaces for "Layered Sensing"

AF093-033                           Countering Cyber Terrorism through Internet Media

AF093-034                           Innovative Methods for Increasing Data Link Capability

AF093-035                           High Speed Digital Video on Legacy Aircraft Wiring

AF093-036                           Automated Fiber Optic Interconnect Cleaning and Inspection Involving Aerospace Platforms

AF093-038                           Enabling End User Computing Environments

AF093-041                           Non-cooperative Target Detection/Identification (ID)

AF093-042                           Persistent Queries for Evolving Situational Awareness of Organization Entities

AF093-043                           Mult-access Optical Communications

AF093-044                           High Power Optical Transmitter for Satellite Communications

AF093-045                           High Power Optical Amplifier (HPOAs) for Free Space

AF093-046                           Automated Adversarial Course of Action Model Generation and Reasoning for Satellite Protection (commercial/military)

AF093-047                           Automated Tools for Adversarial Threat Characterization

AF093-048                           Wi-Fi for Assured PNT and Integrity Verification

AF093-049                           Self-Shielding Systems and Attack-Surface Mutation

AF093-050                           Course of Action (COA) Analysis, Comparison and Selection for Effects Based Space Operations

AF093-051                           Cyber Behavioral Attribution across Networks and Workstations

AF093-053                           Automatic Artificial Diversity for Virtual Machines

AF093-054                           Securing personal mobile devices for use as digital proxies

AF093-055                           Net-Centric, Mixed-Initiative Plan Representation

AF093-056                           Spectral Imaging of Space Objects

AF093-057                           High Frequency (HF) Over the Horizon Radar (OTHR) Metric Accuracy

AF093-058                           Distributed Satellite Resource Management for Mission Operations

AF093-059                           Advanced Gimbaled Dish Antenna

AF093-061                           Variable Coverage Wide Field of View Satellite Antenna

AF093-064                           Canisterized Satellite Development for Operationally Responsive Space

AF093-065                           Advanced Li-ion Battery Cathode

AF093-066                           Innovative Laser-based Cueing Technology for Space Protection Countermeasures

AF093-067                           Data Mining Development for OCS/DCS SSA Operations

AF093-068                           Automation of Satellite On-orbit Check-out

AF093-070                           Miniaturized Satellite Development for Responsive Space Missions

AF093-071                           Adaptive Thermal Control Coating for Radiation Hardening of Spacecraft

AF093-072                           Lithium Ion Battery and Ultracapacitors Hybrid for Satellite Power

AF093-074                           Thermal Stable Panel (TSP) with Thermal Control Features for Transient Spacecraft Payloads

AF093-075                           Discrimination and Identification of Closely-Spaced Objects (CSO)

AF093-076                           Space Microelectronics Security Verification

AF093-077                           Rapid, Accurate, Satellite Structural Dynamic Modeling Methods for Responsive Space Needs

AF093-078                           Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) Network Operations Upgrade- Enterprise Software Prototype

AF093-079                           High Temperature Heat Pipes and Passive Two-Phase Cooling Systems

AF093-080                           Ultra High Efficiency Multi Junction Solar Cells for Space Applications

AF093-081                           Rapid Radiation Hardened Prototyping of Obsolescent Military Satellite Microelectronics

AF093-082                           Ultra Low Power Logic Device

AF093-083                           Improved Cryogenic Cooling Technology

AF093-084                           Low Power, Radiation Hardened Embedded Memory Compiler

AF093-086                           Compact Type 1 Space Encryption Hardware

AF093-087                           Autonomous Space Systems

AF093-088                           Modular Cubesat Architectures and Components

AF093-089                           Component and Subsystem Development for Compact, Efficient LADAR Ranging

AF093-090                           Responsive, Pre-launch and On-orbit, Electro-Optical Sensor Characterization and Calibration

AF093-092                           Space and Operational Environmental Protection for Thin Multijunction Solar Cells

AF093-095                           High Performance High Reliability Weapon Bus Switch

AF093-096                           Non-Conventional (Non-Nuclear) Techniques for Defeating HDBT/UGF

AF093-097                           Modeling Techniques for Assessing Counter-Electronic Effects

AF093-098                           High Density or Multi-Functional Compact Power Source

AF093-100                           Laser Beacon for Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF) and Combat Identification

AF093-101                           Hyperspectral and Persistent Sensor Signal Processing Platform and Algorithms

AF093-102                           Microladar collision avoidance and target detection technology

AF093-103                           Microscale Ordnance Technologies for Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs)

AF093-104                           Boundary layer control of flow separation for Micro Air Vehicles

AF093-107                           Micro Seeker Technology

AF093-108                           Technology for Dynamic Characterization of Micro-scale Aerial Vehicles

AF093-109                           Cost Reducing Processing Development of High Performance Transparent Armor

AF093-110                           Canopy/Transparency Advanced Coating Technology

AF093-111                           Lead-free Solder Alternative Interconnect Material

AF093-112                           Innovative Methods to Reduce Aircraft Outer Mold Line (OML) Repair Cycle Time

AF093-113                           Multi-layer Coating Thickness Probe

AF093-114                           Peel and Stick Adhesive for Outer Mold Line (OML) Material Repair

AF093-115                           Conformal Infrared Window with Structural and Distributed Aperture Capability for Airborne Platforms

AF093-116                           Material Approaches to Mitigate Gap Filler Cracking

AF093-117                           Integrated Processing and Probabilistic Lifing Models for Superalloy Turbine Disks

AF093-118                           Development of a New Structural Film Adhesive for On-Aircraft Repair

AF093-120                           Innovative Methods for Automated Controlled Removal of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) and Bondcoats from Turbine Airfoils for Rework and Repair

AF093-121                           Small-Hole Measurement Techniques

AF093-124                           Passive, Wireless Sensors for Turbine Engine Airfoils

AF093-125                           Physics-based Life Prediction Model Incorporating Environmental Effects for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

AF093-126                           Passive Optical Switches

AF093-127                           Materials for Morphing Shape-Memory Polymer (SMP) Skins

AF093-128                           Fluids for Dielectric Switch Applications

AF093-129                           Accelerated Reconnaissance Window Development

AF093-130                           Development of A Structural And Thermally Conductive Composite

AF093-131                           Air-Deliverable Geologic Sensors

AF093-132                           Wide Area Unresolved Target Detection and Tracking

AF093-133                           Sense and Avoid (SAA) Radar Improvements

AF093-134                           Adaptive Control of Digital Channelized Receivers

AF093-136                           Laser Technologies Adapted for UAS Sense and Avoid (SAA) Applications 

AF093-138                           Improvements in Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Detection Through Multi-band Imaging

AF093-139                           Integrated SAR and LiDAR Change Detection Techniques for Small Object Detection

AF093-140                           Inertial Reference Corrective Approaches to Complementary Antenna Pedestal Gyro Units

AF093-141                           Airborne Detection of Spoofed ADS-B Reports

AF093-143                           Develop Cross-Platform Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image quality metric for automatic target recognition (ATR)

AF093-145                           Exploitation of Geometric Diversity for High Resolution Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imaging

AF093-146                           Broadband, Ultra-linear, Extremely High Frequency (EHF) Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier

AF093-147                           Highly Linear E-Band Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier

AF093-148                           V-Band Solid State Power Amplifier with Integrated Power Combiner

AF093-149                           Passive Hydrogen Maser for Space Applications

AF093-150                           High Performance Pulsed Rubidium Clock for Space Applications

AF093-152                           Global Positioning System (GPS) User Equipment (UE) Time Aiding Using WWV/WWVB

AF093-153                           Navigation Warfare (NAVWAR) Field Program Gate Array (FPGA) and/or ASIC Development

AF093-154                           User Equipment (UE) Cognitive Functions

AF093-156                           Robust Shape and Motion Estimation Algorithms for All-Weather Imaging

AF093-158                           High Power 2-micron Fiber Laser Components

AF093-159                           Ultra Low Power Electronics for Autonomous Micro-Sensor Applications

AF093-160                           Readout Integrated Circuit (IC) Technology for Strained Layer Superlattice Photodetectors

AF093-162                           Efficiency Methodologies for Chemical Reactions of JP-8

AF093-163                           Small Unmanned Aircraft Propeller Improvements

AF093-164                           Efficient Implementation of Models for Improved Prediction of Gas Turbine Combustor and Augmentor Robustness

AF093-165                           Robust Spark and Plasma Ignition Systems for Gas Turbine Main Combustors and Augmentors

AF093-167                           Fully Resolved Spatial and Temporal Measurement of Turbine Inlet Conditions

AF093-168                           Electron Beam/Physical Vapor Deposition (EB/PVD) Coating Process Mapping for Complex Shapes

AF093-169                           Improving the Predictability of Thermal Spray Coating Process Outcome

AF093-170                           Advanced Electronics Cooling for Power Electronic Devices

AF093-171                           Development of Multifunctional Damping Coating Systems for Turbine Engine Components

AF093-172                           Wide Temperature, High-Frequency Capacitors for Aerospace Power Conditioning Applications

AF093-173                           Dual Mode Electrical Accumulator Unit (DMEAU)

AF093-174                           Improved Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) System

AF093-175                           Innovative Thermal Management Technologies for Dissipating Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) Electronics Heat

AF093-176                           Predicting Faults and Determining Life of Electro-Mechanical Actuation (EMA) System for Engine and Aerospace Applications

AF093-177                           Strain Mapping Capability for Hot Composite Engine Structures

AF093-179                           Built-In Damage State Detection and Localization Capabilities for Composite Engine Structures

AF093-180                           Extend Operational Use of Global Positioning System (GPS) User Equipment (UE) via Operational Techniques and Enhanced Energy Devices

AF093-182                           Hypersonic Propulsion: Enhancing Robustness in Mid-Scale Scramjets

AF093-183                           Development of Reactive Molecular Dynamics (RMD) Simulation Software

AF093-184                           Energy Harvesting for Efficient Power Generation

AF093-185                           Elimination of Microbial Contamination in Aviation Fuels

AF093-186                           Low Cost Valve Technology

AF093-187                           Plume Measurements for the Identification of Required Maintenance in Liquid Rocket Engines (LREs)

AF093-188                           Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Based Material for Rocket Propulsion or Tether Applications

AF093-189                           Green Monopropellant Thruster Catalytic Degradation and Performance Modeling

AF093-190                           Mechanism and Model-based Improvement of Nanoenergetic Particles

AF093-191                           Non-Intrusive Direct Part Marking

AF093-193                           Multi-Attribute Reliability and Maintainability Engineering Assessment Methodology

AF093-195                           Real Time Coating Process Monitoring System

AF093-196                           Improved Electrical Characteristics of Airborne Radomes

AF093-199                           Non-Destructive Test (NDT) methods for High Velocity Oxygenated Fuel (HVOF) coated Landing Gear (LG) components

AF093-200                           Rapid Assembly of Durable Composite Radome Panels and Radome Mounting Interface

AF093-202                           Rapid Assembly, Energy Efficient Composite Shelter

AF093-203                           Improved Landing Gear Grinding/Finishing Methods on Hard Wear Resistant Surfaces

AF093-204                           Increased durability of Infrared (IR) Materials for Long Endurance Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) applications

AF093-205                           Reliability Modeling for the Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in National Airspace

AF093-206                           Real-time Overlay of Map Features onto a Video Feed

AF093-207                           Failure Prognostics Based on Existing Data

AF093-208                           Expert Troubleshooting Technology for Rapidly Diagnosing Failures in Complex Systems

AF093-210                           Aircraft Tire Contact Patch Force and Shear Sensor

AF093-212                           Low-Cost Infrared Countermeasure

AF093-213                           Subminiature Hi-def UAV Reconnaissance (SHUR)

AF093-214                           Store Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads Measurement Technology

AF093-215                           Cryodeposit Cleaning System for Low-background Radiometric Space Simulation Chambers

AF093-216                           Broadband Infrared Coherent Fiber Image Guide

AF093-217                           Autonomous Distributed Plant Monitoring Network

AF093-218                           Solar Lunar Spectral Source for Space Sensor Exclusion Testing

AF093-221                           Accurate Automated Analysis for Trajectory Reconstruction of Highly Dynamic Vehicles

AF093-222                           Multispectral Desert Fauna Surveillance and Recognition System

AF093-223                           Advanced Uncooled Infrared Detectors Using Nano-Scale

AF093-224                           Non-Lethal Avian Active Denial System Using Directed Energy

AF093C-122                        Rapid Boot Installation

AF093C-123                        Aircraft Outer Mold Line (OML) Control

AF093C-137                        Multi-Function Laser Radar (LADAR) for Rotorcraft Brownout and Cable Warning/Obstacle Avoidance
Air Force SBIR 093 Topic Descriptions

 

 

AF093-001                           TITLE: Novel Experimental and Analytical Methods for Designing Damage Tolerant Composite Structures

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop and demonstrate approaches to characterize the damage tolerance capabilities of composite materials and translate the capabilities into successful designs for composite structures.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Composite materials often offer the most efficient and lowest cost solutions for airframe and propulsion (nacelle) structures.  Many of these structures are in areas that are susceptible to incidental impact damage that have the potential for subsequent damage growth.  Damage tolerance requirements dictate that structures shall have adequate residual strength in the presence of flaws/damage for specified periods of service usage.  Designing solid laminate or integrally stiffened composite panels to assure structural integrity after a damage event is challenging.

 

Damage tolerance characterization tests such as Compression Strength After Impact (CSAI) rely on the ability of designers to predict the response and residual strength of full-scale composite bay structures based on small-scale tests with different loading, mixity of failure modes, and boundary conditions.  These factors make designing composite bays subjected to damage tolerance requirements costly and time consuming.  Industry currently lacks methods to translate the response of standard damage tolerance characterization tests to reliable predictions of the damage tolerance (including the effects of bay size, stiffening mechanism, and panel fixity) of full-scale composite structures. 

 

The objective of this effort is to develop and demonstrate efficient approaches to experimentally characterize the damage tolerance capabilities of composite materials and translate the capabilities into successful designs for composite structures.   To this end, working with an airframe structures original equipment manufacturer (OEM) on developing and demonstrating novel damage tolerance methods provides a competitive advantage and a focus on technology transition.

 

PHASE I:  Phase I should focus on development of test techniques to exercise possible failure modes to feed development of Phase II analytical methods. Phase II should build on Phase I results to develop analytical approaches which are validated by experimental methods.  Both Phases should be conducted with a focus on technology transition and an understanding of what it will take to demonstrate and qualify the method for use in actual aerospace structures design.  Costs of a transition/qualification effort should be estimated as part of the Phase II work package, and a potential transition strategy should be discussed in basic detail during Phase I, and in finer detail during Phase II.

 

The supplier shall develop experimental methods for characterizing the damage tolerance of composite materials and develop approaches to use the characterization test results to predict the damage tolerance response of full scale composite structures.

 

PHASE II:  Phase II should build on Phase I results and include development and demonstration of experimental and analytical methods. The analytical approaches must consider the possible loading and geometric variations that are possible in a composite bay.  Experiments shall be conducted to validate the use of small scale characterization test results to predict the response of larger composite structures.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: The approach should be applicable to military aerospace for propulsion and airframe applications as well as potential composite armor and other applications where damage tolerance is a factor.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: The approach should be applicable to commercial aerospace for propulsion and airframe applications as well as other applications where damage tolerance is a factor.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Composite Handbook CHM-17, ASTM, 2002.

 

2. Joint Service Specification Guide (JSSG) 2006, DoD, 1998.

 

KEYWORDS: composite, damage tolerance, composite modeling, analytical methods

 

 

 

AF093-002                           TITLE: Ground Mobility and Landing Gear for a Bird-Sized Perching Micro Air Vehicle (MAV)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

 

OBJECTIVE:  To develop concepts and designs for landing gear and limited ground mobility of a bird-sized platform involved in urban intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions.

 

DESCRIPTION:  AFRL/RB has recently begun efforts in development of technologies for bird and insect-sized micro air vehicles (MAVs). One of the Air Force Research Laboratory’s (AFRL) strategic visions for 2015 is a bird-sized MAV that can operate in an urban environment for a week. In order to do so, this vehicle will have to perch, either for recharging (energy harvesting) or for ISR of stationary targets. The landing environment might be on a branch, but more likely on a ledge or other horizontal platform. Either way, the landing will not resemble a roll-out landing, but a perching maneuver much like a bird. This SBIR seeks to develop concepts for landing gear of a platform such as this. The landing gear must enable the landing itself, limited ground mobility for repositioning and other maneuverability at the perching site, and possibly incorporate energy harvesting or other functionalities needed for completion of the mission.

 

PHASE I:  Phase I will concentrate on identifying different modes of landing gear, and creating benchtop prototypes to demonstrate different concepts.

 

PHASE II:  Phase II will concentrate on down selection to one or possibly two solutions, miniaturization, and integration into a flying commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) remote control (RC) vehicle for demonstration. Because a perching vehicle of the type envisioned has not yet been developed, large thrust-to-weight (T/W) foamies will most likely be used so that high angle-of-attack landings are possible.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Remote-control vehicles such as crawlers, flyers, climbers, etc., have been proposed for tasks such as bomb sniffing and disposal, emergency search and rescue, and border patrol.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Remote-control vehicles such as crawlers, flyers, climbers, etc., have been proposed for tasks such as bomb sniffing and disposal, emergency search and rescue, and border patrol.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Reich, G. W., Wojnar, O., and Albertani, R., Aerodynamic Performance of a Notional Perching MAV Design, AIAA 2009-0063, Proc. 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, FL, 5-8 January, 2009.

 

2. Lukens, J. M., Reich, G. W., and Sanders, B., Wing Mechanization Design and Analysis for a Perching Micro Air Vehicle, AIAA 2008-1794, Proc. 16th AIAA/ASME/AHS Adaptive Structures Conference, Schaumburg, IL, 7-10 April, 2008.

 

3. Spenko, M., Haynes, G. C. , Saunders, J. A., Cutkosky, M., Rizzi, A., Full, R., and Koditschek, D., Biologically inspired climbing with a hexapedal robot, Journal of Field Robotics, Vol. 25, No. 4-5, pp. 223-242, 2008.

 

4. Bachmann, R. J., Boria, F. J., et al., Utility of a Sensor Platform Capable of Aerial and Terrestrial Locomotion, Proc. IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Monterey, CA, 24-28 July, 2005.

 

5. Cory, R. and Tedrake, R., Experiments in Fixed-Wing UAV Perching, AIAA Paper No. AIAA 2008-7256, AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit, Honolulu, HI, 18-21 August, 2008.

 

KEYWORDS: perching, micro air vehicles, ground mobility, attachment mechanisms

 

 

 

AF093-003                           TITLE: Robust Optic Signal Distribution within Enclosures for Aerospace Applications

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Space Platforms

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop robust, high density, deployable, maintainable optical distribution solution for aerospace fiber optic applications.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The Air Vehicles Directorate is actively pursuing the use of fiber optic technology for aerospace vehicle control applications.  The use of fiber optic technology can be helpful in creating systems that are resilient to electromagnetic interference (EMI) since the photonic elements, such as fiber, are naturally immune to these effects.  Fiber optic technology can therefore result in significant benefits to aircraft designers, not only in EMI tolerance, but also in system weight, volume, and cost, due largely to the reduction of shielding requirements.  While many advances have been made recently, one area still requires innovation to enable fiber optic technologies for aerospace control applications to achieve their full benefits.  Current optical signal distribution within an electronics enclosure, both card to card and card to box, utilize low-density large connectors and create an unwieldy mesh of fibers within the enclosure.  The large connectors require significant card edge space limiting the functionality that can be implemented on a single card.  The mesh of fibers makes maintenance and repair of the cards exceedingly difficult and time consuming.  The combination of the two problems reduces reliability of the overall system.  The challenge is to develop a technology solution that enables the optical communication of hundreds of signals from card to card and from the cards to connectors on the enclosure box.  The ideal optic signal distribution solution would be compatible with both multi- mode and single mode fibers and address the electro-optic/optic-electro interface as well.  The goal of this effort will be to develop an optical signal distribution solution that meets or exceeds the following technical requirements: (1) can accommodate large numbers (> 100) of optical signals; (2) are durable in aircraft operational environments including shock, vibration, humidity, temperature, temperature-humidity cycling, altitude immersion, and electromagnetic effects; (3) maintain optical performance over the service life by minimizing optical power losses, minimizing crosstalk, and maintaining a high signal-to-noise ratio (4) permits the quick and easy removal and replacement of cards within the enclosure; (5) are readily cleanable when needed; and (6) reduce the footprint required on the card for interconnection.

 

PHASE I:  (1) Investigate and design innovative technologies that can resolve the technical requirements for optical signal distribution within the enclosure.  (2) Demonstrate design feasibility with either single mode or multi mode signals through the development of laboratory quality components.

 

PHASE II:  Develop a prototype demonstration of the optical signal distribution that was developed in Phase I. These prototypes must be consistent with the form, fit, and functional requirements for use in aerospace vehicle management systems. Additionally, these prototypes must be able to operate within the temperature, vibration, g-shock, EMI, and humidity conditions experienced in an aircraft environment.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  This technology could lead to future military application in manned aircraft, unmanned air vehicles, directed energy weapon systems, and other new aerospace vehicles.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial and business jet flight control and reusable launch vehicles. Nonaerospace applications include automotive drive by light, industrial automation, dense computing, and all optical computing.

 

REFERENCES:

1. MIL-STD-810F, Environmental Test Methods for Aerospace and Ground Equipment.

 

2. Weaver, T.L. and Smith, R.H., Photonic Vehicle Management, 20th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, Daytona Beach, FL, October 2001.

 

3. Sellers, Gregory J. and Roth, Richard F., Multi-fiber Optic Connectors for Aircraft Applications, SPIE Proceedings, Fly-By-Light: Technology Transfer, Orlando, Florida, Vol. 2467, pp. 87, April 1995.

 

KEYWORDS: fiber optics, optical signal distribution, photonics, card edge connectors, electro-optic interface, optic-electro interface, optical power loss, crosstalk

 

 

 

AF093-004                           TITLE: Innovative Aerodynamic Measurement for Integrated Hypersonic Inlets

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Weapons

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop affordable, minimally or nonintrusive techniques to enable real-time measurement of hypersonic inlet flow characteristics during wind tunnel testing.

 

DESCRIPTION:  (Military) Air Force interest in operationally responsive space access and prompt global strike capabilities has driven a need for new technologies that will provide increased payload, faster response times, and lower operational costs.  Air vehicle propulsion systems that utilize advanced hypersonic propulsion systems have been proposed as a means to achieve these payoffs.  If the inlet system can be designed to operate more efficiently than the state of the art, the result will be 10 to 25 percent more range at hypersonic speeds (for missiles and aircraft) and/or increased payload capacity (for aircraft and launch systems).

 

(Technical Challenges) Hypersonic aeropropulsion integration systems are characterized by high Mach number gas flows through a flowpath that generally includes the vehicle forebody and aftbody surfaces and internal ducts that connect the air intake and exhaust elements of the propulsion system components.   The interaction of the high Mach number gases with the flowpath generates multiple fluid dynamic phenomena and interactions that include shock waves, shear layers, vortices, and separated flows, which are additionally influenced by the thermochemical behavior of the high-temperature air and combustion products.  Due to these phenomena, the ability to measure in-stream quantities (such as pressure, temperature, and velocity components) and surface quantities (such as shear stress, pressure, temperature, and heat transfer rate) for the entire flowfield of a hypersonic inlet model is technically challenging.

 

(State of the Art)  Wind tunnel models of hypersonic inlets currently utilize three classifications of instrumentation.  Flush-mounted or recessed sensors, which can only directly assess the boundary of the flowfield, can be influenced by fluid dynamic phenomena that occur away from the wall.  In-stream rakes and probes can measure flow properties away from the wall, but introduce disturbances into the flowfield that may distort the measurements.  Nonintrusive sensors do not disturb the flowfield, but require optical access that is difficult to obtain in three-dimensional configurations.  Wind tunnel model size and facility requirements further restrict the number and location of instrumentation.  The ability to more efficiently gather internal aerodynamic data would provide increased insight into the complex flowfield characteristics that govern inlet operability and performance.

 

PHASE I:  Identify and define innovative minimally or nonintrusive methods for measuring unsteady surface pressure, temperature, shear stress, and heat transfer while characterizing off-body flow field characteristics.  Define requirements for data acquisition and reduction, including installation.

 

PHASE II:  Plan and execute a wind tunnel test to demonstrate and evaluate measurement processes developed during Phase I.  Prototype technology should be integrated with acquisition, analysis, and support equipment.  Methods of measurement, ease of use, and cost effectiveness should be demonstrated.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Increased inlet efficiency can result in increased range for missiles/aircraft, and/or payload capacity for aircraft/launch systems. This technology development can be used to achieve these gains.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The technologies developed for the Air Force are also relevant in testing commercial aviation applications.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Holden, M. Historical Review of Experimental Studies and Prediction Methods to Describe Laminar and Turbulent Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interactions in Hypersonic Flows.  AIAA-2006-494, January 2006.

 

2.  Proceedings from Scaling Laws Workshop.  Dayton, OH.  September 2006.

 

3.  Hagenmaier, M., Tam, C., and Chakravarthy, S.  Study of Moving Start Door Flow Physics for Scramjets. AIAA 99-4957, November 1999.

 

4.  Van Wie, D., Ault, D.  On the Role of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Determining Hypersonic Inlet Performance in Ground Test Facilities.  AIAA 1998-2782-353.

 

5.  Van Wie, D.  Techniques for the Measurement of Scramjet Inlet Performance at Hypersonic Speeds.  AIAA 92-5104.  December 1992.

 

KEYWORDS: nonintrusive diagnostics, optical measurement, hypersonic instrumentation, propulsion integration

 

 

 

AF093-005                           TITLE: Technologies for Cost-Effective Mixed-Criticality Flight Control Systems

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop new technologies to solve problems inherent to a mixed critical flight control system for an unmanned air vehicle.  Desired end product contributes to a design for airworthiness certification.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The increase in functionality and autonomy of future unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) is driving exponential growth in software size and complexity.  Increased software size and complexity renders the task of UAV certification significantly more challenging and costly.  The development of software architectures that allow mixed criticality is a promising approach to dealing with the future high cost of certification.  A mixed critical system is a system that exhibits multiple levels of criticality of operation, including the possibility of interplay of components and data flows of different levels of criticality, under routine or off-normal conditions.  This definition is extrapolated to the flight control domain for an UAV where the boundary between flight critical and mission critical is blurred.  Safety and security are assumed system characteristics in future mixed critical architectures where mixed criticality (e.g., noncritical and safety-critical) applications could safely and efficiently utilize the same computational resources. This mixed critical architecture design should reduce the effort, cost, and risk of attaining certification for future applications.  The mixed criticality design assures safety to meet airworthiness certification as a primary requirement.  In current military avionics systems the safety critical functions are often separated from mission critical functions to meet this requirement.  This is done by design and implemented through various hardware, operating system, middleware, and application constructs.  This separation is desirable from the standpoint of certification as it serves to delineate the higher critical processes from the lower critical ones.  The presumption is that this separation prevents an inadvertent cross-pollination of a lower critical function adversely affecting the higher critical function leading to unpredictable behavior, thus compromising or at the very least, significantly complicating the certification effort.  Historically, this separation has been considered an absolute, with early attempts to separate safety critical from mission critical functions done by physically separating the logic and processing.  The inherent in-efficiency and in-effectiveness of this approach lead to its replacement by process isolation implemented in approaches such as ARINC 653.  In this approach, safety critical and mission critical segments are allocated separate processor containers and the data-flow between these containers are tightly controlled through operating system/kernel level mechanisms.  The next generation UAV is placing demands on avionics systems in terms of software complexity and higher-level cognitive functions.  This increased complexity also introduces closer coupling between the safety critical and mission critical functions especially under off-normal conditions.  In an autonomous system, the avionics software has to manage mixed criticality.  The proposed SBIR effort must address one or more solutions to the following mixed critical problem areas: middleware composition and tailoring across multicore/multiprocessor computation platforms; noninstrusive instrumentation for composable software and middleware reuse; middleware-driven partitioning schemes to ensure critical data integrity, resource allocation, and timing; data tagging and validation techniques for fault detection/diagnosis and enforced integrity between partitions.

 

PHASE I:  Expectations from this SBIR phase I effort are a clearly defined solution to one or more of the problem areas associated with a mixed critical flight control system.  The end product from this effort should show the feasibility of implementing the defined technology in a mixed critical system.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate the technology in a mixed critical laboratory environment.  Verify safety coverage for Mixed Criticality via FMEA or FME Testing (FMET) techniques to show technology meets a level of airworthiness certification.  Integration of the innovation will include software, hardware and associated firmware representative of a mixed-critical control system.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Advanced military avionics with increased functionality and autonomy, especially for UAVs.  Primary emphasis win military applications should refer to MIL-HDBK-516B.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Mixed critical systems extends to other domains.  Commercial aircraft applications should refer to DO-178B. Applications could extend to automobiles, trains, maritime systems, and nuclear facilities.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Validation and Verification of Intelligent and Adaptive Control Systems (VVIACS), AFRL-VA-WP-TR-2006-3169; DTIC accession number ADB430811; Greg S. Tallant, James M. Buffington, and Bruce Krogh; Final Report July 2006.

 

2. Certification Challenges for Autonomous Flight Control Systems; Vincent Crum, David Homan, and Raymond Bortner; AFRL-WS-04-0578; AIAA, August 2004.

 

KEYWORDS: mixed criticality, partitioned operating systems, middleware, safety critical, embedded software, publish subscribe, data distribution service, multicore/multiprocessor

 

 

 

AF093-006                           TITLE: Structurally Embedded Power and Signal Cabling for Air Vehicles

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop and demonstrate concepts to enable embedment of electric power and signal conductors, interconnects, and ingress/egress in composite air vehicle structure.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Modern air vehicles contain many miles of electrical power and signal wiring. Wiring is costly to install, heavy, and vulnerable to damage from service (i.e., incorrectly routed near hot equipment and/or bundled together with other incompatible wire types such as soft wire laying adjacent hard wire, etc.) and maintenance. All wire deteriorates in service due to environmental factors such as: extreme heat and cold temperature swings, humidity, salt damage associated with marine environments, contamination by aircraft fluids (i.e., fuel, oil, hydraulic fluid, deicing fluid, cleaning chemicals, toilet residue, galley spillage, etc.), as well as in-flight vibration causing chafing of wires rubbing against other wires or the structure of the aircraft. On most aircraft, wire bundles contain many different wires with several different types of insulation. Typically, wire bundles are composed of AC power cables, DC power cables, signal (circuit controlling) wires, and circuit ground wires. Also, there are bundles that carry power from different power sources (busses). These conditions make it extremely difficult to protect any circuit in such a bundle, where an insulation failure could result in an electrical problem that has multiple power sources and current paths to feed it. A wide variety of problems arise including shorting, arcing, or some other type of damage to a bundle with this mix of wires. Embedment of these conductor systems in composite structure during manufacture has significant potential to reduce cost, weight, improve reliability, and most significantly, reducing the factor of safety (i.e., Systems such as fly by wire (FBW) aircraft would benefit greatly by allowing for improved redundancy and increased safety). This effort is intended to develop and demonstrate concepts where the large continuous structural members such as wing spars, longerons, keels, ribs, and frames can serve as hosts for the embedded conductors. Major technical challenges include: conductor interconnects at structural joints, electrical shielding and isolation, and conductor ingress and egress for attachment to the air vehicle electrical and mission system components.

 

PHASE I:  Demonstrate feasibility of an embedded conductor concept through fabrication and test of a representative component. Demonstrate conductor functionality and structural integrity. Estimate weight and cost savings payoff.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate the elements of a complete embedded conductor system including component fabrication, joint concepts, ingress, egress, connection to standard aircraft power and signal equipment.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  This concept is applicable to future vehicles featuring unitized composite structure such as: transport aircraft, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) aircraft, and unmanned air systems.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  This technology would be applicable to commercial transportation systems which utilize composite structures such as aircraft, ships, buses, trucks, and automobiles.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Composites Affordability Initiative, John Russell,     

http://ammtiac.alionscience.com/pdf/AQV1N3_ART01.pdf.

 

2. Laser Direct Writing of Circuit Elements and Sensors, Alberto Pique, etal.,

http://spie.org/x648.xml?product_id=352695&origin_id=x1636&Search_

Results_URL=http://spie.org/x1636.xml&category=ResearchPapers&isResearch=true&title_abstract=direct%20write&boolean_filter=All.

 

3. Conformal Loadbearing Antenna Structure (CLAS) Initiative for Multiple Military and Commercial Applications, Allen Lockyer, et al., http://spie.org/x648.xml?product_id=276607&origin_id=x1636&Search_Results_URL=http://spie.org/x1636.xml&category=ResearchPapers&isResearch=true&title_abstract=clas&boolean_filter=All.

 

KEYWORDS: composites, coaxial cable, conductors, electrical cabling, electrical interconnects

 

 

 

AF093-007                           TITLE: High Speed Store Separation Data Acquisition Techniques

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:  To develop inexpensive techniques to enable telemetry, control, and data acquisition during small-scale wind tunnel free drop testing.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The U.S Air Force has a need to study the characteristics of separating payloads from a variety of parent vehicles in the Mach 2 to 5 range to support future weapon system design. These payload separations can occur from a number of different air vehicle stations (lower fuselage, upper fuselage (lee side), aft). The overall goal of this topic is to develop the technology necessary to support design and testing of these systems in order to ensure the safety of the payload, the parent aircraft, and the aircrew.

 

The three primary areas of interest for this topic are the development of expendable telemetry packages for payload drop test models, development of nonintrusive surface and off body unsteady flowfield diagnostics, and the time synchronization/correlation of such data. Time synchronization of these multiple data sources during a single experiment is critical for proper correlation of the unsteady aerodynamic phenomena necessary to support the vehicle design process and model development/validation.

 

The ability to telemeter payload instantaneous position and acceleration with surface temperatures and surface pressures back to a base computer as the flight vehicle models float freely in the wind tunnel is required due to the destructive nature of drop testing. The goal would be to design a robust inexpensive technique which will allow information to be acquired simultaneously. As the models will be destroyed by the impact with the downstream portion of the tunnel, it is essential that data links be secure and reliable. Mach numbers in the 2 to 5 range are to be anticipated in the wind tunnel.

 

Generation of both surface and off body data in a synchronized manner during the same test is essential to support design and model validation efforts. Noninstrusive measurement of high frequency (5 to 10 KHz) surface pressure and shear stress through the innovative use of thin film coatings or pressure sensitive paints (PSP) will enable the collection of surface data. The time correlations of flow diagnostic techniques, such as Schlieren, with payload separation are useful to validate telemetry data.

 

The need to collect trajectory and flowfield data in a time synchronized manner to assess the unsteady flow effect on store separation as well as the weapons bay acoustics as we move to higher Mach range is essential to the development of innovative, highly integrated vehicle designs.  Time synchronization is the key to properly correlating unsteady data from multiple sources during a single experiment.  Development of an integrated test/data acquisition capability for unsteady flow applications will support weapon system design as well as the test and evaluation requirements over the lifecycle.

 

Any combination of the telemetry, flow diagnostics, and data collection synchronization methods are acceptable. Specific data acquisition techniques and innovative use of existing and new approaches are up to the offeror. Preference will be given to proposals that make provisions to incorporate multiple synchronized diagnostic sources.

 

PHASE I:  Develop integrated capabilities for simultaneous acquisition of separation and telemetry data, high frequency surface data and planar off body diagnostic techniques. Demonstrate synchronization of concepts through bench tests of ejection system, telemetry package, surface data, and flow diagnostics.

 

PHASE II:  Fabricate scaled models of parent vehicle, and payload. Install sensors, telemetry packages, and integrate high frequency data collection. Provide an off body, no particle planar diagnostic capability and prove the integrated/correlated concept by testing in a wind tunnel at realistic Mach numbers.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Any aircraft (fighter, bomber, unmanned) that carry weapons or fuel tanks. Unsteady flow and moving surface technology can be applied to control surface, turbine engine, and flow control design.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Potential rocket stage separation, weather sensor deployment, search and rescue systems analysis, advanced instrumentation for wind tunnels, and rapid package delivery system for humanitarian aid.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Nathan Murray, Bernard Jansen, Lichuan Gui, John Seiner, and Roger Birkbeck, “Measurements of Store Separation Dynamics,” AIAA-2009-105, 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, FL, January 5-8, 2009.

 

2. Kazuyuki Nakakita, “Unsteady Pressure Distribution Measurement Around 2D-Cylinders Using Pressure-Sensitive Paint,” AIAA-2007-3819, 25th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Miami, FL, June 25-28, 2007.

 

3. J.H. Bell, E.T. Schairer, L.A. Hand, and R.D. Mehta, “Surface Pressure Measurements Using Luminescence Coatings”, Annual Rev. Fluid Mechanics, vol. 33 pp. 155-206, 2001.

 

4. D.R. Jonassen, G.S. Settles, and M.D. Tronosky, “Schlieren PIV for Turbulent Flows”, to appear in Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Volume 44, Issues 3-4, pp. 190-207, March-April 2006.

 

5. S. Fonov, G. Jones, J. Crafton, V. Fonov, and L. Goss, “The Development of Optical Techniques for the Measurement of Pressure and Skin Friction” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 16 pp. 1-8, 2005.

 

KEYWORDS: experimental methods, flight test, wind tunnel test, non-intrusive diagnostics, high frequency instrumentation

 

 

 

AF093-008                           TITLE: Components and Compact Packaging of Fiber Laser Amplifier Arrays

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop compact lightweight technology to scale CW fiber lasers/arrays to 100s of kW operation allowing switching between beam directors or conformal array outputs for military applications.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Recent demonstrations in scaling Yb-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers have exceeded many expectations. The current continuous wave (CW) diffraction-limited power for broadband fiber lasers is 6 kW by IPG Photonics, with the possibility of obtaining 10 kW or more. Electrical to optical efficiencies of these commercial devices range from 25% to over 30% depending on characteristics of the device with masses as low as 50 kg/kW.

 

To obtain long range propagation with 100s of kW from a fiber laser array, methods of combining several fiber lasers or amplifiers with increased brightness are necessary; one method is coherent beam combining using a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The bandwidth of these MOPA configurations range from kHz to GHz at wavelengths of ~ 1 µm. Spectral beam combination has also been demonstrated to nearly the kW level using either volume Bragg gratings or surface gratings. These beam combining techniques require optical components usually not required for high power, broadband, industrial fiber lasers. For coherent beam combining in a MOPA configuration, isolators increasingly limit power scaling. Currently, small fiber coupled hermetically sealed isolators at low-to-moderate powers do exist. However, high power, all-fiber isolators are sought that are capable of handling powers >200 watts with >30 dB of isolation with minimum loss. Other optical components such as volume Bragg gratings or surface gratings with low loss and capable of high average power are necessary for spectral beam combining. Additionally, packaging is increasingly an important area for investigation in order to obtain lightweight, small volume footprints for airborne applications. This topic is therefore interested in the size, weight and power (SWaP) of fiber lasers and laser arrays at 100s of kW CW operation while maintaining high brightness, with packaging of the overall subsystem to obtain mass goals of <10 kg/kW and volumes of <0.1 m3/kW. The packaging does not include prime power, thermal management or beam control associated with the overall system; however, it does include the pump diodes, power conditioning for the pump diodes, optics, isolators, master oscillator, phase control electronics, other beam combining optics, and all electronics associated with safe and reliable laser operation. The ability to switch the high power output from the forward to aft direction on an air platform may be necessary in order to provide complete coverage with a single high power fiber laser unit. Therefore, technologies or techniques allowing the use of a single high power laser array for complete 360 degree azimuthal coverage by switching between different beam control subsystems while maintaining near diffraction-limited operation is sought.

 

PHASE I:  Develop compact fiber laser concept scalable to 100s of kW with <10 kg/kW and volume of <0.1 m3/kW. Design isolators to show >30 dB isolation in a lightweight all-fiber configuration capable of handling >200 watts; and switching 100 kW in 1 ms while maintaining near diffraction-limited operation.

 

PHASE II:  Characterize hardware to show technology maturity. Conduct validation to demonstrate packaged prototype isolator and/or switches capable of greater than 200 W and 10 kW of signal power respectively. Perform testing to assess loss, polarization performance and power handling. Perform reliability testing of component lifetime and serviceability. Deliver hardware to AFRL/RDLAF for verification.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Efficient high power high brightness fiber lasers enable illuminators, IR counter-measures, and secure communications in hostile environments.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  These include all those with requirements for coherent arrays and implementation of atmospheric compensation such as astronomy, laser communications, power beaming, etc.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Jay W. Dawson, et al, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt Express, Vol 16, p. 13240-13266, (2008).

 

2. Eric C. Cheung, et al, “Diffractive-optics-based beam combination of a phase-locked fiber laser array,” Opt. Lett., Vol. 33, p. 354-356, (2008).

 

3. K. Nicklaus, M. Daniels, R. Hohn, D. Hoffmann, “Optical Isolator for Unpolarized Laser Radiation at Multi-Kilowatt Average Power,” OSA/ASSP, MB7, (2006).

 

KEYWORDS: Coherent Beam Combining, Master Oscillator Power Amplifier, Yb-doped Fiber Amplifier, Isolators, Packaging

 

 

 

AF093-009                           TITLE: Measurement of laser irradiance on target for directed energy weapons

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop a diagnostic sensor system for measuring directed energy (DE) system laser beam characteristics at the laser/target interaction location on a test target.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Current advances in DE systems have reached the point where high-value field test demonstrations employing high energy lasers (HEL) need to be addressed with specific detail. While it is critical that performance metrics of the HEL-target interaction be carefully measured and diagnosed, at the same time, the parameters of interest are currently intractably complex for real-time sensors. Innovative approaches are needed to address the challenges of off-normal reflections, obscuration from debris near the irradiated spot and distortion from atmospheric turbulence which are further compounded by dynamic changes in the target surface resulting in continuously changing absorption and reflection properties. The critical requirement of this solicitation is to develop a method for measuring a wavelength distinctive HEL-beam on-target irradiance profiles in real-time at the target surface. It is necessary to measure the illumination at a relatively high temporal sampling greater than 2.5 KHz and moderate spatial resolution (spatial sampling threshold of 10 cm, objective of 1 cm) over the target surface. The shape and intensity profile should be measurable over the entire surface and there should be a means of providing calibration. The proposed sensor system should have minimal interference with the optical (< 5%) and aerodynamic properties of the target, should not interfere with the laser target interaction, should withstand the dynamic conditions of the target while surviving the elevated temperatures, and have a minimal weight and volume requirement.

 

PHASE I:  Develop a preliminary analysis and comparison report and develop conceptual system design(s). Perform hardware development and testing to validate that the selected design will satisfy the requirements. If using a standoff measurement, the report must address issues raised in this solicitation.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate the full design developed in Phase I. Tasks shall include, but are not limited to, a detailed demonstration of key technical parameters that can be accomplished and a detailed performance analysis and simulation of the technology. The Phase II work will ideally produce hardware that can demonstrate the feasibility of the concept during a laser/target interaction.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  In keeping with the rapid progression of DE technology development, a demonstrable and accurate testing diagnostic will be needed to maximize high cost field testing of HEL systems.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The high fidelity time and spatial resolution of the on-target optical sensors and algorithms provides a unique diagnostic capability for commercial laser effects diagonostics.

 

REFERENCES:

1. MDA Link Fact Sheet: Space Tracking and Surveillance System, http://www.mda.mil/mdalink/pdf/stss06.pdf.

 

2. MDA Link Fact Sheet: Airborne Laser, http://www.mda.mil/mdalink/pdf/laser.pdf.

 

3. (Reference removed by request of TPOC; not relevant to topic requirements.)

 

KEYWORDS: target, electro-optical, sensor, electronics, test diagnostic, high energy laser

 

 

 

AF093-010                           TITLE: Spatial-Temporal Control Applied to Atmospheric Adaptive Optics

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms, Weapons

 

OBJECTIVE:  Design control algorithms that take advantage of spatial/temporal correlations in atmospheric and aero-optic phase aberrations. Trade sample rate for complexity to obtain a given level of performance.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Adaptive optics (AO) has contributed to improved ground based astronomy for civilian and military applications. AO is also used to compensate for atmospheric aberrations that disperse high energy laser (HEL) beams before they reach their target. These adaptive optic controllers are usually designed by separate consideration of temporal and spatial phase aberration characteristics. In astronomy one would consider the Fried parameter (Ro length) to determine the density of deformable mirror actuators and wavefront sensor subapertures. One would then go on to consider the Tyler and Greenwood frequencies to determine the required bandwidths of line of sight and adaptive optic control loops. This approach makes it easy to conceptualize and build systems that provide considerable improvement in optical quality and beam projection. It does not take into account a key feature of the disturbance however. If you examine a sequence of uncorrected wavefront errors you can see "waves" or coherent objects "flowing" through the measurement aperture. One would expect to be able to take advantage of this in designing a controller. Some experimental work in the area of aero-optics has already demonstrated the potential of this idea. Aero-optics is the field dealing with turbulent flows over aircraft mounted telescope turrets. For some range of turret look-back angles these flows start to separate and cause large optical aberrations. These flows can be fluid dynamically regularized so that the optical aberrations look like waves running along the ocean. Knowing the wavelength and velocity of these "waves" experimenters have concocted feedforward schemes for partial correction without even using a wavefront sensor. This topic hopes to exploit this kernel of understanding about "flowing aberrations" to develop spatial-temporal adaptive optic controllers. The example presented here is over simplified in that the aberration “objects” evolve (expand, contract, swirl) as they flow through the aperture. The proposed controller should be adaptive in the sense that it follows and corrects for these evolving disturbances. Successfully reducing the effect of aero-optic aberrations will allow a greater range of turret pointing angles for airborne HEL weapon systems. Laser communication systems should see similar coverage benefits. Active combustion and aerodynamic control would also benefit from these techniques.

 

PHASE I:  Develop techniques for decomposing wavefront sequences into fixed, flowing and random patterns. Demonstrate the control approach on wavefront data sequences provided by the government. Show how the proposed wavefront decomposition and control technique helps foster rule-of-thumb design laws.

 

PHASE II:  Design and implement algorithms on real time wavefront control hardware. Measure the performance of this hardware on a government supplied optical system.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: These control approaches will enable larger field of regard airborne tactical laser weapon systems. Laser communication systems should see similar coverage and link margin benefits.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial laser communication systems should see link margin benefits. Active combustion for turbine engines and aerodynamic control would also benefit from spatial-temporal control techniques.

 

REFERENCES:

1. J.S. Gibson, C.C. Chang, B.L. Ellerbrook, "Adaptive Optics Wavefront Correction by Use of Adaptive Filtering and Control," Applied Optics, Optical Technology and Biomedical Optics, Vol 39, No 16, June 2000, pp 2525-2538.

 

2. M.R. Whiteley and J.S. Gibson, "Adaptive Laser Compensation for Aero Optics and Atmospheric Disturbances," 38th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, AIAA-2007-4012 (2007).

 

3. A. Nightingale, B. Goodwine, M. Lemmon and E. Jumper, "Feedforward Adaptive-Optic System Identification Analysis for Mitigating Aero-Optic Disturbances," 38th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, AIAA-2007-4013 (2007).

 

4. L.A. Poyneer, J.P. Veran, "Optimal Modal Fourier-Transform Wavefront Control," Vo. 22, No. 8, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Aug 2005.

 

KEYWORDS: Adaptive Optics, Spatial-Temporal Control, Aero-Optics, Predictive Control, Wavefront Reconstruction

 

 

 

AF093-011                           TITLE: Conformal High Energy Laser Weapon System

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Conformal HEL architectures offer a revolutionary reduction in size and weight while maintaining full flight performance. Develop a conformal HEL architecture scalable to Megawatt class performance.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Present High Energy Laser Weapons (HEL) are large and heavy with beam director turrets projecting into the air stream and compromising vehicle maneuverability. Airborne HEL weapons have tended to be very large with massive beam directors creating substantial local turbulence and interference with flight maneuverability. A jet fighter could effectively employ an HEL system for self defense and negation of tactical targets, provided the HEL was sufficiently small and light and did not compromise maneuverability. Conformal HEL systems combined with efficient fiber lasers offer a revolutionary approach to achieve these objectives. Embedded in the skin of the aircraft, transmitting subapertures fed by single fibers can focus the HEL light on the target with the diffraction-limit of the full array size if suitable sensing and control processes can be developed. This process is similar to a phased array radar but requires break-through technologies due to the micron level wavelengths utilized and the need to compensate for boundary layer and bulk atmospheric turbulence. The conformal architecture should address the full sequence of HEL operation including initial cueing, track acquisition, HEL sensing and control, and aimpoint selection and maintenance. Acquisition sensors and target illuminators should be included.

 

The required innovation is to define a conformal HEL architecture sufficiently small and light to enable tactical beam control from high performance aircraft.  Because this project requires research and development it involves a degree of technical risk.

 

PHASE I:  Develop some trade studies to determine architecture choices of conformal optical/control architectures which both achieve similar on-target performance to 30 cm conventional beam control systems using 25 kW laser with reasonable beam quality and determine what a fiber-based conformal array would require in volume, weight, and cost for similar performance on target.  Identify required developments of component technology.

 

PHASE II:  Select control architecture and perform detailed design including optical layout. Provide preliminary estimates of component weight and structural requirements. Perform initial lab verification and compare results with predictions from analytic and/or simulation results. Develop a risk reduction plan at the component and architecture level which includes prototyping and lab or field demos.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  This effort would allow military planes to be protected from missile attacks in addition to protection from fighters, etc. The use in a battlefield condition would be enhanced.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The design could be incorporated into commercial aircraft that would fly into areas that are adversarial.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Defense Science Board Report on Directed Energy Weapons December 2007 available on line at http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/2007-12-Directed_Energy_Report.pdf

 

2. Gilbert, K. G., “Overview of Aero-Optics, Aero-Optical Phenomena, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics,” Volume 80, 1982.

 

KEYWORDS: Aero-Optics, HEL, Aircraft Laser, Beam Director

 

 

 

AF093-012                           TITLE: Advanced Estimation and Data Fusion Strategies for Space Surveillance/Reconnaissance

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop and implement advanced, innovative, robust, real-time algorithms for autonomous space situational awareness, control, and reconnaissance.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Space situational awareness (SSA) and reconnaissance technologies do not address near real-time estimation and assessment of resident space object (RSO) motion. Moreover, few current methods address the associated uncertainty (or confidence) in the knowledge recovered from data. There are too many objects and too few analysts, requiring that any methods brought to bear on this be automated. Each RSO is unique and given the variations in mission profiles, orbit regimes, and non-conservative forces, methods that are robust in adapting or being able to successfully recover estimates from any of these scenarios are desired. Examples of these methods are Interactive Multiple Model (IMM) filters and Hierarchical Mixture of Experts (HMEs). Since there can be a lack of a priori information, estimation strategies for detecting and discriminating RSOs are required. Examples of these are Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT), Probabilistic Data Association (PDA) techniques, etc. Performing these tasks is inherently computationally intensive. Therefore, methods of exploiting high performance computing and parallelization should be investigated and assessed. Given all of the above, the proposed work should have the following properties:

 

1) Use metric data, features, or other data that provide for accurate I.D. and system wide correlation.

 

2) Provide a measure of confidence with all detection and correlation decisions, at the local and network level, similar to covariance metrics and covariance consistency metrics used in kinematic track processing. The computed covariance of the state estimation error is used in the computations of the data association processing function; consequently, degraded consistency causes misassociations (correlation errors) that can substantially degrade system level performance. The computed covariance of the state estimation error is also used by downstream functions, such as the network-level resource management functions. Hence, degraded covariance consistency or bias errors can mislead the warfighter about the accuracy of an event.

 

3) Provide metrics to identify groups or classes of events, along with confidence in classification assessment (i.e., low thrust propulsive maneuvers, RSO component articulation or attitude change, impulsive maneuvers for orbit plane changes or resizing, conjunction analyses, new foreign launches, on-orbit deployments of secondary payloads, clustered objects, etc.); in addition, the system should classify events that are otherwise indistinguishable.

 

4) Address use of algorithms that allow non-traditional information (such as multi-band photometry, radiometry, etc.) to augment real-time metric data toward refining overall event assessment and recommended sensor tasking course of actions (COA) for improving assessment confidence further.

 

It is desired that the proposed method can be implemented in both a centralized or distributed architecture.

 

PHASE I:  Develop the mathematical basis for and provide a feasibility assessment of near real-time data/track association, sensor exploitation, and state/parameter recovery concepts using simulated data and key metrics. Demonstrate what could be achieved given the current Space Surveillance Network (SSN).

 

PHASE II:  Develop/update the technology based on Phase I to provide a prototype demonstration of the technology in a realistic environment using realistic data with errors and biases, as well as, realistic processing speeds in complex scenarios. The use of high performance computing and parallelization should be investigated and assessed.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Integrate algorithm enhancement technology into a Major Defense Acquisition Program (MDAP) of record such as Integrated SSA (ISSA).

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: The technology is applicable across DoD, as well as in non-DoD sensor network environments such as air traffic control, medical imaging, meteorology, communications, and security applications.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Chaer, W.S.; Bishop, R.H.; Ghosh, J., "Hierarchical Adaptive Kalman Filtering for Interplanetary Orbit Determination," Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on, Vol.34, No.3, pp.883-896, Jul 1998.

 

2. Kirubarajan, T.; Bar-Shalom, Y.; Blair, W.D.; Watson, G.A., "IMMPDAF for Radar Management and Tracking Benchmark with ECM," Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on, Vol.34, No.4, pp.1115-1134, Oct 1998.

 

3. Terejanu, G., Singla, P., Singh, T., Scott, P., (2008), "Uncertainty Propagation for Nonlinear Dynamical Systems using Gaussian Mixture Models," Journal of Guidance, Controls, and Dynamics Vol.31, No.6, pp. 1623-1633.

 

4. Crassidis, J.L., and Cheng, Y., "Generalized Multiple-Model Adaptive Estimation Using an Autocorrelation Approach," 9th International Conference on Information Fusion, Florence, Italy, July 2006, paper 223.

 

5. DeMars, K., Jah, M.K., (2009), "Passive Multi-Target Tracking with Application to Orbit Determination for Geosynchronous Objects," AAS Paper 09-108, 19th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, February 8-12.

 

KEYWORDS: Kalman filtering, orbit determination, attitude determination, data fusion, data association, track association, space object identification

 

 

 

AF093-013                           TITLE: Autonomous and Adaptive Technique to Collect and Analyze RF Effects Data

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop an automated and adaptive methodology that smartly assesses the coupling and effects of high power radio frequencies (RF) on various electronic systems.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Researching the effectiveness of high power microwaves on electronic systems is slow and tedious. Time constraints don't allow for a thorough analysis of multiple parameters, let alone a combination of parameters. Thorough testing would require scientists to intelligently select from a matrix of numerous test conditions. Expensive high power RF sources would have to be developed. 

 

The current test methodology collects good data for a limited set of parameters.  The space of test parameters is often limited by the flexibility of the high power RF source.  The high power RF devices normally have a very limited range of tenability.  They have a very low pulse repetition frequency (a few Hertz, at best).  Oftentimes, their power is fixed, so test assets have to be moved in order to study the variations in power density.  Thus, the variations in power density are limited to the size of the anechoic chamber.

 

This topic does not develop innovative physics, but instead investigates an innovative test technique that efficiently finds "ideal" parameters.  The test technique is not limited by the size of the anechoic chamber or the output parameters of a unique RF device.  Instead, these experiments could be performed using standard waveform generators, amplifiers, and high gain antennas.  Using a computer controlled system, the test methodology can be automated.  Using iterative data analysis processes, testing could hone in on numerous optimum parameters. 

 

This test technique could develop a "smart waveform" for a variety of test assets and classes of test assets.  A "smart waveform" is a waveform that can increase the probability of causing an effect because it combines a series of ideal parameters.   Instead of using the "bigger hammer" approach currently being employed to collect effects data, this topic proposes a technique to more thoroughly explore the parameter space.  It will ask the question "Can similar effects be caused with a 'smaller hammer'?"

 

If successful, a large database of effects can be constructed.  War fighters and law enforcement officials, to name a few, could efficiently use a compact, portable RF weapon.  In addition, because this test technique can look at a wide variety of parameters, people who harden electronics can gain additional confidence that their methods are effective.

 

PHASE I:  Develop and demonstrate an autonomous test methodology and associated support hardware. Demonstrate this capability on a limited set of test assets. Produce representative susceptibility data.

 

PHASE II:  Develop and demonstrate an autonomous susceptibility system with the following representative parameters:

- Carrier frequencies between 100 MHz through 3 GHz

- Pulse widths can be between nanoseconds to microseconds

- Pulse repetition 0.1 Hz through 1.0 kHz

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  This autonomous and adaptive test technique can more thoroughly assess issues like electromagnetic interference (EMI) and effectiveness of high power microwaves.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Wireless communications companies, as well as any company concerned about radiated RF power, can benefit from using this test technique for its EMI testing.

 

REFERENCES:

 1. D. T. Edmonds, "A Frequency Modulated Nuclear Resonance Search Oscillator," Journal of Scientific Instrumentation, Vol. 43, pp 63-65, 1966.

 

2. United States Patent 4667151, "Calibrated Radio Frequency Sweep."

 

KEYWORDS: HPM, radio frequency, RF coupling, EMI, electromagnetic interference

 

 

 

AF093-014                           TITLE: Advanced Dielectric Insulation Techniques for High Voltage Pulsed Power Systems

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop advanced dielectric insulation techniques and/or field grading techniques to significantly reduce the size of high voltage pulsed power systems.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has been developing compact, repetitively pulsed, high voltage pulsed power systems to drive high power microwave (HPM) sources for several years [1]. Typically these are Marx generator [2] based systems using either high dielectric strength oil or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as the insulating medium. The dielectric strength of the insulating medium determines the minimum size of the tank housing the Marx generator in that it determines the maximum voltage standoff between the fully erected Marx output voltage and the tank wall. For example, an eight-stage Marx generator employing 100 kilovolt capacitors in a linear configuration with a fully erected voltage of 800 kilovolts has been found by AFRL to require nearly 50 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) of SF6 to insulate a six centimeter distance between the capacitors and the tank wall. The objective of this SBIR topic is to develop advanced dielectric insulation techniques using gas, liquid, and/or solid dielectrics that will significantly decrease the required standoff distance between the Marx capacitors and the tank wall for a pulser equivalent to the eight-stage Marx generator discussed above. In addition, using modeling and simulation techniques to develop advanced electric field grading methods to reduce the overall electric field stress around the Marx generator, hence reducing the dielectric strength required by the insulating medium, is highly encouraged.

 

PHASE I:  Develop advanced dielectric insulation techniques, including possible field grading methods, that will significantly reduce the size of high voltage pulsed power systems.

 

PHASE II:  Implement the advanced dielectric insulation techniques and/or field grading techniques on the AFRL eight-stage Marx generator or on an AFRL-approved surrogate pulser.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: These include air platform missions requiring high voltage pulsers, HPM effects testing where portable HPM systems require compact high voltage pulsers, and compact pulsers for excimer laser systems.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  These include commercial table-top, megavolt-class pulsers suitable and affordable for university research in intense relativistic beam physics, HPM source development, and excimer laser research.

 

REFERENCES:

1. R. Barker and E. Schamiloglu, "High-Power Microwave Sources and Technologies."  New York: IEEE Press, 2001.

 

2. S. Pai and Q. Zhang, "Introduction to High Power Pulse Technology."  Singapore: World Scientific, 1995.

 

KEYWORDS: high voltage insulation, dielectric insulation, electric field grading, Marx generators, high voltage pulsers, compact pulsed power systems

 

 

 

AF093-017                           TITLE: Holographic Waveguide Visor Display (HWVD)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop a transparent holographic optical waveguide visor for helmet-mounted display (HMD) applications that provides 100X more eye-movement freedom with 10X less space and weight of near-eye pieces.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Recent developments in the fabrication of holographic waveguide optics systems make it possible to replace bulky, expensive, multi-element classical projection optics systems with light-weight, thin see-through diffractive optics. This effort is aimed at leveraging this optics revolution for next-generation aviation helmet visualization systems.  The classical optics now in use result in excessive weight and bulk on the head and poor ergonomics, with massive helmet clip-ons for night or day vision being cantilevered in front of the eyes.  Even so, the classical systems do NOT provide the high acuity and large fields-of-view desired by warfighters.  Current HMD systems, such as the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS), are based on a bulky, expensive, large classical optics to relay a miniature display image to the eye via reflection off the inner surface of the helmet visor and produce a small field of view (FOV, e.g. 20-deg.), which requires much head scanning to maintain situational awareness, and a small eyebox (e.g. 9x9-mm), which requires custom helmet fit and may cause image loss during maneuver.  A compounding problem is the need to address laser eye protection, where proposed solutions based on classical optics would add even more weight and bulk, making them non-solutions.   "Optical magic" is needed to re-set the stage for a new generation of lightweight, yet more capable, HMD systems.  Recent advances in holographic optics by researchers in several institutions have demonstrated the potential for the optical image magnification function to be implemented within thin waveguide structures.  The potential exists to integrate the projection optics into the structure of the HMD visor itself, including curved visors.  Threshold optical performance sought includes, simultaneously, binocular green HMD system with at least 1280x1024/eye (1.3 Mpx) resolution, a 40-deg. FOV, an eye box of over 30x30-mm, a pathway to color, and 10X less space, 5X less weight, and 2X less cost than current helmet projection optics.  Power efficiency must be addressed and shown to be consistent with integration into a pilot HMD system.  Objective performance includes a binocular color panoramic FOV of 120x80-deg with near 20/20 acuity (requires 5 Mpx for each 40-deg-cone of the FOV).  The miniature display is not the focus of this topic and may be a flat panel, cathode ray tube, or microelectromechanical image generation device in the design and prototyping of a holographic waveguide visor display (HWVD).

 

PHASE I:  Design a binocular HWVD system for a combat pilot HMD capable of presenting 1280x1024 monochrome imagery from a flat panel microdisplay in 40-deg. field-of-view (FOV) to the same quality as currently done with the micro-CRT and classical optics.  Develop pathways to color and curved visors.

 

PHASE II:  Fabricate a day/night HWVD system that provides, at a minimum, binocular monochrome 1280x1024 imagery in a 40-deg. FOV on flat, transparent, holographic optical waveguides integrated into a visor.  Demonstrate capability of waveguide to support higher resolution displays (5 Mpx in 40-deg FOV).  Demonstrate viability of color.  Develop second version of visor in which waveguide portions are curved.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Military applications include the replacement of classical optics in HMD systems with thin, light, ergonomic diffractive optics and the enabling the design of far more capable digital vision systems.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications include homeland security for coastal and border patrol, aerial firefighting, highway patrol, and entertainment systems.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Paul Wisely et al., "Visor Display System," AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2006-0055 (April 2006).  Distribution limited to US Government Agencies until 29 September 2009; abstract available.  Direct requests to 711HPW/RHCV, WPAFB OH 45433.

 

2. Leon Eisen, Michael Meyklyar, Micael Golub, Asher A. Friesem, Ioseph Gurwich, and Victor Weiss, "Planar configuration for image projection," Applied Optics, Volume 45, Issue 17, pp. 4005-4011 (10 June 2006),  http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?&uri=ao-45-17-4005 (accessed 1 March 2009).

 

3. Alexander A. Cameron, "Displaying the Night--A Revolutionary Concept for Helmet Mounted Displays," Sheppard 2007 Night Vision Conference (30 October 2007); "The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to the Q-Sight family of helmet-mounted displays," in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays XIV:  Design and Applications, Proceedings of SPIE Volume 7326, Paper 7326-16 (16 April 2009), available from www.spie.org (in press).

 

4. "The Q-Sight family of helmet display Products," BAE Systems product brochure, accessed 1 March 2009:

http://www.baesystems.com/BAEProd/groups/public/documents/bae_publication/bae_pdf_eis_q-sight.pdf

 

5. "Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) Overview," http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/military/jhmcs/index.html and http://www.vsi-hmcs.com/pages_hmcs/02_jhm.html (accessed 1 March 2009).

 

KEYWORDS: Visor Display, Holographic Waveguide, Diffractive Optics, Large Eyebox, See-Through Near-Eye Display Optics, Helmet-Mounted Displays, HMD, Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System, JHMCS, Laser Protection, Lightweight Day/Night Vision System

 

 

 

AF093-018                           TITLE: Dichoptic Vision System (DiVS)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems, Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:  Determine capability of pilots/operators to use dichoptic vision system comprising wide field-of-view (WFOV) in one eye and narrow field-of-view (NFOV) in the other to perform normal and combat tasks.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Helmet mounted vision systems cannot simultaneously provide the large fields-of-view with high acuity desired by operators and achieve operationally acceptable head supported weight.   A potential solution path is to use the human vision system (HVS) to fuse different fields of view presented to either eye. Placing a different image in each eye is called dichoptic vision, but no evidence exists to establish the viability of this approach.  The performance of normal sighted persons being presented with a high-resolution binocular dichoptic vision system (DiVS) to address the conundrum of wide-field-of-view vs. acuity dictated by classical optics in helmet/head-mounted display systems (HMDS) is unknown.   The "dichoptic hypothesis" is that normal sighted humans can adapt to dissimilar left/right eye visual input in terms of FOVs and acuities, yet function effectively in any environment, let alone an operational environment.  This topic is to perform and document research to test the dichoptic hypothesis for HMDS, addressing cognitive adaptation, subjective usability, and perceived comfort.  A binocular DiVS might comprise, for example, two sensors mounted on a helmet either in-line with, or just above, the eyes, with two microdisplay systems (opaque or see-through) in front of either eye.  Both sensors, and both displays, would have the same native pixel resolution (threshold 1280x1024, objective 5260x2048), but the objective optics and eyepiece optics for one eye would be WFOV (e.g. 100-deg.), while the other, NFOV (e.g. 40-deg). Breadboards and wearable, mobile prototypes of such a DiVS must first be constructed to enable testing of the hypothesis that persons with normal vision can use such a system to perform seated tasks (analogous to those performed by pilots) or simple navigation tasks (walk around a building, up/down stairs); no one has built such a research tool. A non-dichoptic, reference binocular system (RBS) needs to be built as well, with both eyes having the same FOV (e.g. NFOV objective optics and NFOV eyepiece optics) for comparison purposes during human subject evaluations. The sensors must be digital and may detect visible (threshold) or infrared (objective) wavelengths. The displays may be transparent or opaque but must be viewable either in normal office illumination (threshold) or outdoors in day/night illumination (objective). The DiVS and RBS prototypes built for evaluation in Phase II must be completely contained in a comfortably wearable system, for the duration of the tests, by an un-tethered user (threshold) or users (objective).  The performing institution must address human use issues, provide evidence of a plan for review by an Institutional Review Board (IRB), and gain approval prior to undertaking any experiments involving human test subjects.

 

PHASE I:  Design experiments with a representative subject pool to evaluate the dichoptic hypothesis.  Address human subject issues.  Define seated tasks representative of pilot workload and ground navigation tasks for dismounts. Demonstrate a benchtop DiVS.  Design wearable DiVS and RBS prototypes.

 

PHASE II:  Fabricate and demonstrate wearable prototypes of a DiVS and RBS. Perform human subject experiments for (a) pilot tasks and (b) dismounted warfighter tasks to determine effectiveness of the DiVS vs. the RBS. Analyze results in terms of operation of various stages of the HVS, including retinal processing, brain processing (dorsal and ventral streams), and cognitive perpetual situational awareness.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Military applications include advanced day/night helmet mounted display systems for pilots and for dismounts.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications include commercial aviation, wearable electronics, and entertainment (TV, games).

 

REFERENCES:

1. David C. Curry, Lawrence K. Harrington, and Darrel G. Hopper, "Dichoptic image fusion in human visual system," Invited Paper, in Head- and Helmet-Mounted Display Systems and Technology, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 6224, Article Number 622401, Pages 1-11 (2006).

 

2. Jeroen J.A. van Boxtel, Raymond van Ee, and Casper J. Erkelens, "Dichoptic masking and binocular rivalry share common perceptual dynamics," Journal of Vision, Volume 7, Number 14, Article 3, pages 1-11 (2007).

 

3. Stephen L. Macknik and Susana Martinez-conde, "Dichoptic visual masking reveals that early binocular neurons exhibit weak interocular suppression: implications for binocular vision and visual awareness," Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 16, Issue 6, pages 1049-1059 (July 2004).

 

4. Alexander Kadyrov and Maria Petrou, "Reverse engineering the human vision system: a possible explanation for the role of microsccades," IEEE Computer Society Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR-04), Volume 4, pages 64-67 (2004).

 

5. R. F. Hess, C. V. Hutchinson, T. Ledgeway, and B. Mansouri, "Binocular influences on global motion processing in the human visual system," Vision Research, Volume 47, Number 12, pp 1682-92 (June 2007).

 

KEYWORDS: Dichoptic vision system, image fusion, human visual system, helmet mounted display system, wide field-of-view, narrow field-of-view

 

 

 

AF093-020                           TITLE: Eye Tracker for Avionics Helmet Systems (ETAHS)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop eye (gaze) tracker for pilot helmet mounted display system integrated into a visor or lenses. The eye tracking and display image relay functions must both be within one visor or lenses.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Fighter pilot head-mounted avionics systems provide targeting cues in just a narrow field-of-view (NFOV) and weapon cueing is accomplished strictly by helmet tracking.  Furthermore, a fixed line-of-sight is assumed, thus limiting the precise weapon targeting symbol to a straight ahead position.  A tracked eye position, fed to aircraft mounted weapons or sensors, would enable eye position driven weapon cueing.  The addition of eye tracking, in conjunction with head position measurement, would allow pilots to move the weapon targeting symbol around the effective instantaneous field-of-view of a wide field-of-view (WFOV) helmet-mounted display system (HMDS).   Targeting could then be accomplished beyond the fixed location look-up reticules now used in the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS), which do not allow for absolute confirmation of weapon line of sight as they are not displayed in conjunction with visible weapon symbology.  There are many head tracking programs from both DoD and other agencies, but none have proven capable of addressing the size, weight, ergonomics, power, and integration (SWEPI) and performance factors that must be met for use in an avionics helmet for fighter pilots in tactical combat.  A review of the literature shows virtually all eye tracker efforts focus on ground-based applications such as consumer electronics, medical, training, and simulators.  Incorporation of eye tracking into an HMDS for tactical pilots or dismounted operators in combat remains an unmet technology challenge.  However, recent developments in several key component technologies, including especially optics (e.g. waveguide, substrate-guided, etc.), processors (e.g. compact supercomputer chips like Acadia II), image processing algorithms (e.g. visual odometry), and novel sensors (e.g. brain waves) have enabled SWEPI and performance issues to be addressed.   The purpose of this topic is to leverage these recent components to enable eyetracking in a WFOV tactical avionics helmet system.  The size challenges derive from designing to keep the tracking hardware from blocking the pilot's visual field and from integration issues (fitting the device into a head mounted display module along with other electronics with a low profile).   Mass properties challenges of weight and center of gravity control are required for limiting aircrew fatigue during high-g maneuvering and for safety in the event of emergency ejection from the cockpit. Ergonomic considerations include minimizing fatigue and comfort while maximizing safety and effectiveness. Limited power availability is always a challenge in designing cockpit equipment and keeping the needed power to a minimum is an inevitable challenge.   Recent advances in near-to-eye (NTE) display technologies for both warfighter helmets and dual-use eyewear have established an opportunity to address, for the first time; technology barriers have heretofore prevented realization of a low profile, embedded eye (gaze) tracker for avionics helmet systems (ETAHS).

 

PHASE I:  Design NTE gaze tracker for use with a diffractive-optics-enabled waveguide helmet-mounted display, substrate guided relay optic eyewear display, or other similar technology. Demonstrate via modeling the viability to build a functional prototype. Eyebox must be at least 10 mm and preferably 30 mm.

 

PHASE II:  Fabricate and demonstrate a prototype gaze tracker integrated into a NTE eye display based on holographic waveguide optics (HWO) , substrate-guided optic (SGO), or other similar technology. Optics must transmit and expand a real image from a microdisplay into a perceived large FOV virtual image. Gaze tracker must operate on an eye-safe but invisible wavelength and must use the same HWO or SGO.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Military applications include HMD systems for pilots and eyewear (goggles, glasses) for dismounts and command center interfaces.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications include entertainment (TV, internet, computer games), industrial human-system interfaces, and commercial aviation.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Review of eye tracking research, technologies, and applications is available at "Eyetracking," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eye_tracking (accessed 10 Jun 09).

 

2. "Soldier Mounted Eye-Tracking and Control Systems," USAMRMC Congressional Special Interest Program, www.momrp.org/csi_programs_index.html, is a typical example of government tracking programs, which are focused mostly on medical and training applications; the USAMRMC effort attempts to monitor fatigue and cognitive performance using Eye-com Corp technology, www.eyecomworld.com, which is an example of the current state of the art in hardware and software.

 

3. Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies developed by NeuroSky, Inc., www.neurosky.com, as shown in a video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hQWBfCg91CU  is an example of novel technology with potential to add brain-wave sensing to traditional eye-tracking sensing technologies in helmets.

 

4. Toni Jarvenpaa, "Developing Gaze Tracker for Diffractive-Optics-Enabled Near-to-Eye Displays," Information Display, Vol. 28 No.10, pp. 22-25 (Society for Information Display, San Jose CA, 2008) is an example of commercial developments that might be leveraged for defense applications.

 

5. Alex Cameron, "Application of holographic optical waveguide technology to the Q-Sight family of helmet mounted displays," Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 7326, paper 732616 (16 Apr 09), is an example of the optics revolution just begun that will enable a space and weight solution acceptable in a combat helmet for warfighters.

 

KEYWORDS: Eyetracker, gaze tracker, HMD, holographic waveguide, diffractive optics, substrate guided relay, visualization, head-mounted displays, HMD, transparent display

 

 

 

AF093-021                           TITLE: Ultrahigh Definition Microdisplay (UDM)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:  Ultrahigh definition microdisplay with 8 Mpx (3840x2048) image resolution and 12-bit dynamic range (greyscale) running at 72 Hz for application in day/night pilot helmet mounted display (HMD) systems

 

DESCRIPTION:  Current helmet-mounted display (HMD) systems can NOT provide the threshold visual acuity (e.g. Snellen 20/20) over the threshold (minimum desired) 40x32-deg field-of-view (FOV). The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) uses a micro-cathode ray tube (uCRT) to provide see-through symbology with an image resolution of about SVGA (800x600, or 0.5 Mpx) over a 20-deg. conical field-of-view (FOV), which approaches, but is less than, 20/20 acuity.  Unfortunately, state-of-the-art digital flat panel HMD systems now in development provide just SXGA (1.3Mpx) resolution over about a 40-deg. FOV, which means warfighters must come twice as close to targets to see what they would have seen if provided with a 20/20 acuity battlespace visualization system (e.g. 1 km vs. 2 km, or 100 vs. 200 m).  And a 40-deg. FOV is NOT large enough (120x80-deg. is desired), but is just the minimum needed to avoid excessive head scanning to maintain situational awareness.  A spatial image resolution of about 8 Mpx (3840x2048) is required to provide 20/20 acuity for each 40-deg. conical portion of the FOV, vs. 1.3 Mpx state-of-the-art for several microdisplay technologies, including emissive active matrix organic light emitting diode on silicon substrate (AMOLED), transmissive active matrix liquid crystal display on glass substrate (AMLCD), reflective active matrix liquid crystal display on silicon substrate (LCOS), and reflective and interferometric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).  And for avionics applications helmet integration volume requirements require the display to be in a 12-mm (0.5-in) diagonal form factor, which requires pixels to be reduced in size from 12-um to 4-um, which is now within the fabrication state-of-the-art.  Separately, current displays support a dynamic range of just 8-bit (256 grey levels) compared to the perceived real-world 'display' dynamic range of 18-bit, and to new solid-state sensors that are demonstrating dynamic range of over 12-bit. New, ultrahigh definition microdisplays are needed for HMD applications with an octave higher (4X) resolution, or 5 Mpx (threshold) to 8 Mpx (objective)  (e.g. formats of 2560x2048 threshold to 3840x2048 objective) and with a dynamic range (grayscale) of at least 12-bit.   The frame rates need to be increased from the 30-to-60 Hz in available miniature flat panel displays to 72 Hz (threshold) and 96 Hz (objective) for avionics applications due the motion of pilots through the sky and rapid head movements within the cockpit.  Approaches to the imaging device (microdisplay) range from traditional (miniature AMLCD, AMOLED, LCOS, MEMS) to novel (hologram projectors). Approaches to the optics that relay the miniature real image from the microdisplay and magnify it to the large-FOV large-eyebox virtual image perceived by the eye may range from classical (refractive/diffractive) to novel (e.g. waveguide, holographic waveguide).  Efforts that can make credible progress towards these threshold and objective goals are sought.

 

PHASE I:  Design ultrahigh definition microdisplay system with threshold image resolution of 5 Mpx for 40x32-deg FOV. Demonstrate manufacturability of design that leverages commercial product trends in terms of pixel density:  4-um monochrome pixel pitch for manageable avionics 12-mm die image size.

 

PHASE II:  Fabricate ultrahigh definition demonstration device and perform characterization testing for uniformity, dynamic range, and frame rate. Deliver at least three microdisplay demonstration devices that provide usable imagery for evaluation for HMD application.  Develop a roadmap for ultrahigh definition microdisplays with off-ramps for specific products leveraging commercial fabrication facilities.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Military applications include HMD systems for pilots (all aircraft), tankers, and dismounted combatants.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications include homeland security, police, and entertainment (TV games).

 

REFERENCES:

1. Darrel G. Hopper, "The 1000X Difference Between Current Displays and Capability of Human Visual System: Payoff Potential for Affordable Defense Systems," in Cockpit Displays VII: Displays for Defense Applications, Proc. SPIE 4022, 378-389 (2000); David G. Curry, Gary Martinsen, and Darrel G. Hopper, "Capability of the human visual system," in Cockpit Displays X, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5080, 58-69 (2003).

 

2. Darrel G. Hopper, Hextomegapixel Aerospace Cockpit Displays, in Countering the Directed Energy Threat: Are Closed Cockpits the Ultimate Answer?, NATO Research and Technology Organization Proceedings 30, pages 11-1 to 11-13 (2000).

 

3. Darrel G. Hopper, "Examining Night Vision Capabilities Across the Air Force," Presentation at Worldwide Business Research (WBR) Night Vision Summit and Soldier Technology USA 2008, The Premier North American Soldier Modernization Conference, in Arlington VA, 14-16 Jan (2008).

 

4. Kopin Awarded U.S. Military Program to Develop World's Highest Resolution Microdisplay, $3.1M/3-yr contract awarded December 2008 to develop a miniature active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) with 2048x2048 monochrome pixel resolution in a 0.99-in. form factor. http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=93548&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1231990&highlight=  (accessed 1 March 2009).

 

5. Microdisplays based on eMagin's active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) approach with 800x600 11.1-um color triad pixels may indicate fabrication potential enabling potential 2400x1800 4-um green pixels device with an 8x8x6.6 mm viewing area and 19.8x15.2x5.0 mm (0.44-in form factor) mechanical dimension, http://www.emagin.com/products/OLEDMD/OLED_microdisplays.php (accessed 1 March 2009).

 

KEYWORDS: Microdisplay, HMD, ultrahigh definition, spatial image resolution, dynamic range, field-of-view, angular visual acuity, AMLCD, AMOLED, LCOS, Q-Sight

 

 

 

AF093-023                           TITLE: Kinetic Power Technologies for the Dismounted Warrior

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop innovative concepts for electrical power generation using body worn systems for the dismounted warrior in the field.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Dismounted warriors must carry electrical power in the form of batteries, fuel cells, or electrical harvesting devices to enable field operations away from reliable electrical power sources. Electrical/electronic tools carried by the dismounted warrior may include a computer, a head mounted display (for more convenient viewing of the computer display), short range radios, satellite communication radios, global positioning system (GPS) receivers, laser range finders, laser designator systems (to mark a target for laser guided weapon delivery), friendly force identification systems, physiological monitoring systems, micro unmanned air vehicle systems, night vision systems, and electrically heated clothing (for cold weather operations). One factor in limiting mission time is the amount of electrical power the warrior can carry. Planned mission times vary from a few minutes to many days in duration. Missions can be extended beyond the planned duration by varying battlefield conditions. Currently either disposable or rechargeable batteries are the preferred power source for many of the devices. All batteries are typically removed from the battle mission area to minimize evidence of operational tactics and avoid environmental contamination.

 

New sources of electrical energy could be utilized by the dismounted warrior to lighten the load of the dismounted warrior by reducing the number of batteries required. If enough electrical power can be harvested, then battery life could be eliminated as a mission limiting factor. For this SBIR, the Air Force is interested in investigating potential sources of electrical power such as fabrics or mechanical systems which could harvest power from the kinetic motions of the dismounted warrior or from physical phenomena present in the dismounted warrior's environment.

 

PHASE I:  Develop innovative concepts for harvesting kinetic power from a dismounted warrior which could be stored in typical Air Force energy storage devices (i.e. BA-5590 batteries).

 

PHASE II:  Validate the solution(s) identified in Phase I to include modeling, testing, prototypes, and initial operational assessment with dismounted warrior equipment (i.e. wearable computer technologies and radio systems).

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: This technology could be used by dismounted warriors of other services (i.e. Army Rangers, Navy Seals).

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Commercial application: Anyone who carries electronic devices (i.e. portable computer, cell phones, portable music devices, two-way radios.)

 

REFERENCES:

1. Dr. Z-Y Cheng, "Biomechanical Energy Conversion", unpublished presentation, Samuel Ginn College of Engineering, Auburn University

 

2. http://www.itnews.com.au/News/64125,csiro-electrical-shirt-to-give-soldiers-a-buzz-on-the-battlefield.aspx

 

3. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,241561,00.html

 

4. http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/19777/?a=f

 

KEYWORDS: Dismounted power, body power, kinetic energy, power harvesting

 

 

 

AF093-025                           TITLE: Visualization of Cross-Domain C2ISR Operations

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop visualization algorithms and methods for coordinated planning and execution of complex cross-domain Command and Control (C2) and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Human factors and display algorithms are needed to provide planners and commanders with flexible and understandable views of coordinated Command and Control (C2) and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. There is no current way to visualize planning, operations, retasking, etc. that coordinates information from operations and intelligence sources and across warfighting domains.

 

The commanders of the 21st Century must effectively deliver air, space and cyberspace effects across the full range of military operations and spectrum of conflict in a joint and combined environment.  As the Air Force continues to implement the Component Numbered Air Force (C-NAF) organizational structure and distributed operations concepts, fewer AOC functions will be forward deployed. Other equipment, manpower and functions are expected to be centralized at an operations support facility. 

Geographically separated team members will need an extension of the user defined operational picture (UDOP) concept into a collaborative working space where they can generate shared understanding and synchronize collective C2 and ISR activities. These team members will need a decision centric team space which supports individual and group work flows and processes.  The system should automatically gather and present desired information to the individual user according to predefined triggers.  Individual team members will frame their input according to the role they play in the collaborative process, and then contribute applicable information to the shared decision centric visualization environment for a shared common representation.

 

A single tool is needed which serves the entire strategy, planning, operations and assessment cycle across all domains and allows for real-time replanning during execution. Operations during the execution phase require rapid response to unexpected events and replanning in real time.  The current state of the art utilizes advanced planning algorithms to determine efficient routes and asset-target pairing; however, these provide insufficient flexibility for user input and constraints during execution.  In addition, these systems do not provide awareness of other potentially available assets. Visualization and coordination of assets across all domains is a key to this research. Algorithms and visualization tools, including but not limited to geo-temporal visualization technologies, will be needed to assist planners in making best resource allocations and deconfliction of asset tasking.

 

Coordination of all actions in both time and space will be critical.  For example, (1) it may be necessary to plan to affect adversary cyber assets for a very specific period of time while other operations are being conducted, (2) they may need to plan to conduct clandestine operations when adversary ISR assets are least effective due to weather or orbit locations/cycles, (3) they may need to plan missions based on availability and capability of our own ISR assets in order to foil adversary clandestine operations.

 

PHASE I:  Define and evaluate strategies that demonstrate how data handling and operator aiding algorithms and visualizations can support situation awareness and decision-making for distributed, coordinated cross-domain strategy, planning, execution and assessments.

 

PHASE II:  Construct a working prototype that demonstrates how data handling and operator aiding algorithms and visualizations can support situation awareness and decision-making for distributed, coordinated cross-domain strategy, planning, execution and assessments.

 

PHASE III:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Military applications include Air Operations Centers and other distributed command and control environments where allocation of assets and coordination of operations is critical.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Civilian applications include any activity where coordination of operations and allocation of assets is essential. This includes industry, crisis support or humanitarian support agencies.

 

REFERENCES:

1. David S. Alberts.  Agility, Focus, and Convergence: The Future of Command and Control (OASD-NII, USA) THE INTERNATIONAL C2 JOURNAL Vol 1, No 1 | "The Future of C2"

 

2. Berndt Brehmer.  Understanding the Functions of C2 Is the Key to Progress (Swedish National Defense College, SWE) THE INTERNATIONAL C2 JOURNAL Vol 1, No 1 | "The Future of C2"

 

3. Lt Col Nicole Blatt, USAF.  The Command and Control Joint Integrating Concept (C2 JIC) "Spreading the Word." US Joint Forces Command, J-9.  Briefing available at: http://www.dodccrp.org/events/11th_ICCRTS/html/presentations/Blatt_C2_JIC.pdf

 

KEYWORDS: Visualization, Human Factors, Planning, C2, ISR, C2ISR, Cross-Domain

 

 

 

AF093-026                           TITLE: C2-ISR Capability-Need Pairing Framework to Support Resource-Task Pairing such as Sensing-Target Pairing and Weapon-Target Pairing

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Weapons

 

OBJECTIVE:  A mapping framework that can support the Plan/Re-plan Mission activity in which resources are mapped to tasks based on the "needs" of the task and the "capabilities" of the resource.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Within the Air Operations Center (AOC) and each of the Command and Control (C2) elements of the TACS, there are functional teams that focus on some aspect of planning and execution such as Master Air Attack Plan (MAAP), Air Tasking Order (ATO) Production, and Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) Operations.  Each of these teams may plan/re-plan missions by mapping available resources to achieve desired effects by fulfilling requested tasks at a certain time and location.  Today, this mapping is performed by various domain-specific mission planners experienced in weapon-target pairing or sensor-target pairing, etc.  As we acquire more multi-role aircraft (i.e., that are capable of performing multiple types of tasks (e.g., direct attack and reconnaissance)), capturing the domain-specific knowledge of resource capabilities and task needs and how they may be mapped will enable teams of planners to collaboratively plan missions that span these domains, leveraging all the capabilities of available resources.

 

The contractor will design a mapping framework that can support the Plan/Re-plan Mission activity in which resources are mapped to tasks based on the "needs" associated with the type of task and the "capabilities" associated with the type of resource.  This framework will capture and integrate current domain-specific knowledge, be easily updated with new knowledge and requirements, present optimal and alternative resource allocation plans and support real time replanning. The framework must support interaction with multiple operators for collaboration and support operator queries and "what if" analyses.  It must be scalable in time and space to support short-and long-term planning and tactical to operational to strategic planning.

 

The framework should be generic to accommodate various resource types.  The framework should provide the capability to identify types of "resources" such as aircraft or unmanned air vehicles, etc., (potentially as configured with configuration items such as sensors or weapons), and capture (or create) the association between these resources and their "capabilities".  In addition, the framework should provide the capability to identify "types of mission tasks" and the "needs" associated with these task types.  The contractor is encouraged to collaborate with the Air Operations Community of Interest to develop schemas for sharing "resources" and "types of mission tasks", "needs", and "capabilities".  The framework should enable sharing of the information via information services. 

 

The framework will enable "learning" the associations between capability and needs based on how planners map resources to tasks using existing planning tools such as Master Air Attack Planning Toolkit.  The SBIR contractor is encouraged to create innovative learning techniques. The framework should include the ability for users to validate the associations that have been "learned" - thus building the trust of the users. Finally, the framework should provide suggested resource-task mapping based on capability-need mappings that have been learned and potentially validated...another opportunity for innovative techniques. Given one or more tasks to be performed, the framework should provide a service to suggest resources that can be assigned to the mission to accomplish these tasks.

 

PHASE I:  Define and evaluate strategies for creating a framework to express Mission Needs, Resource Capabilities, and Capabilities associated with Needs. Address capture of user knowledge through planning activities using current systems and show how user knowledge can be used for Resource-Task pairing.

 

PHASE II:  Develop and demonstrate a prototype system in a realistic environment. Conduct testing to prove effectiveness of the mapping framework to acquire knowledge based on mapping decisions made by planners and apply that knowledge in the suggestion of Resource-Task pairings that spans domains.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Air Operations planning and resource allocation.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Any activity where asset capabilities must be matched to mission needs. This includes industry, crisis support or humanitarian support agencies.

 

REFERENCES:

1. AO COI Collaboration Site.  The AO COI collaboration site is located at:

https://partners.mitre.org/sites/ao_coi/default.aspx

You can apply for an account using the following procedures:  Request an account at: https://partners.mitre.org/accountsetup/new/default.html.  Complete the simple request form and you should have access in a few days.   Please use edkera@mitre.org as the person inviting you and Air Operations Community of Interest as the name of the community your are joining.   Please note that currently, the AO COI Collaboration Site is limited to U.S. Citizens. Account Management Web Page (for password help and management): https://partners.mitre.org/useraccounts/logon.aspx?ReturnUrl=%2fuseraccounts%2fdefault.aspx

 

2. AO COI Mailing List -- Subscribe to this list to receive AO COI meeting announcements.  * TO JOIN THE LIST * Write to LISTSERV@LISTS.MITRE.ORG and, in the text of your message (not the subject line), write: SUBSCRIBE AIR-OPERATIONS-COI-LIST

 

3. Simon, H. (1956) "Rational Choice and the Structure of the Environment," Psychological Review, Vol. 63, pages 129-138.

 

4. David S. Alberts.  Agility, Focus, and Convergence: The Future of Command and Control (OASD-NII, USA) THE INTERNATIONAL C2 JOURNAL Vol 1, No 1 | "The Future of C2"

 

KEYWORDS: Weapon-Target, Sensor-Target, Pairing, Mission, Planning, command and control

 

 

 

AF093-027                           TITLE: Voice-Interactive Training Environment for Tactical Exercise Familiarization

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Explore development of a high fidelity, voice-enabled environment for familiarizing participants to participate in major tactical exercises.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Over the past eight years, there has been a significant increase in the number of non-US air force participants in the premier tactical exercise known as Red Flag. Red Flag exercises, which occur at Nellis AFB, NV and Eielson AFB, AK several times each year, involve two weeks of live flight integrated combat operations. A goal of each exercise is to better integrate USAF flight operations with those of other services and nations. There are a number of critical safety-of-flight considerations as well as a variety of training rules and rules of engagement for each exercise. These must be trained and applied during the event to ensure a safe and valid combat-like environment. With the involvement of a greater variety of multination players, it has become increasingly important to provide specific guidance and spin-up to these players prior to their arrival at the exercise location, and certify that the rules and regulations are understood and can be followed. USAF squadrons have historically been tasked to deploy to the participating nations to help them prepare with actual live flying at the host nation and interaction amongst USAF and national participants. The costs to do these familiarization visits and flights, while great opportunities for information exchanges, are expensive and demanding at a time when US forces are committed to several theaters around the world and flying hours are a precious commodity needed for home base training. Our goal in this topic is to develop a high fidelity integrated environment to help familiarize exercise participants with air traffic procedures, tactical airspace operations, communication standards, and rules of engagement of the exercise in advance of their exercise participation. The following capabilities of the environment are desired:

 

(1) accurate representation of the exercise environment, players and their general capabilities, air tasking orders and scenarios developed according to exercise objectives;

 

(2) special instructions;

 

(3) flying rules to include noise sensitive and no-fly areas;

 

(4) communications protocols and FAA and USAF-approved pilot/controller terminology used to control air traffic and weapons employment;

 

(5) and appropriate timelines and locations for taxi, takeoff, ingress, marshal, push, execution, egress, refuel and returning to base.

 

While many of the component technologies and tools exist in current state-of the-art applications, a critical challenge for this effort is to bring research and applications together in an integrated and dynamic training environment that supports the objectives of this topic. The enabling concept here is the integration, extension, refinement, and eventual validation of the components, their integration, and the functionality of the integrated training environment. Integrating voice-enabled agents, aircraft models, and developing plug-ins to permit other entities both in the air and on the ground to support the training, are critical activities in this effort. Examples of these other entities include friendly forces, adversary forces, non-participating civil air traffic, Nellis air traffic control, and Nellis Range control using Nellis Test & Training Range (NTTR) and Class B airspace rules and communications protocols. For Red Flag Alaska, the same requirements would apply for the operating bases and the Pacific-Alaska Range Complex IFR/VFR traffic procedures and communications protocols. The integrated environment needs to be easily authorable and updateable in a PC-based architecture operated as a stand-alone trainer or networked to other players from the nation to permit them to work through their package operations realistically and to actually "fly" them out in a spatially, temporally, and visually accurate IFR and VFR environment which reinforces procedural and visual departure, recovery, and marshalling reference points used in Red Flag exercises. Each participating nation would acquire the environment and as part of the planning documents and tools provided to each nation for preparation, would get a set of files for scenarios specific to the Red Flag objectives inclusive of flying timelines, communication standards, and constraints envisioned for the actual exercise.

 

PHASE I:  This phase will identify content for the development effort. In addition, Phase I will develop a proof-of-concept desktop exemplar of the training and rehearsal concept to be fully developed in the Phase II effort.

 

PHASE II:  Prioritize missions for scenario and content development. Develop, and evaluate the scenarios in the environment for Red Flag familiarization and spin-up training rehearsal for Red Flag exercises in NV and AK. Evaluations will quantify training effectiveness and mission readiness enhancement resulting from the environment. Training transfer to live Red Flag exercises will be assessed.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Provides a uniquely capable and cost-effective training and rehearsal capability that can be included as part of a broader continuum of live and virtual training and rehearsal.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: The results of this effort have high value for commercialization as the scenarios represent a complex and difficult activity.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Bradley, D. R., & Abelson, S. B. Desktop flight simulators: Simulation fidelity and pilot performance. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 27(2), 152-159. (1995).

 

2. Burgeson, J.C., et al., Natural effects in military models and simulations: Part III Analysis of requirements versus capabilities. Report No., STC-TR-2970, PL-TR-96-2039, (AD-A317 289), 48 p., Aug. (1996).

 

3. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office homepage: www.dmso.mil

 

4. Clarke, T. L., ED. Distributed interactive simulation systems for simulation and training in the aerospace environment. Proceedings of the Conference, Orlando, Fl, Apr 19-20, 1995. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology, vol. CR 58) 338p.

 

5. Mattoon, J. S. Designing instructional simulations: Effects of instructional control and type of training task on developing display-interpretation skills. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 4(3), 189-209. (1994).

6. Additional information from TPOC in response to FAQs for Topic AF093-027. (30 sets of Q&A)

 

KEYWORDS: radio procedures trainer, intelligent instructional systems, flight visualization, flight training, desktop flight training

 

 

 

AF093-028                           TITLE: Network-Centric Supervisory Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems, Human Systems

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop decision aiding algorithms and their respective/collective intuitive interface depictions for assisting an operator in monitoring and controlling multiple UAVs.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) operations in theater often contain many types of UAVs which interface with various Ground Control Stations (e.g., Launch and Recovery Element (LRE), Mission Control Element (MCE)), and Air Operational Centers (AOC). UAV systems currently in theater include everything from the Predator and Global Hawk to small and micro UAVs.  Handoff of UAV control to one of these UAS components often occurs for ingress to and egress from a region of interest. The ability of one operator to exert supervisory control over one or many UAVs enables economies of scale in operational efficiency, air asset utilization, and coordination of UAVs within the battlespace. This is one of the primary goals of UAS interoperability.  Regardless of vehicle platform, the ability to monitor and control a single UAV involves the processing and filtering of vast amounts of network-centric data from the Global Information Grid (GIG) in relation to the UAV's current route, area of interest, and mission goal(s).  Additionally, the cognitive demands associated with this task are exacerbated when monitoring and control are extended to multiple UAVs.  An added layer of complexity involves cross-platform interoperability.  To support the goals of interoperability, the NATO STANAG 4586 was designed to provide a common message format for multiple UAV platforms.  However, this STANAG is limited in that it provides a methodology to communicate information but it does not perform the underlying work to determine what information needs to be transmitted and how it should be portrayed.  What is needed are decision aids and their associated operator interfaces that are key to determining what information needs to be presented to the operator (machine to human communication) as well as the various heterogeneous UAV platforms (machine to machine communication).  Currently, no composite technologies exist to address the coordination, monitoring, and control of multiple UAVs for mission execution and Course of Actions (COA).  To perform this task successfully, operators need decision aids based on advanced reasoning and processing algorithms to assist a supervising operator in the allocation of mission tasks across a set of UAVs under his/her immediate control. These aids should organize net-centric data from multiple C2 sources to enable the supervisor to coordinate and prioritize tasks. Intuitive interfaces are needed to accurately portray decision aid outcomes.  These interfaces should also represent a shared vocabulary for the understanding and meaning of entities on the battlefield in relation to the UAV's objectives.  We seek novel decision aids which will combine pertinent information for multiple heterogeneous UAVs in meaningful ways while filtering out unnecessary data.  Complimentary to the decision aids are their respective/collective intuitive interface depictions for assisting an operator in monitoring and controlling multiple UAVs.

 

PHASE I:  Develop and design innovative concepts and algorithms with advanced reasoning. Identify critical technological challenges and design multiple UAV C2 architectures. Perform a risk reduction software demonstration. Develop metrics by which to evaluate the display design concepts and algorithms.

 

PHASE II:  Implement an application service and toolset for multi-UAS control in a research control station provided by AFRL for use in human-in-the-loop evaluations. Develop scenarios for demonstrations of the developed technology. Develop a plan for integration / adaptation into the Global Information Grid.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Applications to DoD multiple UAS Command and Control operations and persistent Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR).

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Border Patrol and Emergency first responders.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Department of Defense. Network-Centric Warfare. Washington, DC: Director, Force Transformation, OSD, 2004.

 

2.  Cummings, M. L., A. S. Brzezinski, and J. D. Lee. "The Impact of Intelligent Aiding for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Schedule Management." IEEE Intelligent Systems: Special issue on Interacting with Autonomy 22 (2007): 52-59.

 

3.  Osborn, Kris. "DoD To Set UAV Standards by Summer." Defense News 19 Jan. 2009. 28 Jan. 2009 <http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i=3907656>.

 

KEYWORDS: Network-centric, cognitive workload reduction, multi-UAV, operator interfaces, supervisory control, Intelligent Algorithms, Advanced Reasoning, Interoperability

 

 

 

AF093-029                           TITLE: Short Pulse Radio Frequency (RF) Field Measurement System

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Biomedical, Sensors

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop a field transportable measurement system to characterize electric and magnetic field strength from short pulse RF emitters

 

DESCRIPTION:  Short pulsed RF sources are increasingly being developed for counter electronics, imaging, and medical applications.[Campbell et al, James et al]   Sources with pulse widths as short as a nanosecond are becoming readily commercially available with development systems available with pulse widths as short as 100 picoseconds.  Measurement of field strengths from these systems is a requirement for ensuring safety of operators, bystanders, and persons associated with the target zone. [Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES)].  Current field portable measurement systems are not able to measure peak electric or magnetic field strength for fields with short pulse width and high peak power.  

 

Scientists, researchers, and medical support personnel require field portable measurement systems with capability to measure RF pulses with frequency components from 3 kHz to 100 GHz.  The system should be able to measure peak field strengths of 2 MV/m or 5 kA/m, pulse widths as short as 100 picoseconds, and capable of real time performance to capture single pulse or non-periodic waveforms.  The probes should be non-perturbing of the RF field so they can be used for high resolution dosimetry over the volume of small animal test subjects.  The associated electronics should be capable of multiple input channels so an array of detectors can be used if high field gradients are expected as in near field scenarios.  The devices should be rugged, field transportable, and capable of being shipped by standard shipping companies.

 

The design should utilize non-perturbing probes so near field measurements can be made without significantly changing the field pattern.  A breadboard system should be demonstrated as proof that development of the system is feasible. 

 

PHASE I:  Determine the feasibility and the design of a measurement system that can measure pulsed RF with frequency components from 3 kHz to 100 GHz, peak electric field strengths up to 2 MV/m or 5 kA/m, and pulse widths as short as 100 picoseconds.

 

PHASE II:  Develop, demonstrate, and validate an operational measurement system that was designed during Phase I.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Air Force installations are required to measure RF field strengths for comparison to safety standards. The Short Pulse Radio Frequency (RF) Field Measurement System, will meet this requirement.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Can be used by bioeffects researchers, RF engineers, and medical support personnel to characterize field strengths from very short pulse emitters.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Campbell, D., Harper, J., Natham, V., Xiao, F., Sundararajan, R.; "A Compact High Voltage Nanosecond Pulse Generator" Proc. ESA Annual Meeting on Electrostatics, 2008

 

2.  James, R., Rinehart, H., Singh, H., Creedon, J.; "Compact, High Voltage modulator for Direct Radiation of Ultrawideband RF Pulses", SPIE Vol 1631 Ultrawideband Radar, 1992

 

3.  Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES) (SCC39), IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz, IEEE Std C95.1-2005, Oct 2005

 

KEYWORDS: Pulsed Radio Frequency Radiation, Directed Energy, Radio Frequency Radiation, Dosimetry

 

 

 

AF093-030                           TITLE: Automated Analysis and Classification of Anomalous 3-D Human Shapes and Hostile Actions

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop software tools to achieve automated classification of anomalous 3-D human shapes and hostile actions from 3-D shape and motion data.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Recently, there has been an increased need for persistent surveillance to detect terrorist activities both in populated urban environments and remote terrains. Monitoring humans and interpreting their behaviors is a particularly important part of effectively detecting suspicious and hostile activities and human-borne threats. Sensor development for persistent surveillance has grown exponentially, but the cognitive burden of processing and analyzing sensor information is overwhelming. To assist the decision-making operators, software automation of hostile behavior detection and classification will be critical for the effectiveness of surveillance operations. With the advancement of computer vision technologies, significant progress has been made to automatically detect and track overall human movements and basic human activities using 2-D video surveillance systems.  However, much still remains to be done in the areas of system robustness as well as automated understanding of individual human behaviors.  This is partially due to the limitations inherent in 2-D surveillance data, such as motion ambiguity, self-occlusion, viewing angle, and other input variance in an unstructured environment.  Emerging 3-D sensors and virtual models provide potential solutions to these problems.  Furthermore, working in the 3-D domain allows easy integration of different modalities of data, such as body shape and motion.  Because of the increase in content richness, this integrated multi-modality 3-D approach will better address the challenge of behavior and intent recognition.  In anticipation of the coming availability of 3-D technologies, AFRL seeks to develop innovative software that works directly on integrated 3-D data or models to automatically recognize and classify anomalous 3-D human shapes and hostile actions for intent prediction.  The types of anomalous 3-D human shapes and hostile actions under consideration may include, but are not limited to: carrying weapons, backpacks, or concealed explosives; disguising gender appearance; acting in irregular postures such as digging, or any other abnormal behaviors given the surrounding context.   The types of 3-D data for this effort may include: 3-D laser scans, motion captures, motion-synchronized volumetric animations, and 3-D camera images, etc.  The overall effectiveness of the software tool will be demonstrated through laboratory experiments simulating some of the anomalous shapes and actions mentioned above.  Although the software tool will not be expected to cover every conceivable anomalous human shape and hostile action, it is important that the software has the architecture, data structure, and interface design to provide scalability for future extensions of additional irregularities and integration with other data modalities.  In addition, the software should demonstrate the capability of handling large volumes of high-dimensional dynamic data and efficient statistical learning and classification.

 

PHASE I:  Develop technology and software concepts for automated analysis and classification of anomalous 3-D human shapes and hostile actions. Demonstrate an understanding of the challenges behind human-centric surveillance, the innovation of the concepts, and the ability to design and implement the technology through proof of concept.

 

PHASE II:  Develop all aspects of the technology into a fully functional prototype software tool. Integrate all components into the prototype via a user-friendly GUI. Validate the software's effectiveness and accuracy through laboratory experiments.

 

PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  The technology can be integrated into surveillance networks to allow persistent, unmanned monitoring of humans and automatically alert suspicious actions and behaviors to security personnel.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The technology provides homeland security operations a new capability of persistent unmanned monitoring in points of entry, checkpoints, and other critical security infrastructures.  It also has potential applications in intelligent robots.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  de Aguiar, E., Stoll, C., Theobalt, C., Ahmed, N.,  Seidel, HP, Thrun, S., Performance capture from sparse multi-view video, ACM Transactions on Graphics, 2008

 

2.  Carnegie Mellon University Motion Capture Database, http://mocap.cs.cmu.edu/

 

3.  Dee, H. M. and Velastin, S. A., How close are we to solving the problem of automated visual surveillance? A review of real-world surveillance, scientific progress and evaluative mechanisms, Journal of Machine Vision and Applications, Volume 19, pp. 329-343, 2008

 

4.  Robinette, K., Blackwell, S., Daanen, H., Fleming, S., Boehmer, M., Brill, T., Hoeferlin, D., and Burnsides, D., Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR), Final Report, Volume I: Summary, Technical Report AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2002-0169, National Technical Information Service Accession No. ADA406704, United States Air Force Research Laboratory, 2002

 

KEYWORDS: Computer Vision, Motion Analysis, Anthropometry, Patterson Recognition, Action Recognition, Data Mining, Digital Human Modeling

 

 

 

AF093-031                           TITLE: Intuitive Interfaces for "Layered Sensing"

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Battlespace, Human Systems

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

TOPIC:  Intuitive Interfaces for "Layered Sensing"

 

OBJECTIVE:

To conduct exploratory development leading to the conceptual design, evaluation and refinement of intuitive man-machine interfaces for "Layered Sensing."

 

DESCRIPTION:

The Air Force Research Laboratory has adopted the Layered Sensing (LS) concept as an overarching approach toward achieving universal battlespace awareness.  While this construct is framed in the context of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance missions, it has broader implications with regard to "systems of systems" approaches in general.  It is generally accepted that the human interaction with modern complex systems is dominated by the cognitive component of the tasks being accomplished.  Little is understood, however, about these demands in a Layered Sensing environment.  Theory-driven, cognitive approaches to understanding these implications are needed to support the design of effective interfaces.  As one example, because of the complexity of the man-machine interaction implicit in Layered Sensing, operator-aiding technologies will probably be required in order to ameliorate data overload.  Hence, trust in automation theory may be required to be applied in order to establish operator confidence in the automated functions.  Similarly, research is required to better understand the operator-automation interactions in order to design the training support system content and desired cognitive competency outcomes of training.  Cognitive hierarchy theory may provide insight into understanding the implications of the LS concept.  Again, little is understood regarding how the LS approach will provide or support the information management capabilities required to achieve battlespace understanding (from alphanumerics and raw imagery/signals).

 

The complexity of  the data exploitation and information extraction tasks to be supported by the LS concept may well be increased when it is applied in the context of irregular warfare where data are less certain and adversary intent is less obvious.  Similarly, complexity may increase in the cognitive (as opposed to the physical or information) domains of warfighting. 

 

A cognitive systems engineering-based research approach to the design of the user interface with the LS construct is required. Some of the research areas to be addressed include the depiction of uncertainty, the depiction of risk associated with alternative kinetic and non-kinetic based courses of action, and the depiction of friendly and adversary capabilities. Further research challenge is represented by interactions between these layers. Measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are required which are capability-based and which are traceable to the cognitive demands. Interface conceptual designs must be derived from sound cognitive engineering principles and must be appropriate the specific decision making echelons.

 

PHASE I:

Conduct cognitive systems engineering research to identify human-machine interface requirements and conceptual design approaches appropriate to the cognitive demands of decision makers within a "Layered Sensing" operational environment.

 

PHASE II:

Develop and demonstrate human-machine interfaces to support the planning, monitoring, assessment and adjustment of ISR collections. Conduct an example of capability evaluation by applying appropriate capability-based measures of effectiveness.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: This research is highly feasible especially to the military intelligence community.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  This research has extremely important commercial applications in the security and homeland defense industries.

 

REFERENCES: 1. Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) 2-9. Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Operations. July 17, 2007

http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/service_pubs/afdd2_9.pdf

 

2. LAYERED SENSING: Its Definition, Attributes, and Guiding Principles for AFRL Strategic Technology Development http://www.wpafb.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-080820-005.pdf

 

3. Irregular Warfare (IW): Joint Operating Concept (JOC), Version 1.0, 11 September 2007 http://www.dtic.mil/futurejointwarfare/concepts/iw_joc1_0.pdf

 

4. Cognitive Systems Engineering (Definition)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_engineering

 

5.  Cognitive Hierarchy (Definition)

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/6-0/appb.htm

 

KEYWORDS: cognitive systems engineering, human-computer interface, measures of effectiveness, situational awareness, irregular warefare, trust in automation, cognitive hierarchy

 

 

 

AF093-033                           TITLE: Countering Cyber Terrorism through Internet Media

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Human Systems

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  To assess blog/internet media behavior of terrorists and measure respondent behavior.

 

DESCRIPTION:

Many cultures use religious doctrine out of context as a methodology to sway personal opinion and support terrorist actions.  We know that terrorist/extremist actions are used to incite fear in people to force them into willing or unwilling support.  We also know that terrorists are good at bringing people into their philosophical fold by playing on their feelings of inadequacy in a multicultural environment, i.e. Muslims living in Western countries.  They use whatever means is at their disposal to manipulate people into a set of beliefs. One of these means is via utilization of the internet. This aspect of cyber terrorism can be defined as a methodology to recruit persons to a belief or ideology that gives them justification for their terrorist actions. Previous research in this area has not considered measures of effectiveness relative to the use of the internet and other media to recruit supporters.

 

We cannot research the entirety of terrorist methods of behavioral manipulations in this one project but we can portion off one concept of influence, that being the cyber world of the internet.   The intent of this research project is to identify Web site media''s role in influencing terrorist behavior.  Terrorist groups use the internet to create blogs and other types of Web sites in their recruitment campaigns.  The development of these Web sites profess group propaganda integrating audio-visual and phraseology (speech acts) intensified by religious rhetoric. 

 

 The study will use an established baseline of Web sites that have been identified as extremist Web sites and parse out readily available demographic information (gender, ethnicity, country, etc.).  The information sought is what is given freely on the "open" internet.  One other aspect of the research is to measure the effectiveness of the Web sites to drawing potential supporters by analyzing "open" internet site responses in the public domain.  Use of analytical software tools using intelligent schemas to parse data is necessary.

 

This effort will focus on media impacts on terrorist activities in the following ways:

- Assess the psychological, social, and cultural norms through the expertise of cultural professionals within specific cultures.

-Develop measures that will validate behavioral changes relative to a communication model.

-Determine through analysis if cyber recruiting can determine terrorist movements and predict attacks. 

 

PHASE I:  Identify and define behavioral and communication models used in marketing and advertising within cultures. Design a metric of terrorist audio/visual Web site development commonalities that will help determine potential terrorist methodologies for recruiting supporters.  Design analytical software tools using intelligent schemas to parse data.  Proof of concept software tool with data analysis and quantitative and qualitative measures is required.

 

PHASE II:  Using the results from Phase I; model, design, develop, demonstrate and validate fully functional software tool(s) with quantitative measures of data.

 

PHASE III /DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Application is applicable to the intelligence, security i.e. psychological operations, influence operations, counter insurgency, cultural communications.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercialization of this research is applicable to the Department of State, business intelligence and security programs, as well as the Department of Homeland Security. The marketing research models into the Islamic and Muslim communities could also provide insight into commercial advertising and marketing campaigns.

 

REFERENCES: 

1.  Bunt, Gary R. 2009. iMuslims, Rewiring the House of Islam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

 

2.  Berman, K.A., and J.L. Paul. 2002. Verifiable Broadcasting and Gossiping in Communication networks. Discrete Applied Mathematics 118: 293-98.

 

3.  Chintagunat, P., and S. Gupta. 1994. On Using Demographic Variables to Determine Segment Membership in Logit Mixture Models. Journal of Marketing Research 31:128-36.

 

4.  Jones, J., and F. Zufryden. 1980. Adding Explanatory Variables to a Consumer Purchase Behavior Model: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Marketing Research 17:323-34.

 

5.  Landahl, H.H. 1953. On the Spread of Information with Time and Distance. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 15: 367-81.

 

6.  Additional Information provided by TPOC.

 

KEYWORDS: Information Ops, InfluenceOps, marketing, cultural, behavior, modeling, cyber terrorism, quantitative analysis

 

 

 

AF093-034                           TITLE: Innovative Methods for Increasing Data Link Capability

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop innovative approaches to deliver airborne Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) sensor data to air and ground users without increasing bandwidth.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The continued growth in the number of ISR Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) and associated sensors are taxing the capabilities of current data links and the available Radio-Frequency (RF) Bandwidth. Platform sensor suites are migrating towards high definition cameras, multispectral suites, and collaborative collection with other embedded and external sensors. These new sensors and platforms with multiple sensors are producing data rates which exceed the data rate capacity of the current UAS beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) and line-of-sight (LOS) data links.  The RF Bandwidth required as the logical trade-off for increasing data link data rates is also becoming a significant limiting factor. These limitations impact the number of platforms and sensors that can operate in a given area per a given time.

 

The USAF seeks to increase the capability of UASs to transport ISR data from the sensor to the user with low latency, while minimizing size, weight, and power (SWaP) impacts to the platform, and without increasing the bandwidth.  

 

The USAF is not having a problem with one or a few specific technical areas from all of the examples mentioned in the following paragraphs.  Nor are they having a single or limited problem with techniques or a small part of the communications methods spectrum from all of the examples listed in the following paragraphs. The problems and issues are multi-faceted and complex and solutions will require innovative ideas that may address one or more aspects.  The USAF is open to all possible solutions from a focused solution to a broad solution as long as the offerer considers the entire solution set and can show how and where they fit and what benefits they offer as well as they limitations imposed by any design trades that they make.

 

The effort should focus on sensor data provided to the onboard data link for communication to both air and ground sites.  The solutions offered can include but are not limited to, advanced data compression techniques, on-board data post processing prior to transmission, data link waveforms, Forward Error Correction techniques, dynamic bandwidth allocation, foveal /BW agile sensors, etc.  A solution approach may synergistically integrate these techniques to achieve the desired outcome.  Solutions which reduce the bandwidth required to deliver or transport ISR data are also of interest.  Solutions need to be aware of SSWaP issues, especially for UASs and their impacts.  

 

In their proposals, offerers should demonstrate sufficient knowledge and skill in all facets of digital communication including phase modulation, error correction techniques, spectral efficiencies and spectral filtering, link budgets, data and video compression as well as current hardware and software technologies used to implement data link communications because all of these issues contribute to an understanding of and influence the decisions about the possible solutions space.  The proposals should demonstrate an understanding of the synergies and relationships of these issues to that solution trade space.

 

Examples and explanations of "state of the art" can be found in the reference documents.  Offerers ability to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the "state of the art" will be used as a criteria in proposal evaluation. 

 

Though the primary focus is ISR data throughput capabilities, all data types, in the military as well as the commercial realms, could benefit from the products and capabilities developed through this effort.

 

PHASE I:  Develop and assess an approach that improves the capability to deliver various ISR data products to users, while respecting considerations of spectral occupancy, latency,  and SWAP.

 

PHASE II:  Further refine the approach.  Demonstrate proof of concept.  Build and deliver two prototype systems.  Show that the prototypes meet the effort''''s design goals in a simulated operational environment.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Military applications include any air or ground-based system that uses RF transmitted data to generate ISR information, including manned and unmanned reconnaissance aircraft.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications include air and ground-based systems that use RF transmitted data to generate situational awareness, including law enforcement, drug interdiction, and search and rescue applications as examples.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Bernard Sklar, "Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition", Prentice Hall PTR, 2001 (ISBN 0130847887, 9780130847881)

 

2. L. Hanzo, P.J. Cehrriman, and J. Streit, "Video Compression and Communications, Second Edition", John Wiley and Sons, 2007.

 

3. Alister Burr, "Modulation and Coding for Wireless Communications", Prentice Hall, 2001.

 

KEYWORDS: Data Links, Band width, Compression, UAS, ISR, Data Links, Modulation, Forward Error Correction, Spectral Occupancy, Video encoding and compression, Synthetic Aperture RADAR encoding

 

 

 

AF093-035                           TITLE: High Speed Digital Video on Legacy Aircraft Wiring

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Increase bandwidth throughput on existing aircraft wiring (signal or power, deterministic or non-deterministic).  Provide high definition video capability to JHMCS, enable ultraresolution systems.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Bandwidth on legacy aircraft does not permit planned avionics upgrades, but retrofitting with fiber optic or adding additional cables is absolutely NOT an option due to cost, depot time, or space, weight and power.  Wired deterministic data on MIL-STD-1553B is 1 Mbps per bus, but needs to be orders of magnitude higher.  Non-deterministic video cables were designed for low resolution sensors and displays, limiting upgrades planned for Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) and other programs.  Troops and crew in cabins have low or, usually, no connectivity, limiting their situational awareness during ingress/egress and upon arriving at destinations.   Innovative technologies need to be developed to dramatically increase (10x-to-1000X) aircraft data bandwidth throughput on installed, legacy wiring, cables, and via powerlines, to explore wireless links for cockpit & cabin uses, and to enable affordable digital avionics upgrades requiring the additional bandwidth, including cockpit controls & displays, imaging sensors, processors, software-waveform radios, and synthetic vision.  Approaches are sought at both the threshold and objective levels.  The JHMCS technology need represents a threshold for bandwidth throughput increase in this topic.  The JHMCS helmet-mounted display (HMD) for legacy aircraft, could be upgraded to facilitate a change from a vector scan miniature cathode ray tube (CRT) to a raster scan miniature flat panel display (FPD). To utilize the digital video portion of a new alternate display interface being purchased for JHMCS under an electronics unit (EU) upgrade, aircraft wiring (cathode triax line connection) between the EU and the HMD wiring must support a 16 Mbps non-deterministic data rate. Some fighter platforms have good  to marginal capability at a reduced bandwidth (12 Mbps) necessary to drive a future FPD, e.g. miniature active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD), image source solution with sufficient resolution. Sufficient  FPD resolution currently comprises, for example, 1280 x 1024 pixel (SXGA) monochrome 1-bit images updated at 72 Hz sent with 8:1 compression/decompression (12 Mbps). Other legacy fighters, however, have insufficient capability with reduced bandwidths down to 8 Mbps. Without such an improved interface the quality of a displayed image may suffer dynamic degradation (blanked lines, blanked frames, or possibly no display at all) that scales with the density of the symbology. Threshold SXGA video capability is desired with growth in all platforms to at least 16 Mbps for the monochrome symbology currently shown, The technology must work on existing aircraft wiring between the EU in the avionics bay and the HMD cockpit interface unit (CU) in the cockpit, and be in the form of transceiver cards installed in the EU and CU.  The technology should have the potential to expand towards objective higher bandwidths needed to enable color symbology, complex imagery, higher resolution (5 Mpx), and binocular systems.  The effort should leverage commercial trends in signal encoding, microelectronics,multimedia and over coax and powerlines, and should build on prior research towards high speed MS1553B, to achieve over 100 Mbps over installed wiring.

 

PHASE I:  A high speed interface design for installed wiring is to be designed for avionics that takes into account reliability & maintainability issues. A roadmap is required describing the threshold and objective performance anticipated from the proposed approach, with product spirals shown as off-ramps.

 

PHASE II:  Prototype boards demonstrating the technology are to be demonstrated and delivered along with a revised roadmap for Phase III commercialization and transition. The Phase II prototypes should be sufficient to evaluate the potential to develop products to meet the needs for bandwidth growth in a range of military and civil applications.  A logistics plan must be provided for the JHMCS application.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Military applications include all defense aircraft, battle tanks, and many shipboard electronics.  An infrastructure accessible by defense integrators to obtain COTS-based interface boards is needed.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  High speed digital transceivers are dual use and it is anticipated that civil applications will be developed for video distribution markets including aircraft, trains, and homes/buildings.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Entropic c.LINK-270 chipsets and associated software for broadband multimedia distribution at 270 Mbps over installed/traditional coax (and, potentially other channels); data available at www.entropic.com  (accessed 28 February 2009).

 

2. Multimedia over Coax Alliance (MoCA), www.mocalliance.org (accessed 28 February 2009).

 

3. Homeplug Powerline Alliance, multimedia up to 200 Mbps over powerlines, http://www.homeplug.org/products (accessed 28 February 2009).

 

4. Michael G. Hegarty, 'High Performance 1553," Proc. SPIE 5801, 97-104 (2005), available at www.spie.org.

 

5. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE INTERFACE STANDARD, DIGITAL TIME DIVISION COMMAND/RESPONSE MULTIPLEX DATA BUS, MILSTD-001553B Notice 4 (15 January 1996); Changes 5 and 6 were canceled without replacement by Notice 7 (22 October 2008), http://assist.daps.dla.mil/quicksearch/basic_profile.cfm?ident_number=275874 ; details on MIL-STD-1553B are available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIL-STD-1553 (updated 23 February 2009).

 

KEYWORDS: Bandwidth, legacy aircraft wiring, high speed interface, digital video, Broadband Multimedia Distribution, coax cable, triax line, twisted-pair, powerlines, stochastic signal processing, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), MIL-STD-1553B, Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System, JHMCS

 

 

 

AF093-036                           TITLE: Automated Fiber Optic Interconnect Cleaning and Inspection Involving Aerospace Platforms

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems, Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Establish and demonstrate novel automated fiber optic interconnect component inspection and cleaning capabilities.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Many modern aircraft avionics suites employ fiber optic interconnects, which require cleaning and inspection any time a line replaceable unit (LRU) is removed or replaced. Aircraft availability requirements demand quick and accurate repairs in order to meet mission needs. High-velocity military aircraft maintenance, involving integrated combat surge operations, must not be held hostage by trial-and-error manual fiber optic cleaning processes involving intensive touch labor.  Current avionic repair times are increased by more than 30 minutes per interface connection surface, due to lengthy manual cleaning and inspection processes. In addition to wasted repair time, fiber optic cleaning effectiveness and inspection require high levels of technician proficiency and training. Manual inspection and cleaning processes must be replaced with an integrated or automated approach that facilitates a reduction in cleaning and inspection cycle time to 5 minutes or less.

 

The goals of this project are developing and deploying a self-contained, agile, efficient, and reliable fiber optic interconnect maintenance support unit which can perform automated inspection and cleaning tasks. The unit must be of a design that supports use in isolated avionics bays and on bulkhead connectors, regardless of physical orientation and/or access constraints. The unit must also comply with explosive atmosphere, ground safety requirements and MIL-PRF-28800F. Demonstrated capabilities must support field and depot requirements and accommodate diverse interconnect configurations. Embedded maintenance unit inspection capabilities should possess the inherent ability to perform automated in-situ defect characterization, aligning the required cleaning task with actual physical condition, and readily assure competitive efficiency over existing manual hand-swab processes. The technology must support legacy and future aerospace platform fiber optic cable plants, be applicable to diverse commercial applications, and be agile enough to adjust to evolving fiber optic technology at the physical layer. The advocated investment is a joint collaboration, involving the Joint Fiber Optic Working Group (JFOWG)http://www.navair.navy.mil/jswag/.

 

PHASE I:  Identify and model an ideal automated fiber optic interconnect cleaning and inspection capability aligned with installed combat avionics systems and associated maintenance approaches, emphasizing defect characterization, integrated performance, efficiency, touch labor reduction and packaging.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate and qualify an automated fiber optic cable interconnect cleaning and inspection prototype capability packaged in a mobile self-contained unit.  Required performance shall support field and depot maintenance applications, emphasizing cycle time and first-attempt performance metrics, and shall support diverse aerospace platform fiber optic avionics networks (legacy and emerging).

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Flight-critical and mission-critical air vehicle fiber optic interface components, including cable connectors, line replaceable unit connectors, and alternate munitions release equipment connectors.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  High-bandwidth civil communication networks, emerging passenger avionics architectures, embedded building networks, air traffic control network grids, and land based transportation network systems.

 

REFERENCES:

1. DOD-STD-1678, Standardized Fiber Optic Design Requirements

 

2. MIL-PRF-29504, General Specification for Removable Fiber Optic Connector/Termini

 

3. MIL-PRF-28800F, General Specification for Test Equipment for Use with Electrical and Electronic Equipment

 

4. MIL-STD-810F, Environment Test Methods for Aerospace and Ground Equipment

 

5. T.O. 1-1A-14-4, Installation and Testing Practices: Fiber Optic Cabling (AF)

 

KEYWORDS: fiber optic, inspection, avionics, characterization, cleaning, portable, automated, interconnect, network, inspection, in-situ, termini, ferule, defect, cross-cutter

 

 

 

AF093-038                           TITLE: Enabling End User Computing Environments

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop an End User Computing Environment that allows warfighters to aggregate content from multiple Department of Defense (DoD) sources using Web 2.0 technologies in a provably assured manner.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Existing and new DoD systems are exposing more and more information via web service techniques and technologies. However, usage of these services has not extended much beyond the developer community as the technical skills and tools needed to invoke these services have remained "out of reach" for the average end user, and the certification and accreditation of such tools discourages and/or prevents the average end user from modifying the manner the information reaches them due to concerns regarding confidentiality, integrity and availability.

 

On the internet, similar services are widely available for users to "mash up" or combine in novel manners that meets their needs. If we are to provide similar functionality to the average end user of DoD systems, we must first ease the difficulty of the combinations of these tools while increasing the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of these services.

 

The first problem is starting to be resolved by the existence of user friendly tools that facilitate the creation of user created applications from content aggregated from multiple sources or vendors sometimes called "commercial mash-up techniques". These tools include examples such as Yahoo Pipes, Microsoft Popfly, mySpace, etc. These new tools allow "non-technical" users to leverage technologies such as Really Simple Syndication (RSS), Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX), Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Representational State Transfer (REST) services, and eXtensible Markup Language (XML) among others. These technologies are intended to produce new information spaces and web applications commonly known as "mash-ups". This portion of the problem space is becoming well described in the commercial world.

 

The second problem can be eased by exploring and proving the validity of methods to evaluate the risks of specific mash-ups to confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the underlying services. This challenge is the desired goal of this SBIR: to provide automatable, predictive tools that indicate threats to the assurance of critical DoD services prior to their utilization within the DoD Enterprise.

 

As this effort envisions the work to be available to the warfighter and the enterprise, such mash-ups should be based on DoD services, such as those found as parts of or within the DoD Metadata Registry (MDR), Global Combat Support System (GCSS), and/or Net Centric Enterprise Services (NCES). (Links to these can be found below.) Any of the various commercial aggregation or mash-up type capabilities (such as Yahoo Pipes, Microsoft Popfly, Mozilla Ubiquity, and/or the Google Mashup Editor, among other examples listed in the Wikipedia article linked to below) should at least in theory be amenable to similar approaches.

 

PHASE I:  Develop architecture to evaluate confidentiality/integrity/availability of 1 or more commercial mash-up technique(s) in a multiple security domain environment

- Develop reference architecture report and/or limited prototype capability

- Identify Phase II requirements

 

PHASE II:  Implement/extend demonstration. Minimum capabilities:

- Aggregate from standard web-based services, RSS, search engines, web content, email

- Ability to browse service info in various DoD registries (NCES, GCSS, MDR)

- Visual ("drag & drop") capabilities for constructing rules and mash-ups

-  Resolve confidentiality, integrity, availability issues of proposed mash-up(s) within cross-domain.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Secure mash-ups allow sharing for ad hoc coalitions & disaster response.  Soldiers and operators need confidence in the integrity of capabilities that can adapt to quickly changing missions and data.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Securing mash-ups allow for greater collaboration while still maintaining commercial security requirements (such as HIPAA, Sarbanes-Oxley, privacy regulations, etc)

 

REFERENCES:

1.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_(web_application_hybrid)

2.  http://pipes.yahoo.com/pipes/

3.  http://www.disa.mil/nces/

 

KEYWORDS: mash-ups, net-centric, SOA, authoritative source,aggregation,identity brokering,web services

 

 

 

AF093-041                           TITLE: Non-cooperative Target Detection/Identification (ID)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Information Systems, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop evolutionary fusion algorithms to improve the ability to detect and positively identify Non-Cooperative Targets using multiple-source and multiple-intelligent (INT), un-like  sensor data.

 

DESCRIPTION: A number of friendly fire incidents in recent military operations provide the justification for the need of a target detection and identification (ID) capability in both the command-and-control system and the weapon fire-control system. Rapid and reliable detection and ID of targets at maximum surveillance systems range and maximum weapon system  range is a challenging problem. Cooperative techniques, such as identification Friend or Foe (IFF) are already operational in the field.  Although friendly targets may be identified by these techniques, positive identification of hostile or neutral targets is not possible.  This void may be filled by Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) techniques.

 

A lack of  a friendly indication alone is never sufficient to engage a target, therefore (NCTR) technologies are essential to gaining a robust Combat Identification (CID) capability while reducing or preventing fratricide.  NCTR technology speeds target acquisition timelines and can be used to make appropriate decisions about the type of target that has been detected and identified.  NCTR functions are usually performed with no cooperation from  the target concerned and in most cases the target is not aware that is being identified.

 

Air Force reconnaissance platforms, like AWACS, and JSTARS, and Air Force combat systems like the F-16, F-22, and F-35 have NCTR requirements for their sensor systems to identify threatening targets with high reliability beyond visual ranges in order to perform their full potential and to achieve high levels of operational effectiveness.

 

Long-range CID capabilities are considered to be essential for future combat systems.  Based on current conflicts, future conflicts will most definitely be a combination of friendly, hostile and neutral targets.  These targets could be air, ground, or naval vehicles with a mix of civil or military targets.  Therefore, target recognition functions will have to be effective in different environments with a significant variety of targets.

 

A major emphasis by the Air Force is on the maturation of NCTR technology that will improve the ability to positively detect and identify surface or air threats from air platforms.  Many of these technologies are under development which include 1) Laser Vision, an electro-optical imaging system that significantly increases ID ranges and includes the Laser Target Imaging Program (LTIP) as well as other Advanced Laser System (ALS) imaging technologies, 2) Radar Vision, an air-to-ground radar imaging technique to identify objects using their radar signatures; and 3) the High Range Resolution (HRR) program  that uses radar signal processing to increase ID range and confidence.  These senor technologies are in addition to those already fielded  having the ability to capture and exploit multiple intelligent data to achieve CID.   However, crucial to the success of any of this sensor technology is the availability of advanced and evolutionary algorithms to fuse the data collected from these un-like, multi-sensors/sources in order to positively detect and identify the non-cooperative targets.

 

PHASE I:  Research state-of-the-art in NCTR algorithms. Identify multi-intelligent data sources for optimum NCTR. Develop prototype algorithms needed to fuse the multi-source data to improve NCTR capabilities.

 

PHASE II:  Develop fusion algorithms to improve NCTR, using optimum multiple source/sensor data. Insure the algorithms can operate in a net-centric environment and be easily integrated within a service oriented architecture.  Demonstrate these algorithms in an operationally representative scenario, provide measures of performance and evaluation results with final recommendations.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Hostile time-critical targets need to be detected/identified quickly, at long distance, day or night and under all weather conditions to increase combat effectiveness and reduce fratricide.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Civil systems will  be able to benefit for policing the entry of illegal immigrants, smugglers or terrorists into a country,  emergency response applications such as firefighting and EMT situations.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Introduction to Radar Target Recognition by Peter Tait

 

2. How to Develop a Robust Automatic Target Recognition Capability- Major Dane F. Fuller, Air Command And Staff College, Air University April 2008

 

3. Classification of the non-cooperative targets, Jozsef  Rohacs, Mathematical Problems in Engineering , Aerospace and Sciences, June 25-27, 2008, University of Genoa, Italy

 

4. Innovative testbed for developing and assessing air-to-air non-cooperative target identification algorithms, Proc. SPIE Vol. 1699

 

5. Database generation for Non-Cooperative Air Target Identification - IEEE Technology Seminar on High Resolution Imaging and Target Classification, 2006

 

KEYWORDS: Non-Cooperative Target Recognition, combat identification, multi-sensor/multi-source data fusion, algorithms, fratricide, Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR), Non-Cooperative Target Identification (NCTI)

 

 

 

AF093-042                           TITLE: Persistent Queries for Evolving Situational Awareness of Organization Entities

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:  Investigate and recommend automated tools to search, aggregate, manage data and profile qualifications for IT solutions to reduce lead time for acquisition professionals in the Market Research Phase and Source Selection Phase of the acquisition cycle.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Researching and aggregating data to assess an organizational entity is labor intensive. The current state of the art involves manual search, manual aggregation, and the data must be constantly refreshed. A new type of web application is needed that can continuously search for information sources, and aggregate and rank the results in a persistent database to provide an up-to-date profile of organizational entities. For instance, CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration), the Air Force System Engineering Process (SEP), ISO 9000 and related data can be used to profile the qualifications of Small Business and Large Business Contractors for implementing IT solutions. CMMI is a process improvement approach to provide guidance and help integrate separate organizational functions. The SEP process is a process that is more rigid than the CMMI, and ISO 9000 is a set of standards for quality management systems that monitors all key business processes, keeps records, and reviews output for defects or anomalies. This web application shall continuously monitor entities of interest, and intelligently alert users who are interested in tracking those entities. This requires a variety of new technical advances. Information must be harvested from multiple heterogeneous sources, and subsequently collated and filtered so that information about the entities of interest can be identified and consolidated. In particular, continuous monitoring requires that the application identify relevant changes in status over time. This requires understanding about which changes are relevant and significant, as opposed to irrelevant and insignificant data (i.e., noise). This will require the research and development of machine learning algorithms to autonomously and intelligently extract targeted data from information sources. High f-measure (the weighted harmonic mean of precision and recall) results (>95%) are necessary to ensure applicability to this domain. In effect, the key is to demonstrate situational awareness as it applies to the entities of interest. With respect to organizations implementing IT solutions, there are variety of types of data that must be collected and consolidated, such as relevant business licenses and CMMI capabilities. Intelligent processing is required to identify these capabilities and characterize an organization's changes over time. Identifying organizational structures at the lowest and the highest ends of the CMMI framework will streamline the acquisition strategy and market research process, and avoid government over-commitment and abandonment of processes during an emergency, quick-response situation.

 

PHASE I:  Research and develop an innovative approach to meet the SBIR Topic requirements, and assess its feasibility. Develop the initial design for a prototype and demonstrate its application. A proof of concept is required to demonstrate feasibility of approach.

 

PHASE II:  Develop the required technologies and prototype, per the Phase I design. Develop and demonstrate prototype tools and techniques for monitoring activities and trends of entities in domains of interest for Air Force users using real-world data supplied by the AFMC Small Business Office. A working prototype is required.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Rapid customization of monitoring activities and trends to a warfighters specific domain (Area of Responsibility), enabling more dynamic situation awareness throughout DoD entities.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Applications in the business intelligence area to continuously monitor initiatives from various sources, competitors'' pricing, background screening, and DoD contractors.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Tuchinda, R., Szekely, P., and Knoblock, C. A. 2008. Building Mashups by example. In Proceedings of the 13th international Conference on intelligent User interfaces (Gran Canaria, Spain, January 13 - 16, 2008). IUI ''08. ACM, New York, NY, 139-148.

 

2. Jansen, B. J., Spink, A., and Saracevic, T. 2000. Real life, real users, and real needs: a study and analysis of user queries on the web. Inf. Process. Manage. 36, 2 (Jan. 2000), 207-227.

 

3. Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo. "Linked: How Everything is Connected to Everything Else and What it Means for Business, Science, and Everyday Life," New York: Plume, 2003.

 

4. Watts, Duncan. "Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age." New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.

 

KEYWORDS: CMMI LEVEL, SYSTEM ENGINEERING PROCESS, ISO 9000, 9001, SMALL BUSINESS, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE, INTELLIGENCE, PERSISTENT WEB QUERIES

 

 

 

AF093-043                           TITLE: Mult-access Optical Communications

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop innovative components and/or algorithms leading to improved satellite laser communications.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The performance benefits of laser communications (as compared with RF communications) include increased channel capacity, reduced cross-channel interference, the elimination of cumbersome high-gain antennas, lower terminal SWAP (size, weight and power), and reduced LPI (Low Probability of Intercept) / LPD (Low Probability of Detection).  One of the biggest challenges facing the military's ability to leverage satellite optical communications for warfighter support lies in the ability to link multiple UAV (Unmanned Airborne Vehicle) terminals to a GEO (geosynchronous Earth Orbit) satellite in order to relay AISR (Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) data to one or more ground stations for review by analysts.  Challenges include achieving required performance, including pointing and tracking accuracy, data rate, acquisition time, reliability, SWAP, radiation tolerance, and operating temperature range.  The purpose of this topic is to support the development of components and/or algorithms that would lead to an on-orbit optical communications terminal capable of interfacing with multiple UAV platforms.The performance benefits of laser communications (as compared with RF communications) include increased channel capacity, reduced cross-channel interference, the elimination of cumbersome high-gain antennas, lower terminal SWAP (size, weight and power), and reduced LPI (Low Probability of Intercept) / LPD (Low Probability of Detection).  One of the biggest challenges facing the military's ability to leverage satellite optical communications for warfighter support lies in the ability to link multiple UAV (Unmanned Airborne Vehicle) terminals to a GEO (geosynchronous Earth Orbit) satellite in order to relay AISR (Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) data to one or more ground stations for review by analysts.  Challenges include achieving required performance including:

 

1)  Pointing and tracking accuracy ~ 1 microradians

2)  Data rate ~ 10 Gb/s threshold, 40+ Gb/s objective @1440-1500 nm

3)  Acquisition time ~ seconds

4)  Reliability: Mean Time to Failure (100% duty cycle and worst case environment) > 25 years

5)  SWAP ~ To be determined; think compact light weight.

6)  Radiation tolerance: 300krads total dose, heavy ions to linear energy transfer (LET)  60, and dose rate to 108 rads/sec.

7)  Operating temperature range: Between 200 degrees C and + 150 degrees C

 

Proposals addressing the development of electro-optical components and/or communications protocol algorithms supporting an on-orbit optical communications terminal, capable of simultaneous interfacing with several AISR platforms, are welcome. A model scenario would be simultaneous optical connectivity with four UAVs, altitude 13 to 22 kilometers, separated laterally by roughly 370 kilometers, plus auxiliary link(s) to more spatially removed locations on the order of 500 to 1000 kilometers.

 

Please consider/evaluate multi-access protocols including Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), Time Division Multiplexing (TDM), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and their hybridizations.  Transceiver/PAT (Pointing, Acquisition, and tracking) system is not limited to non-mechanical, electronic steered arrays, though it is desired to push the envelope on such technology.

 

PHASE I:  Phase I effort should address packaging issues (SWAP), and  demonstrate the feasibility of  proposed prototype design through modeling and simulation and/or, if capable, physical experiments to provide a convincing basis to proceed to Phase II.

 

PHASE II:  Develop prototype of multi-access laser terminal consistent with evolving communication satellite payload requirements.  Characterize for power consumption, output power, bandwidth, operating temperature range and radiation susceptibility from total dose and heavy ions.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Military satellite communications systems including Wideband Gapfiller System and it's successors. Transformational Satellite System could also benefit from this technology.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Terrestrial telecommunications could benefit from multi-access laser terminals for short range telecommunications.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  S. Serati and J. Stockley, "Advanced Liquid Crystal on Silicon Optical Phased Arrays," IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, 2002.

 

2.  S. DeWalt, K. Miller and J. Stockley, "Nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator's response to total-dose irradiation," to be published in Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5554 Photonics for Space Environments IX, 2004.

 

3.  Gagliardi and Karp, "Optical Communications," John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1995.

 

KEYWORDS: Multi-access, optical communications, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, laser communication, AISR, communication satellites

 

 

 

AF093-044                           TITLE: High Power Optical Transmitter for Satellite Communications

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop high power solid state IR (Infrared) optical transmitter suitable for satellite communications applications.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The current state-of-the-art in laser transmitter technology is mainly directed at fiber optic applications. High data rate free space laser communications requires much higher powers levels (on the order of several watts minimum). The only readily available technology in this area has been developed primarily for terrestrial applications, where high reliability and radiation hardness are of  minimal concern. High power optical transmitters are an enabling technology for laser communications and their availability promotes warfighter's mission effectiveness.   Given that the useful operating lifetime communications satellites can exceed twenty years, the optical transmitter reliability is crucial to cost effective delivery of bandwidth to the warfighter. This topic seeks to advance the state of the art of optical transmitters that support satellite communications, particularly with respect to reliability and output power.   Goals include wavelength between between 1400 and 1580 nm. CW source with either directly modulated Or external modulation capability, output power >10Watts, PAE (Power Added Efficiency) >60%, operating temperature range between +40 and +80 degrees Centigrade, total dose radiation tolerance > 1Mrad (Si), Single Event Effect tolerance from heavy ions >60MeV, and dose rate tolerance >1E9 rads/sec.

 

PHASE I:  The goal of the SBIR Phase I will be to develop and evaluate  high power optical transmitter technology concepts which are specifically optimized for very high reliability (on the order of 20 yrs MTBF) and radiation hardness to survive in low earth and geosynchronous orbit environments.

 

PHASE II:  Fabricate one or more prototype optical transmitters.  Characterize for power output, wavelength, mean time to failure, operating temperature range, and radiation tolerance.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Military applications include optical communications terminals aboard satellites for crosslinks and communications with UAV's (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles).

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications include satellite-based and terrestrial-based optical terminals.

 

REFERENCES:

1. E. Nava, et. al. "Diode pumped Nd:YAG laser transmitter for free-space optical communications" SPIE Conference 1417 Proceedings, Jan. 1991.

 

2. B.Buxton and R. Vahldieck, "Noise and Intermodulation Distortion Reduction in an optical Transmitter," IEEE MTT-S, pp. 1105-1108, 1994.

 

3. Johnston, A.H.; Miyahira, T.F.;'Radiation degradation mechanisms in laser diodes' Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on Volume 51,  Issue 6,  Part 2,  Dec. 2004 Page(s):3564 - 3571

 

KEYWORDS: Optical transmitter, power added efficiency, satellite communications, output power, laser communications, bandwidth

 

 

 

AF093-045                           TITLE: High Power Optical Amplifier (HPOAs) for Free Space

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop radiation tolerant, reliable, and power efficient High Power Optical Amplifier (HPOA) for SATCOM Laser Communications.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Tomorrow's warfighters will require significantly greater battlefield bandwidth to access all of the information necessary to maximize mission effectiveness.  Historically, SATCOM (Satellite Communications) has played a key role in providing bandwidth to remote battlefield locations and laser communications based SATCOM offers more than a three order of magnitude increase in communications capacity over existing RF (Radio Frequency) based SATCOM.   Since High Power Optical Amplifiers (HPOAs) are an enabling technology for laser communications, the availability HPOA's promotes warfighter's mission effectiveness.   Given that the useful operating lifetime communications satellites can exceed twenty years, HPOA reliability is crucial to cost effective delivery of bandwidth to the warfighter. This topic seeks to advance the state of the art of HPOA, particularly with respect to reliability and output power.   Goals include optical bandwidth of 1450 to 1560 nm, minimum gain of 20 dBm, Mean Time to Failure (100% duty cycle and worst case environment) consistent with 20 year Geosynchronous Earth Orbit mission; minimum output power 500 mW, noise < 3 dB, output power variation < .5 dB, isolation > 30 dB, optical input power (typ) 4 dBm, operating temperature range between +40 degrees C and +80 degrees C, and weight < 2 lbs.  The HPOA should be capable of withstanding >300krads total dose(Si), heavy ions to linear energy transfer (LET)  60 MEV, and dose rate to 1E8 rads/sec.

 

PHASE I:  Evaluate HPOA design options leading to enhanced reliability.  Design HPOA and simulate operation over a broad range of environmental and temperature ranges.

 

PHASE II: Fabricate one or more HPOA prototype(s) meeting objectives identified above.  Characterize for power output, wavelength, mean time to failure, operating temperature range, and radiation tolerance.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: HPOA's support optical crosslinks and above the weather communications with UAV's (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles).

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: HPOA's also support commercial SATCOM and terrestrial fiberoptics.

 

REFERENCES:

1. S.G. Lambert and W.L. Casey, Laser Communications in Space, Norwood, MA: Artech House, Inc., 1995

 

2. J.A. Abate, J.R. Simpson, et al., "Reliability concerns for double clad fiber lasers for space based laser communications," IEEE Trans.  MILCOM, vol. 2, pp. 936-942, (1997)

 

3. T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, and G. C. Valley, "Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: active and passive measurements," J. Lightwave Tech., vol. 19, pp. 1918-1923, Dec. 2001.

 

KEYWORDS: High Powered Optical Amplifier, Satellite Communications, Wavelength, Bandpass, Laser Communications, Output Power

 

 

 

AF093-046                           TITLE: Automated Adversarial Course of Action Model Generation and

Reasoning for Satellite Protection (commercial/military)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE: To develop a prototype and novel algorithms to dynamically reason and generate adversarial Course of Action models/playbooks and graphical node and link analysis of intended adversary counterspace actions.

 

DESCRIPTION: Current adversarial Course of Action development and analysis of intended and/or plausible adversary counterspace actions against military, civil, and commercial satellites requires a significant amount of manual interaction and data mining. There is a need for innovative model-based automated capability that uses operator-assistive visual displays and can quickly focus the space intelligence analyst's and Commercial space operator's attention on the most critical adversarial counterspace Course of Actions in a timely manner. Innovative research is needed to investigate intelligent reasoning techniques for dynamic adversarial space Course of Action model development and combining relational adversarial counterspace force and equipment data; digital ground, air, space, and cyber geospatial data; doctrinal behavior and space control models; and other data to support dynamic defensive counterspace decision support for Space Intelligence analysts and Commercial space operator's. In addition, current Course of Action model generation capabilities used to protect commercial and military assets in other domains (such as airborne platforms and computer information systems), needs to be included in this automated Space Course of Action prototype development to ensure a fully integrated adversarial counterspace threat picture. Also novel reasoning capability needs to be developed to allow the analyst to assess adversary counterspace intentions and tactics, techniques, and procedures in a timely manner for optimum defensive counterspace measures to be successful. There are a variety of technical disciplines and risks that are applicable to building a successful prototype as part of this innovative research effort. Risks include developing effective course of action modeling techniques, devising new inferential/deductive/inductive reasoning methods, and incorporating the most optimum link and node analytical and statistical based modeling approaches including:  Bayesian belief networks, artificial neural systems, graph theory, knowledge based system technologies, fuzzy theory, hidden markov models, and dempster-shafer theory. This innovative research needs to incorporate machine learning and reasoning techniques to model the current military, civil, and commercial space environment, describe and evaluate adversarial counterspace threat effects, and determination of plausible adversary counterspace courses of action that could threaten commercial and military space operations.

 

PHASE I:  Develop prototype/algorithms to dynamically generate adversarial course of action models and graphical analysis of plausible adversary counterspace actions against commercial satellites. Conduct feasibility demo. Provide validated set of performance measures, tools for utility assessment.

 

PHASE II:  Test/evaluate, characterize performance/utility, validate effectiveness of prototype/algorithms within a plausible adversarial counterspace scenario with potential threats to commercial satellites. Apply applications to support testing (eg. displays). Deliver prototype/algorithm description, procedures for use, test results, technology transition assessment.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE: 

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Space Intelligence analysts need to be able to dynamically reason and generate adversarial Course of Action models/playbooks and graphical node and link analysis of intended adversary counterspace actions to be able to quickly focus their attention on the most critical adversarial counterspace Course of Actions in a timely manner to ensure that military, civil, and commercial satellites are protected from current and future counterspace threats and will assist them in making provide timely, accurate satellite anomaly and threat assessments for satellite protection, service restoration.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial space operators will be able to dynamically reason and generate adversarial Course of Action models to be able to quickly focus their attention on the most critical adversarial counterspace Course of Actions in a timely manner to ensure to ensure that commercial satellites are protected from current and future counterspace threats. This innovative technology can be applied to a variety of commercial sectors such as corporate finance analytical decision making, actuarial science to access risk of events occurring, and the gaming industry.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Simon Banbury and Sebastien Tremblay, Situation Awareness: Theory and Application, 2004.

 

2. Loomis, E., Design Knowledge, Fairborn, OH; "STEED: satellite threat evaluation environment for defensive counterspace"; 2007 International Symposium on Collaborative Technologies and Systems (CTS), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ; May 2007.

 

3. Aleva, Denise L.; Miller, Janet E.; AFRL, WPAFB, OH; "Visualization of the battlespace: A cornerstone of modeling for anticipatory behavior"; Proceedings of the 2006 Winter Simulation Conference, WSC, Monterey, CA; Dec 2006.

 

4. Hilland, D.H.; Phipps, G.S.; Jingle, C.M.; Newton, G.; AFRL, Kirtland, NM; "Satellite threat warning and attack reporting"; 1998 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, Part vol.2 p. 207-17 vol.2; March 1998.

 

KEYWORDS: space, situation, awareness, threat, intelligence, preparation, battlespace, course of action, anticipate, anomalous, threat, automated, algorithm, predictive battlespace awareness, jamming, kinetic kill vehicle, directed energy, cyber attack, satellite anomaly

 

 

 

AF093-047                           TITLE: Automated Tools for Adversarial Threat Characterization

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop novel algorithms and automated tools to that provide reasoning capability to improve threat assessment of adversary actions and threats in time for effective Defensive Counter-Space (DCS) actions to be achieved.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Satellites and respective ground/control stations are key assets with critical vulnerability in our communications, surveillance and defense infrastructure. In Space Situational Awareness (SSA) there is a need to improve comprehension of space threats and RED space courses of action (COA) models. The types of threats against space assets include numerous anomalous conditions (non-intentional/ intentional):

1)  Environmental / System:

- Space weather events

- Bus Failures

- Debris

2)  Man-made disruption / destruction

- Directed Energy (Low/High power)

- RF jamming/damage

- Laser dazzling/damage

- Co-orbital Anti-Satellite (ASAT)

- Unintentional collisions

- Direct ascent (DA)

- Information Operations

 

There has been much work to increase space protection from an orbital perspective, but the efforts to date have not yielded tools from an intelligence gathering air/ground infrastructure perspective. It is not simply automated model generation of a threat, but the reasoning on the information generated from those models that is needed. For instance, if an automated learning model has indicated that there is a launch event about to occur in a certain time window, the next step involves the "so what" aspect, or the threat assessment piece. Initial questions one would ask: Is the launch a new foreign launch, or is it a direct assent weapon? Is it occurring in hours or days? What is the potential target? Etc.

 

This leads to the concept of "Automated Reasoning Techniques for Adversarial Space Threat Characterization."  Threats can be characterized by many different ways, for instance by dwell time and range in motion analysis or by the plume in a missile launcher. It is critical to assess the threat and capability of an adversary. Satellite weapons systems will not have the same capabilities, and it is important to tailor the response to the systems actual capabilities, not just possibilities.

 

For example, Intel on Country X indicates it is participating in R&D in missile building from its Web site and published papers. Country X has experience in building and selling solid rocket engines. Country X has seen purchasing material for warheads, and penetration aids such as metallic-coated balloons, aluminum chaff, and full-scale warhead decoys, etc. Satellite intel shows imagery of launch pads under construction. Unknown components on side (small missiles) detected from ground images. Etc.

Conclusion from intel Country X must be capable of a direct assent attack. However, since the launch area is still under construction the threat is not immediate (within hours).

 

The example provided is very simplistic. One can imagine simultaneous threats against BLUE-space assets occurring during an attack. Fusing information that spans across multi-Intel data (GMTI, SIGINT, IMINT, HUMINT, OSINT, Cyber, etc) is required. Many programs are developing automated tools to help the analyst provide Indications and Warning (I&W) Modeling from these fusion techniques. With complicated scenarios, machine reasoning can help the analyst assess the impact of RED space courses of action (COA) models. Analysts are human, and humans simply cannot process everything. Humans are prone to error and biases and rely on past experience.

 

Current analysis takes considerable time (sometimes months) and skill for analysts to prepare reports on Red COAS or discover patterns emerging across mulit-Int data. There is simply too much to weed through manually. In many cases, the behavior changes over time, may be insidious and avoid human detection until the change it is too late to take action. Event sequences and inter-relationships found in historical repositories or by forming hypotheses are currently based on doctrine and individual judgment. The need to have an understanding of likely actions requires a great deal of subject matter expertise in both analysis and the underlying analysis systems. Research is not intended to eliminate the analyst, but provide him/her with tools to improve the understanding of a situation and enable analysis to improve from weeks/months to minutes/hours. Analysis for decision processes must be adaptive and flexible. Tools should be SOA based.

 

Developers must keep in mind and consider the visual aspects for the operator when he/she would use the developed tools. Models/Tools should incorporate operator-assistive visual displays allowing quick focus the ISRD operator's attention on the most urgent space threats in a timely manner.

 

PHASE I:  Develop novel algorithms and automated reasoning tools to assess impact of

RED COA modeled behavior. Conduct feasibility demo. Document automation functions and procedures. Provide validated set of performance measures, tools for utility assessment.

 

PHASE II: Test & Evaluate/characterize performance/utility, validate effectiveness of adversarial space threat reasoning algorithms/tools within a plausible space operational scenario that includes adversarial

counter-space threats and data for testing purposes. Incorporate applications to support testing (eg. displays). Deliver algorithm description, procedures for use, test results, Phase III plan.

 

PHASE III/DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:

Algorithms and automated tools will provide increased space situation awareness and allow for more effective space control decisions to be achieved.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Algorithms/tools can be used in commercial space control facilities to provide operators with timely, dynamic, accurate space threat assessment capability for commercial space asset protection.

 

REFERENCES:  

1. Understanding Space, An Introduction to Astronautics, ed. Douglas Kirkpatrick, The Mc-Graw-hill Companies, Inc., 2005.

 

2. Pew, R.W. and Mavor, A.S. Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1998.

 

3. A Fascinating Country in the World of Computing: Your Guide to Automated Reasoning , by Larry Wos, with Gail Pieper, World Scientific, 2000.

 

4. J.W. Guan, and D.A. Bell, Evidence Theory and It''s Applications, vol 1. Studies in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, 1991.

 

5. Simon Banbury and Sebastien Tremblay, Situation Awareness: Theory and Application, 2004.

 

6. R.P.S. Mahler, Statistical Multisource-Multitarget: Information Fusion, Artech House, Massachusetts, 2007.

 

7. David L. Hall and James Llinas, Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, 2001.

 

8. Simon Banbury and Sebastien Tremblay, Situation Awareness: Theory and Application, 2004.

 

9. Aleva, Denise L.; Miller, Janet E.; AFRL, WPAFB, OH; "Visualization of the battlespace: A cornerstone of modeling for anticipatory behavior";

 

10. Proceedings of the 2006 Winter Simulation Conference, WSC, Monterey, CA; Dec 2006.

 

11.Hilland, D.H.; Phipps, G.S.; Jingle, C.M.; Newton, G.; AFRL, Kirtland, NM; "Satellite threat warning and attack reporting"; 1998 IEEE

 

12. Aerospace Conference Proceedings, Part vol.2 p. 207-17 vol.2; March 1998.

 

KEYWORDS: space, situation, awareness, threat, characterization, anticipate, anomalous, behavior, threat, automated, algorithm

 

 

 

AF093-048                           TITLE: Wi-Fi for Assured PNT and Integrity Verification

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Assess feasibilty and practicality of obtaining PNT( position, navigation and time) in GPS User Equipment (UE) utilizing both GPS and Wi-Fi while verifying the integrity of the solution.

 

DESCRIPTION:  GPS UE can experience degraded performance or ceases operation in a variety of possible operational environments, such as urban canyons, heavily forested areas, indoors, and underground.  To provide some continuous, accurate and reliable navigation capability to the Warfighter when GPS is degraded or of questionable reliability, a combination GPS /Wi-Fi Positioning may be adaptable to military methods of operation.  In urban canyons or forested areas GPS is more likely to be available overhead while Wi-Fi signals can be available for horizontal positioning and the combination signals could complement each other.  For triangulation using Wi-Fi, the Wi-Fi access point (AP) locations can be pre-surveyed using, for example, GPS or be readily available from the commercial infrastructure.  Wi-Fi Positioning is currently being proposed by some commercial vendors.  Wi-Fi can also be used to send time as an acquisition aid and satellite ephemeris as well as keys.  In the situation when enough GPS signals are available for PNT, their integrity may be in question due to possible spoofing.  In this case GPS signal integrity might be able to be verified with the Wi-Fi signals.

 

Develop an approach to insert Wi-Fi augmentation aid into the next-generation Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE).  It will be encouraged to partner with a Military GPS manufacturer to develop a military WiFi aided MGUE.  Prepare a technical report detailing the results of your Phase III efforts.   The Technical Report will contain detailed test results, refined cost estimates and implementation planning for integrating your solutions in a production military GPS receiver.

 

Determine the feasibility of Wi-Fi operation in spectrum close enough to GPS bands (rather than 2.4 and 5 GHz Wi-Fi bands) so that the same antenna and receiver frontend can be used.  If GPS is not available, determine the feasibility of using Wi-Fi for relative positioning of users (clients) based on using Wi-Fi timing to determine AP locations and user locations possibly using Wi-Fi in a mesh mode.  Assess the feasibility of using Wi-Fi to send time as an acquisition aid and satellite ephemeris as well as keys.  Also, perform trade-offs for using existing Wi-Fi infrastructure that could exist in hostile enemy territory.  In the case of adequate GPS signals, show that Wi-Fi can be used to check GPS signal integrity. The output of Phase I shall be a report that assesses the feasibility of using Wi-Fi to augment GPS if GPS is available or partially available as well as when GPS is not available.  The report shall also recommend procedures (CONOPS) and possible designs for GPS/Wi-Fi hardware/software.

 

The Contractor shall prepare a technical report describing the results of Phase II, including detailed test results of the developed prototype.

 

PHASE I:  Determine the feasibility of using Wi-Fi signals to augment GPS receiver user equipment (UE), specifically in cases of degraded or stressed GPS environments.  Assess the vulnerabilities associated with Wi-Fi using FHSS, DSSS or OFDM in military environments/situations such as jamming.

 

PHASE II:  Perform detailed design for combination GPS/Wi-Fi receivers/transmitters. Develop a prototype system initially based on a C/A software defined radio to demonstrate GPS PNT aiding with Wi-Fi; integrity checking under spoofing; and distribution of time, ephemeris, and situational awareness.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: GPS/Wi-Fi combinations can be used for military applications, such as enhanced PNT in indoors and urban canyon environments.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  GPS/Wi-Fi combinations can be used for civil and commercial applications, such as enhanced PNT in indoors and urban canyon environments to aid in emergency first responder situations.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  IEEE 802.11 specifications for Wi-Fi

 

2.  http://www.wi-fi.org

 

KEYWORDS: GPS user equipment, Position, Navigation, and Time (PNT), GPS integrity, Urban and Indoor PNT, PNT in forest canopies, Wi-Fi, Military GPS User equipment (MGUE)

 

 

 

AF093-049                           TITLE: Self-Shielding Systems and Attack-Surface Mutation

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Create a rapidly-shifting network architecture with agility and diversity to deter and prevent adversary reconnaissance and cyber attack planning activities and reduce effectiveness of attacks.

 

DESCRIPTION:  For the purpose of this topic, we define a complex system as a system that consists of multiple interconnected and independent/automated nodes. A Local Area Network is an example of such a complex system and so is an Ad-Hoc Sensor Network.  It is a given that such complex systems will come under adversarial cyber attack. The current static nature of systems and networks allows attackers to continually gather the intelligence, and perform the planning needed, to execute attacks at will. In order to effectively defend and shield our systems from attack, we must break this underlying assumption of their static nature. Introducing various means of agility through continuous modification and dynamic mutation can serve as the means for denying attackers the benefit of a static target. Likewise, if a successful attack should occur, the system must not only survive the attack, but also ensure minimal disruption of the services provided by the system by mutating or shifting into a form that can reduce attack effectiveness and prevent further or future attacks. This topic seeks to research and develop an architecture on which a complex system can be built, with automated mechanisms to continually and dynamically modify or morph the system into  secure operational modes both before and during attacks.  The proposed solution should make a clear distinction between developing an architecture with mechanisms, and simply developing mechanisms. For example, asymmetric routing, protocol mutations, hypervisor-like booting and migration (to name a few) are all relevant mechanisms, but without a system-level architecture that ties these mechanisms together in a cohesive and coordinated fashion, they are simply point solutions. The proposed solution should therefore include relevant mechanisms and techniques, an over-arching design of how each sub-system in the complex system should be configured and connected, as well as an organized control structure to ensure maximum security, survivability, and robustness.  The proposed solution should also make clear its robustness to internal vs. external threats as quantified by metrics to measure effectiveness (e.g., percentage of service degradation.) In addition, the information assurance trade-offs between the effectiveness metrics and usability metrics such as level of user transparency (e.g., number and types of changes to user systems and amount of user retraining) and performance impacts needs to be clear and explicit. The proposed solution should also address the issue of agility towards previously unknown threats that the architecture might not have been designed for in the first place.  Deviations from the above mentioned definition of a complex system and/or an architecture are allowed, given that appropriate motivations and explanations are provided as part of the proposal.  The proposal should also present all assumptions in an open and clear manner as to convey their importance to the success and effectiveness of the proposed solution.

 

PHASE I:  Define the complex system under investigation, metrics and methodologies. Research and prototype diversification and agility mechanisms. Design an architecture that utilizes the proposed techniques to ensure effectiveness, security, survivability, and transparency. Develop a proof of concept.

 

PHASE II:  Develop a working prototype of the proposed solution based on the successes from Phase I. Demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall architecture on commodity commercial-off-the-shelf systems and real-world applications.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Ensures complex systems (such as those on the GIG) are not only secure and survive, but also maintain an operational posture with maximum transparency through cyber attacks.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Protecting complex systems from attack and ensuring continued operation is not unique to the military. Both military and commercial enterprises utilize complex systems in their day-to-day operations.

 

REFERENCES:

1. reDuh TCP Redirection over HTTP http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rls=com.microsoft%3Aen-US&q=reDuh

 

2. How NAT Works Dynamic NAT and Overloading Examples http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk648/tk361/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094831.shtml

 

3. C. Clark; K. Fraser; S. Hand; J. G. Hansen; E. Jul; C. Limpack; I. Pratt and A. Warfield (2005), Live Migration of Virtual Machines. In Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation Volume 2. pp 273286.

 

4. A. Sardana; K. Kumar and R.C. Joshi (2007), Detection and Honeypot Based Redirection to Counter DDoS Attacks in ISP Domain in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Information Assurance and Security. pp 191-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IAS.2007.33

 

KEYWORDS: Attack-Surface-Modification, Attack-Surface-Mutation, Self-Modifying-Systems, Self-Protecting-Systems, Artificial-Diversity, Attack-Fight-Through, Attack-Prevention, Attack-Avoidance

 

 

 

AF093-050                           TITLE: Course of Action (COA) Analysis, Comparison and Selection for Effects Based Space Operations

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a software capability to enable operators to develop and analyze COAs and select best approach for creating/maintaining desired space effects supporting on-going or planned operations.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Space Superiority can be defined as the integration of space situational awareness (SSA) and command and control (C2) in order to more effectively task space capabilities. A critical capability associated with space C2 is the ability to develop and analyze alternative courses of action (COAs) based on SSA and other intelligence sources and clearly define the cost and benefit associated with each option. A mixed initiative, machine assisted COA development and analysis tool will allow for more alternatives to be evaluated quickly and better enable commanders to plan, direct, coordinate, synchronize, and control operations of assigned forces versus the human intensive approach used today. The tool developed in this effort will support the operator in providing a capability for developing and evaluating COAs. The system will aid the operator in determining the feasibility of the plan/COA to achieve the commanders intent. The focus of this effort is to enable the ability to quickly respond to changing dynamics of a crisis situation through timely COA creation and selection, be those crises environmental or adversary threats such as electromagnetic interference (EMI), laser dazzling, direct assent anti-satellite (DA-ASAT), and others. Key to this proposal is to effectively and intelligently utilize all options whether they are entirely in the space enterprise or collaborating with theater commanders to mitigate or eliminate the threat to delivery of space effects.  Todays COAs are primarily static or template driven responses and are adequate for day-to-day operations, but are insufficient in dealing with new situations that are evolving rapidly.  Novel approaches that will allow operators to easily interact with the developed capability and produce credible results while managing uncertainty are encouraged. Multiple approaches such as game theory, causal analysis, evolutionary algorithms, modeling and simulation wargaming, or potential hybrid combinations of these or other approaches, coupled with modern visualization techniques, are examples of methods that could meet the desired end state. These methods have their respective strengths and weaknesses and this effort strives to determine the most appropriate and effective approach that meets the following metrics. These key metrics include efficient population of model parameters, agility to handle different scenarios, and understandable results clearly showing cost/benefit of each COA being developed and analyzed. As part of the proposal, a discussion on how the goodness (timeliness, survivability, minimal collateral damage, etc.) of the COAs being developed could be measured or validated is encouraged. Examples of this validation could be by such means as subject matter expert review and validation and/or physics based modeling and simulation analysis. Finally, based on the effectiveness of the solution developed, operators should have the ability to experiment with different scenarios and develop a library of viable options.  This would allow for more proactive verses reactive planning and speeding response time considerably as results have already been vetted and approved by decision makers and only need to be tailored to the specific situation.

 

PHASE I: Define relevant use cases to assist analysis and identification of potential approaches for COA development. Perform trade study to select and recommend best solution. Develop a design concept or demonstration of selected capability.

 

PHASE II: Develop, demonstrate, and validate a prototype in a relevant scenario which will be defined with AFRL.  The prototype will clearly demonstrate the ability to meet the desired capabilities and defined metrics in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE: MILITARY APPLICATION: Military applications include the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), Air and Space Operation Centers (AOCs) and other command and control environments.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Commercial applications include any vendor interested in maximizing use of low density, high demand assets that will impact planned or ongoing operations such as emergency management and response.

 

REFERENCES:

1. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/5th_ICCRTS/papers/Track2/018.pdf

 

2. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/10th_ICCRTS/CD/papers/073.pdf

 

3. http://sysarch.gmu.edu/main/media/publications/docs/Wagenhals2003.pdf

 

KEYWORDS: course of action, effects based operations, command and control, planning, decision making, C2, COA, mission planning

 

 

 

AF093-051                           TITLE: Cyber Behavioral Attribution across Networks and Workstations

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Define, develop, and demonstrate innovative approaches for determining "good" (approved) versus "bad" (disallowed/subversive) activities, including insiders and/or malware.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Malware inherits a level of trust when it is resident and undetected on networks and information systems.  It can be introduced through many vectors including, but not limited to, software and hardware vulnerabilities, poorly configured networks, malicious insiders, and legitimate users who unintentionally create infection vectors through what can be considered regular system usage (e.g., visiting an infected Web site during research) [1].  The Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance R&D [2] identifies insider cyber attacks as some of the most damaging attacks to critical national security infrastructure. The private sector, where financial institutions maintain critical financial records, and corporations that store priceless intellectual property have similar concerns. Unfortunately, current cyber security devices are focused on repelling threats by way of predefined signatures. Current techniques that have been designed to address disallowed or subversive activities only address the most blatant violations of policy or the grossest deviations from accepted behavior.  Additionally, most systems concentrate their resources on repelling attacks at the network borders with little attention devoted to threats that evade detection and/or emanate from within. As such, there currently exists a great need across the Federal, military, and private sectors for a viable and robust means to provide near-real-time detection, correlation and attribution of network attacks, by content or pattern, without use of reactive previously-seen signatures. Many times, these trusted entities have detailed knowledge about the currently-installed host and network security systems, and can easily plan their activities to subvert these systems. There also exists a need for creating and maintaining known user A and/or healthy network B baselines against which to compare state and render likelihood of user compromise and/or likelihood of malicious network activity heuristics.  Other high level requirements for such a system include the ability to fuse and correlate cross-layer information from multiple cyber sensors, the ability to compare activities with policy, rules, permissions, roles, accepted behaviors, etc., and the ability to locate, physically and logically, the source of disallowed/subversive activity and malware. Finally, the solution must provide/facilitate upward reporting to AOC, C2 and joint command structures, or similar hierarchies in non-military applications.

 

PHASE I:  Develop a prototype algorithm that incorporates heuristic analysis for determining "good" (approved) versus "bad" (disallowed/subversive) activities, including insiders and/or malware.  Propose an architecture and perform a feasibility analysis of the algorithm and architecture.

 

PHASE II:  Implement the best approach from Phase I in an experimental hardware/software environment, representative of AF cyber infrastructure. Correlate Phase I analysis with experimental results. Analyze the prototype system with respect to performance, scalability, cost, security, and vulnerability.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: This effort is applicable to all cyber resources used by the Services and the Intelligence Community.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  All commercial networks and cyber infrastructures are subject to disallowed and subversive activities. This effort is applicable to all private, commercial, industry and civilian gov't infrastructure.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Brackney, Richard C., Anderson, Robert H., Understanding the Insider Threat, March 2004.  www.rand.org

 

2. "Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development," National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) Cyber Security and Information Assurance (CSIA) Interagency Working Group (IWG), http://www.nitrd.gov/pubs/csia/csia_federal_plan.pdf, April 2006, esp. pp. 39-41.

 

KEYWORDS: Attack Detection, Attribution, Authentication, Identity, Verification, Insider Threat, Behavior analysis

 

 

 

AF093-053                           TITLE: Automatic Artificial Diversity for Virtual Machines

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Apply artificial diversity techniques in a virtual machine environment to thwart automated attacks.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Large-scale adoption of homogeneous computing environments, such as the Federal Desktop Computer Configuration (FDCC) creates significant risk of wide-spread and rapidly-executed disabling attacks. On the other hand, virtual machines are becoming increasingly popular and pose an interesting opportunity for security researchers to implement traditionally low level, as low as hardware, constructs and solutions in software. This topic seeks to develop artificial diversity and agility techniques for application in a virtual machine environment. Diversity techniques such as instruction set randomization, address randomization, functional transformations, virtual hardware transformations etc., when applied directly to either the hypervisor or the guest operating systems will be a good complement to sandboxing techniques such that one guest operating system, or even the processes within guest operating systems, cannot affect other guest operating systems nor the host system. These techniques are also expected to be applicable in single guest computing environments as an additional layer of protection, assuring that a single attack method cannot be used to target an entire enterprise consisting of homogeneous computing platforms. Since one of the biggest allures of virtualization technologies, especially full-virtualization, is the ability to run operating systems and software with minimal changes, this property should be preserved such that the new artificially diverse virtualization technology can continue transparently supporting current guest systems with little, if any, change.  It is also essential that the advantages provided by such diversity and agility techniques do not introduce new vulnerabilities nor does it hinder the ability for users to complete their missions.  Proposed approaches must address security-relevant aspects associated with the introduction of such powerful diversity and agility mechanisms into the computing environment.  Trade-off assessments based on sound metrics should be conducted to help understand and quantify to the extent possible the security and survivability benefits, as well as the potential performance and functionality impacts of various types, levels, and frequency of diversity/agility mechanisms.  Consideration may also be given to not only denying the attacker a static, well-understood target, but also to leverage the diversity and agility mechanisms in order to actively present confusing or misleading results during system/network probing and reconnaissance activities.  The challenge with such approaches is to maintain the transparency and utility of the systems and networks to authorized users. The proposed solution must be open and modular enough so it can be readily integrated into and interoperate with other diversification and agility architectures at host and network layers.

 

PHASE I:  Identify applicable diversification techniques, determine the effectiveness and transparency metrics. Develop an initial proof of concept. Proposals will be evaluated not only based on effectiveness and security, but also on the amount of change necessary, if any, to guest operating systems.

 

PHASE II:  A prototype should be developed that demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed solution in automatically and securely diversifying computing environments, while maximizing user transparency.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Enable the application of military operational concepts such as concealment and maneuver in the operation of both large-scale enterprise and tactical-level networks.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Reduce or eliminate susceptibility of systems to automated attacks such as viruses, Trojans, worms, and botnets caused by wide-spread adoption of homogeneous computing environments.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Ana Nora Sovarel, David Evans, Nathanael Paul. "Wheres the FEEB? The Effectiveness of Instruction Set Randomization" http://www.usenix.org/events/sec05/tech/full_papers/sovarel/sovarel.pdf

 

2. Mantadelis Theofrastos, Du Xiaodai. "Software Security through Targetted Diversification" http://www.cosic.esat.kuleuven.be/publications/thesis-132.pdf

 

3. Alkabani, Y.; Koushanfar, F. "N-Variant IC Design: Methodology and Applications" In Proceedings of  2008 Design Automation Conference. Anaheim, CA. June 8-13. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=04555876

 

4. "Bypassing PaX ASLR protection, " http://www.phrack.org/issues.html?issue=59&id=9#article

 

5.  Zovi, D. "SECURITY APPLICATIONS OF DYNAMIC BINARY TRANSLATION" http://www.sandia.gov/iorta/docs/ddz_thesis.pdf

 

KEYWORDS: virtualization,hypervisor,diversity,diversification,instruction-set-randomization, attack-prevention, attack-avoidance

 

 

 

AF093-054                           TITLE: Securing personal mobile devices for use as digital proxies

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Research, develop, and investigate security technology and/or techniques which can be integrated into next-generation personal mobile to provide enhanced protection against information intercept or malicious corruption of data. The solution must be innovative and/or creative while introducing negligible adverse impact to the device and the intended purpose of that device.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Personal mobile devices, such as the iPhone, BlackBerry, and the newly-emergent category of Mobil Internet Devices (exemplified by Aigo P8860, COMPAL JAX10, etc) represent a substantial change in mobile device technology as well as capability over previous PDA (personal digital assistant, i.e. Palm Pilot and similar). These devices provide significant portable computing and previously unavailable data communication capabilities. Availability and affordability of these devices is also expanding with their accompanying proliferation. These devices frequently incorporate integrated accelerometers, GPS, and ability to take advantage of next generation of high speed worldwide ubiquitous connectivity offered by cellular technology. These attributes make it possible for the personal mobile device to act as a users digital proxy. They could, for example, report information such as the users current location, motion, general activity, and in the future biometrics (such as blood pressure, temperature, etc).

 

Such digital proxies could be utilized by the military as a way to better monitor and incorporate the warrior at the tactical edge into the net-centric battlefield. The area of digital proxies, via personal mobile devices, is an expanding field of research, yet to escape academic circles. It is clear that one of the key elements of any future military, government, or corporate utilization of such technology will be the integration of a robust and unobtrusive security system. The motivation for communication security is readily apparent, as the devices transmit radio frequency for their ubiquitous network connectivity. Any radio transmission is inherently subject to intercept, hostile or otherwise, by its very nature. Additionally, due to their small size and portability they are also subject to being misplaced, dropped, lost, or stolen. Potential compromise of data retained internally exists. This is why the security solution must be complete and address transmitted and stored information. Development of a suitable security solution will demand creativity and innovation as the resultant approach must be viable and at the same time it must not add significantly to the small devices computational load or otherwise degrade device functionality and responsiveness. Personal mobile devices, while incorporating increasingly powerful computers, simultaneously are fitted with software applications, integrated hardware subsystems, etc which must be serviced by the afore-mentioned computer. This is the reason for the requirement of a minimally intrusive innovative approach to device and communication security. The concern for security is not restricted to the mitigation of intercepted communication but also extends to security of data resident within the device itself in the event it is captured (military/law-enforcement scenario) or lost (civil/identity-theft scenario). There are data encryption techniques available for laptop and desktop computers. These may be suitable for use in a personal device. The solid-state mass storage system in a personal device may not be compatible with those techniques or the computational workload may be excessive for the personal device.  Similarly, the simple addition of available wireless network encryption hardware is undesirable as battery run-time is yet another issue that manufacturers and users are faced with. Added hardware will shorten device runtime and increase frequency of recharge. Thus, in addition to an innovative approach to computation and algorithm design to avoid adverse impact to the device intended purpose, minimal addition of hardware is required to avoid noticeable reduction in battery life as well as increase in physical size of the device. Solutions will require trade off analyses to identify a practical blend of software and hardware based security measures. Trade studies may include but are not limited to: added computational workload, increased size/weight of the device, reduced battery run time, compatibility with transmission infrastructure, etc. Additional  research and/or literature search is necessary to ensure development will result in a suitable solution and does not duplicate present work. however this work must remain unclassified.

 

PHASE I:  Investigate digital proxy technology and develop an assessment of where and how security might be integrated into the personal mobile device architecture. Investigation may include, but is not limited to, software and hardware assessments and approaches, as well as surveying emerging devices. 

 

PHASE II:  Develop and demonstrate a prototype system in a realistic environment. Conduct testing to prove feasibility over extended operating conditions.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: A robust security system for personal mobile devices would be of value to corporate, government, and military consumers.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  A robust security system for personal mobile devices would be of value to corporate, government, and military consumers.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Want, Roy; Pering, Trevor, System Challenges for Ubiquitous & Pervasive Computing, ICSE 05, May 15-21, 2005

 

2. Want, Roy, You are Your Cell Phone, IEEE Pervasive Computing, April - June 2008

 

KEYWORDS: Mobile devices, Information Security, Information Integrity, Digital Proxy, Mobile Internet Device (MID), Wireless network (WiFi)

 

 

 

AF093-055                           TITLE: Net-Centric, Mixed-Initiative Plan Representation

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop and demonstrate key technological enablers for mixed-initiative defense of cyber networks in a distributed, collaborative, and highly dynamic environment.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Cyber attacks take milliseconds. Implementing defenses against these attacks can take hours, days, or weeks. A fully automated response to every cyber attack is currently impractical and raises both social and political issues about humans being out of the loop (e.g. computer control of a nuclear reactor). An alternative approach is to augment the human ability to react to cyber events rapidly (i.e. recognize the cyber event and quickly develop a defensive plan). The onset of the cyber domain complicates planning operations due the technical expertise required to understand the issues. It is highly likely that the technical skills required are not all resident in one place, and that a network of dispersed experts is required to plan a robust defense. An analogy of the cyber domain where the knowledge required exceeds a single individuals need is the medical field with many different specialties.

A mixed-initiative planning (MIP) system is one in which both humans and machines collaborate in the development and management of plans. The objective of MIP is to leverage the syntheses of the strengths of both human and machines for the building of better and faster plans.

 

[1] Most current MIP research has focused on a single human interacting with a single machine in a synchronous fashion, and with application to the physical domain (e.g. logistics planning). A network-centric approach is well suited to the cyber domain which requires multiple humans interacting with multiple machines, each with their own areas of expertise.

 

[2] The promise of developing MIP in a network centric environment is that collaborating agents (human and/or machines) can much more effectively build plans by working closely together than working separately. The concept of diversity of knowledge and technical expertise cannot be underestimated: if everyone knows the same set of facts, sees things the same way, and has the same experiences and expertise, then there is nothing new that will result from sharing and collaboration... It requires diversity to create the potential for value added.

 

[3]The key challenge in this topic is how distributed humans and machines plan for a common goal, often in parallel, while negotiating over tasks or resources given complex interdependencies. Current technologies center around plan representations

 

[4] and ontologies.

 

[5] For both these approaches, researched has assume localized, sequential planning which does not meet the requirements of cyber operations in a network-centric environment. The three key technical risks, not limited to, are 1) Multi-phase commitment, 2) Scaling issues, and 3) Network issues. Current multiphase commitment protocols are limited to a two-phase commitment (either to commit or to roll back a transaction depending on the simple result of failure or success). While this works well for database transactions, it is insufficient for complex and dynamic planning environments with multiple actors and actions that can''t always be represented by a binary true/false. A distributed planning system would also have much higher transaction rates than current single actor, sequential planning models. Methods need to be developed to not only scale to simultaneous distributed planning, but also account for network latency (and possible failures).

 

This research topic involves how multi-agent systems, where an agent can be multiple humans and machines, can conduct complex planning in real time with the additional requirement of doing so while executing plans (i.e., distributed continuous planning). Technologies are needed to extend plan representations and/or ontologies to handle distributed, simultaneous planning. These technologies must be robust enough to demonstrate the ability to plan collaboratively while: 1) identifying potential conflicts, constraints, and/or boundaries within a plans components, difficult both because of the exponential nature of constraint interaction and the need to predict where the interactions might occur; 2) developing links between and among plans and actions, complex due to the critical balance between component sequencing a challenging scheduling task  and the achievement of key objectives with limited resources; 3) allowing multiple agents to work on portions of the plan (i.e., plan fragments) simultaneously, a highly complex coordination task that is poorly understood in mixed-initiative environments; and 4) supporting simultaneous planning, execution, plan repair, and revision, a nearly intractable problem in the face of highly uncertain and dynamic operating environments.

 

PHASE I:  1) Design and develop a methodology for multi-agent distributed planning in a representative cyber scenario based on the mixed-initiative paradigm, 2) A trade-off analysis, and 3) Proof-of-feasibility demonstration of key enabling concepts.

 

PHASE II:  1) Develop and demonstrate a prototype that implements the Phase I methodology, 2) Identify appropriate performance metrics for evaluation, and 3) Detail the plan for the Phase III effort.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Computer and network defenses for the GIG and all other IT systems. DoD components and Department of Homeland Security can benefit from this research.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The growing importance of the Internet and associated technologies to the nation’s economic well-being and national security is dependent on cyber defense. Homeland security where emergency response planning must be across agencies and government/non-government organizations.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Burstein, M. and D. McDermott: 1986, Issues in the development of human-computer mixed-initiative planning. In: Gorayska and Mey (eds.): In Search of a Humane Interface. North Holland, pp. 285-303.

 

2. Alberts, D.S., Garstka, J.J., Stein, F.P., (2000) Network Centric Warfare: Developing and Leveraging Information Superiority, CCRP Publ., 2nd Edition (Revised). Aug 1999, Second Print Feb 2000.

 

3. Alberts, D, R. Hayes. 2007, Planning: Complex Endeavors, CCRP Publ.

 

4. R. Adam Pease, Core Plan Representation, Object Model Working Group 1998.

http://home.earthlink.net/~adampease/professional/

http://projects.teknowledge.com/CPR2/Reports/CPR-RFC4/

 

5. JC3IEDM, or Joint Consultation, Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model.

http://www.mip-site.org/publicsite/04-Baseline_3.0/JC3IEDM-Joint_C3_Information_Exchange_Data_Model/HTML-Browser/index.html

 

KEYWORDS: Plan representationCollaborative planningDistributed planningDistributed decision making

 

 

 

AF093-056                           TITLE: Spectral Imaging of Space Objects

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Conceive & develop an innovative spectral imaging sensor capability that can aid in the identification and characterization of space objects for improved Space Situational Awareness (SSA).

 

DESCRIPTION:  Spectral imaging capabilities would provide the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) mission a comprehensive identification of Resident Space Objects (RSOs) in the battle space, based on discrimination by spectral content. The identify and characterize functions of SSA contribute to an understanding of an objects military significance and to an assessment of its potential capabilities and posture (or attitude). The use of the technology aboard a space platform would enable posture assessment through proximity observations. Spectral imaging techniques, which have the capability to quantify an object''s spectral (as a function of wavelength) energy distribution, have been applied to these functions with some success in the past. There remains, however, a need to explore the level to which spectral technologies can further improve system performance, particularly in the context of existing ground-based SSA platforms with their limitations on observational time needed for achieving adequate signal to noise. Differentiation of close-proximity resident space objects (RSO''s) should be possible on the basis of the composite spectral signature, and objects that become closely spaced by maneuvering may later be differentiated as a result of their individual spectral signatures, thereby assisting with the tracking function of SSA.  The characterization of objects after maneuvers and of uncorrelated targets (UCTs), and the elimination of cross-tagged deep-space RSOs, are key areas addressed by this SBIR.

 

Existing SSA systems should be considered in any proposed approach -- the Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) or Moron Optical Surveillance System, for example, as well as any other system with a similar mission function. Proposed R&D should address new capabilities made possible for existing SSA systems. The successful proposer will formulate spectral imaging approach that is likely to enhance operational capability in the appropriate environment.

 

A proposed technology might also provide spatially-resolved spectra on a space-based platform performing proximity observations. Its use for ground-based observations of distant, spatially-unresolved targets remains a primary objective, for which any imaging capability would translate into improved acquisition capability the detected source could appear within the extent of one or possibly two spatial dimensions.

 

The SBIR performed under this topic would provide novel ideas for achieving spectral data in support of space object identification and for making use of existing system (e.g., GEODDS) collection optics. Although there are risk issues in designs that properly interface with existing collection optics, novel approaches for controlling pupil effects and field reimaging go far in mitigating these.  Advanced concepts require significant amounts of research & development to achieve high observing efficiencies over the many spectral bins of spectral imaging.  The selected wavelength dispersion or selection mechanism should be as efficient as possible, to allow collection of high signal to noise spectral images over minimum timescales.  The demonstration of a single optical package aboard an appropriate platform as part of the Phase II SBIR effort would be a valuable means of concept validation. A key aspect of the demonstration would be providing evidence for increased situational awareness in the form of characterization and identification.

 

PHASE I:  Perform R&D on novel spectral imaging approaches, and explore innovative design concepts for a spectral imaging sensor system that supports situational awareness in a flexible manner. The use of existing surveillance sensor fore-optics is allowed; however, assumptions should be explicit. Select a preferred approach and assess its feasibility.

 

PHASE II:  Provide concept proof of principle by constructing & demonstrating the operation of a prototype spectral sensor system for SSA. Complete a preliminary assessment of performance through modeling and simulation (if appropriate). The results of Phase II should be a detailed sensor system design suitable for integration on a specified platform, and proof-of-concept hardware.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Such sensor systems will be used to monitor the local space environment, to differentiate close-proximity resident space objects having composite spectral signature, and to maintain track on objects that become closely spaced.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Extensive applications are found for commercial remote sensing (e.g., crop health),  sensing of civil system satellites, and other security and surveillance system applications that would exploit spectral sensing as a means of discrimination.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Fact Sheet: Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS), Air Force Space Command, Public Affairs Office, Peterson AFB, CO.

 

2. Fact Sheet: Space Situational Awareness Integration Office, Air Force Space Command, Public Affairs Office, Peterson AFB, CO.

 

3. Whelan, D., et al., A network-centric approach to space situational awareness, Defense Transformation and Network-Centric Systems, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6249, 62490E (2006).

 

4. Robinson, I., and A. Klier, "Wideband Hyperspectral Imaging for Space Situational Awareness," The Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, p. E25 (Wailea, Maui, Hawaii, September 10-14, 2006).

 

5. Payne, T. E., et al., Analysis of Multispectral Radiometric Signatures from Geosynchronous Satellites, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4847, pp 332-336 (2002).

 

KEYWORDS: Space Situational Awareness, spectral sensing, hyperspectral, space object identification, electro-optics, spectral sensing, sensor systems, data fusion

 

 

 

AF093-057                           TITLE: High Frequency (HF) Over the Horizon Radar (OTHR) Metric Accuracy

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop and demonstrate innovative techniques for geolocating over the horizon radar targets using optimal combinations of ionospheric measurements and improved ionospheric modeling.

 

DESCRIPTION:  High frequency (HF) over the horizon radar (OTHR) uses the refractive properties of the earths ionosphere for the detection of objects at very long ranges. The range and azimuth accuracy of detected targets depend strongly on ionospheric densities between the radar and the target. The geolocation accuracy of current-generation OTHR varies between about ten and 40 kilometers in both latitude and longitude, depending on ionospheric conditions. Improvements in geolocation capability over the last twenty years have followed improvements in our ability to measure and model the ionosphere between the radar and the target. Typical ionospheric measurements used for this purpose have included vertical incidence soundings at the radar site and backscatter soundings (originally used only for frequency management). Over the last twenty years there has been an explosion in the number of different types of ionospheric measurements that can be inexpensively and routinely made. In addition to vertical incidence and backscatter soundings, total electron content measurements can now be made through processing of dual frequency Global Positioning Systems (GPS) measurements of phase and group delay. Total electron content measurements can also be obtained from passively monitoring multi-frequency beacons hosted on many low earth orbiting satellites. Additionally, oblique ionospheric soundings can be made between any two points within HF range of each other, ideally in an OTHR field of view. While none of these different measurement techniques can independently specify ionospheric densities well enough to provide improved OTHR geolocation, intelligent combinations should provide improved OTHR target geolocation when they are used in a tailored ionospheric assimilation model. Novel techniques are sought for augmenting the vertical and backscatter soundings currently employed in OTHR with these kinds of additional ionospheric data sources to provide an improved ionospheric modeling capability for enhanced OTHR geolocation. The proposed method should include facility for applying the resultant ionosphere model to transform radar-space coordinates (e.g., delay and azimuth) to geographical coordinates. Success will be judged according to the amount of miss distance reduction between radar sensed geographical coordinates of reference targets and those same targets known locations.  Addition of ionospheric measurements beyond vertical incidence and backscatter ionograms should result in smaller target miss distances.  OTHR has the potential to address the need for persistent, wide-area surveillance of North America. Reduction of geolocation errors by 50% would provide a significant increase in operational OTHR capability. The possibility of further improvements in accuracy is of interest as well, along with the incremental cost and complexity to achieve the performance improvements. The approach to improved geolocation accuracy should consider both the performance improvements achievable as well as the practicality of implementation. While initially interested in the suitability of the proposed approach to North America, the ability to adapt the solution to different sites is important for the future.

 

PHASE I:  Develop and evaluate the accuracy/benefit of using an advanced ionospheric model and combinations of ionospheric measurements to improve geolocational accuracy of HF over the horizon radar. Demonstrate payoff for adding different ionospheric sensors to vertical incidence and backscatter sounders.

 

PHASE II:  Develop prototype OTHR geolocation system using optimal combinations of ionospheric measurements and an improved ionospheric model. Estimate radar geolocation performance using ionospheric measurements and simulated or measured radar data. Develop live test recommendations for Phase III.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  OTHR has the potential to address wide area surveillance performance shortfalls. Improved real-time characterization of the ionosphere will provide for significantly improved OTHR target geolocation.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The HF spectrum is widely used for communications. Improved ionosphere models provide insight into HF communication system performance and improve communications reliability and spectrum management.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Fridman, S. V. and L. J. Nickisch, Generalization of ionospheric tomography on diverse data sources: Reconstruction of the three-dimensional ionosphere from simultaneous vertical ionograms, backscatter ionograms, and total electron content data, Radio Science, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 1129-1139, September-October 2001.

 

2. Fridman, S. V., L. J. Nickisch, M. A. Hausman, and Mark Aiello, Real-time reconstruction of the three-dimensional ionosphere using data from a network of GPS receivers, Radio Science, Vol. 41, RS5S12, doi:10.1029/2005RS003341, 2006.

 

3.  Barnes, Rod I., Braendler, S A., Coleman, C. J., Gardiner-Garden, R. S., and Hoang, T. V., Analysis of data driven parametric models of the vertical ionospheric profile for use in oblique propagation studies, Radio Science, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 1215-1226, July-August 1998

 

4.  Anderson, Richard H. and Krolik, Jeffrey L., Track Association for Over-the-Horizon Radar With a Statistical Ionospheric Model, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 50, No. 11, November 2002

 

KEYWORDS: over the horizon radar, ionospheric propagation, ionospheric sounders, near vertical incidence sounders, OTHR geolocation, total electron content

 

 

 

AF093-058                           TITLE: Distributed Satellite Resource Management for Mission Operations

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  To develop and demonstrate automated resource management (RM) technologies that perform management of defensive counterspace (DCS) and Space Situational Awareness (SSA) surveillance networks.

 

DESCRIPTION:  There has been a focus in recent years towards applying data fusion technologies for the detection and discrimination of spacecraft threats. The corollary to threat assessment, which has been largely unexplored for space, are algorithms to perform autonomous intelligent tasking of assets. As an example the Space Surveillance Network is a complex multi-variable network responsible for monitoring close to 20,000 objects.  Optimization of this process would provide tremendous benefit to the problem of collision avoidance.  A potential solution to this problem is to develop algorithms that would fit within the Joint Directors Laboratory (JDL) fusion model.  The complement of the JDL fusion model is the resource management (RM) model that allows for formal management of each of the JDL fusion levels. Based upon a-priori information the RM can provide automated tasking, prioritized response options, or decision aids for user response tasking. These response options need to be more sophisticated than simple checklist-based courses of action in service today because multiple simultaneous events may necessitate non-linear combinations of time-phased responses. Automated RM should significantly reduce the time needed to appropriately respond during periods of space warfare or possible adverse conditions. RM will be driven by the specific individual satellite mission objectives (i.e., Level 3 Management outputs). These will be used to drive Level 2 resource relationship (e.g., resource conflicts and synergisms) management, Level 1 independent resource scheduling, and Level 0 signal management. This proposal seeks to develop prototype levels 0, 1 and 2 RM algorithms for satellite defense, then demonstrate the RM approach is general enough to be successfully applied to other missions. The resources considered in this effort are satellite defensive commanding (e.g., notifying the appropriate command, closing shutters, changing subsystem operating modes), maneuvering the satellite, modifying the communications, processing management, and sensor and data collection management.  Furthermore, since, a Space Operations Squadron (SOPS) is not currently authorized to directly task (i.e., manage the resources of) a space surveillance network (SSN) unit to increase surveillance of a resident space object of interest within a specified distance of a protected satellite.

 

PHASE I:  Develop and demonstrate level 0 and 1 RM prototypes specifically tailored to the problem of space surveillance network control optimization.  If feasible the phase I effort should address interaction with the Air Force Satellite Control Network.

 

PHASE II:  Refine Phase I results for more sophisticated threat conditions that could occur in multi-satellite constellations or cross-constellation/cross-network RM situations. The RM capability will be integrated with level 0-3 abnormality event fusion using the satellite as a sensor (SAS), space environment data, orbital proximity, and intelligence data sources.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: The target application is use within AOC''''s and more specifically within the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). A good target application would be the Mission Critical Reporting System (MCRS).

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  NASA agencies have resource management requirements that are similiar to those within the DoD Space domain. NASA has a large number of space and ground assets that must be managed efficiently.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Steinberg, A, and C. Bowman, Rethinking the JDL Data Fusion Levels, NSSDF JHAPL, June 04.

 

2. Bowman, C. L., The Dual Node Network (DNN) Data Fusion and Resource Management (DF&RM) Architecture, AIAA Intelligent Systems Conference, Chicago, September 20-22, 2004.

 

KEYWORDS: Resource Management, Response Management, Defensive Counterspace, SSA, Data Fusion, C2ISR

 

 

 

AF093-059                           TITLE: Advanced Gimbaled Dish Antenna

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop scalable advanced gimbaled dish antenna (GDA) technologies to support next generation of satellite communications.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Increasing demands for high data rate satellite communications will necessitate precision pointing antennas with longer life, reduced vibration, and improved reliability. As Satellite Communications (SATCOM) payload performance and Mean Mission Duration (MMD) continue to increase, gimbaled dish antenna (GDA) advances to reduce or eliminate vibration could serve to extend mission life, increase pointing accuracy, and improve reliability. The purpose of this topic is to support advances in gimbals, reflectors, feeds, horns and other related GDA components that reduce size, weight and attenuation and that could likewise improve future SATCOM performance. The antenna systems state-of-the-art (SOA) for SATCOM antennas/gimbals varies greatly based on application.  But current mission life, based on reliability achievements, varies between 10-12 years. The Pointing Error accuracy is also dependent on the reflector and the antennas half power beam-width. For example, for an 8 ft. diameter reflector at 85 GHz, the Half Power Beamwidth (HPBW) is 0.1 deg and the tracking accuracy should be 0.01 degree. The current vibration isolation SOA is in the neighborhood of 20 dB. Azimuth excursions are in the neighborhood of 20 to -20 degrees. Elevation excursions are typically 90 to -90 degrees depending on type of gimbals. Positioning accuracy is 0.005degrees. This topic is intended to be a broad area thrust for improving gimbaled dish antennas performance and mean mission duration (MMD). The contractor is offered great flexibility in selecting the type of gimbaled dish antenna parameters related to the subsystem or material technology they want to select for improvements in performance by technology innovations. Highly general requirements/goals  include scalability, capability to handle 300 lbft2 mass, azimuth and elevation excursions of + 10 with slew rate of .4 degrees/sec, positioning error < .005 degrees, operating temperature range from -40 to +80 degrees Centigrade, total dose tolerance > 1 Mrad (Si), and reliability consistent with 15-20  year satellite MMD.

 

PHASE I:  Develop a concept and feasibility study for suggested innovations to improve any one of the multiple performance parameters, including size, weight, vibration, pointing accuracy or material technologies to result in much improved GDA antennas suitable for next generation SATCOM. More than one antenna architecture may be proposed and one may be validated through modeling and simulation and further demonstrated and validated by prototypes in next phases.

 

PHASE II:  Develop GDA prototypes, breadboards and brass-boards as needed and characterize for all selected performance parameters.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Communications satellite programs, such as Advanced EHF, Wideband Gapfiller and future Blocks for these systems of MILSATCOM Satellites, could benefit from this research.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Satellites programs, such as Iridium and Globalstar as well as other future Commercial systems, benefit from this research.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Schoob, R., and J. Bichsel, Vector Control of the Bearingless Motor, Proc. Fourth Int. Symposium of Magnetic Bearings, ETH Zurich, pp. 327-332, August, 1994.

 

2. Mecherle, G.S.,"Active pointing for terrestrial free space optics," 15th Annual Meeting of IEEE LEOS 2002, pp 451 - 452, 2002.

 

3. Stewart, S. H., and W.L. Stutzman. Analysis of Reflector Antenna Systems with Arbitrary Feed Arrays Using Primary Field Superposition, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 38, No. 7, 994-1000, July,1990.

 

KEYWORDS: Gimbaled dish antenna, slew rate, pointing accuracy, gyro, two axis stabilized, satellite communications

 

 

 

AF093-061                           TITLE: Variable Coverage Wide Field of View Satellite Antenna

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop antenna capable of providing variable Satellite Communication (SATCOM) coverage ranging from 3 degrees to full earth coverage.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Satellite communications support for anti-terrorist operations requires the use of both broad field of view (FOV) coverage area for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) missions and narrow FOV coverage areas for Communications on the Move (COTM) warfighter support.  Variable earth coverage satellite antennas would enhance the effectiveness with which satellite communications supports both beyond line of sight (BLOS) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Airborne Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (AISR) and COTM missions. To this end, Air Force seeks to incorporate the flexibility of antennas on satellites in Geosynchrounous Earth Orbit (GEO)  to service a broad range of Wide Field of View (WFOV) coverage areas, from full earth coverage to 3 degrees (or less).   Additional goals include the capability to support a broad range of radiation pattern shapes, capability to support anti-jam protection, ability to withstand space weather associated long term (>15 year) GEO missions, satellite launch vibration, and tolerate total dose radiation effects of at least 1 Mrad(Si) while reliably operating over a -40 to +80 degree Centigrade temperature range.

 

PHASE I:  Evaluate frequency bands that would be suitable for AISR SATCOM bands.  Design wideband antenna system and validate through modeling and simulation.

 

PHASE II:  Fabricate wideband prototype and characterize for operating frequencies, gain, bandwidth, directivity, size, weight, and operating temperature range.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Military applications include UAV to satellite links and terrestrial terminals to satellite links.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Would include making conformal antenna suitable for use in commercial RF applications, which might include commercial airliners, internet and telephony, and applications like satellite radio.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Dion, Andre, A Variable coverage Satellite Antenna System, Proc. IEEE, Vol. 59, No. 2, Feb. 1971.

 

2.  Pozar, D., S. D. Targonski, and R. Pokuls, A shaped-beam microstrip patch reflect array, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 47, pp. 1167-1173, July 1999.

 

3.  Bucci, O., G. Franceschetti, G. Mazzarella, and G. Panariello, Intersection approach to array pattern synthesis, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., pt. H, vol. 137, no. 6, pp. 349-357, Dec. 1990.

 

KEYWORDS: Wide Field of View, earth coverage, multibeam, beam former, combiner switch, feedhorn

 

 

 

AF093-064                           TITLE: Canisterized Satellite Development for Operationally Responsive Space

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop and demonstrate satellites capable of being carried in a canister during the launch phase of a responsive space mission by utilizing standardized interfaces and integrations schemes for integration with any launch vehicle.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The Department of Defense (DoD) is actively pursuing the capability to assemble and launch a satellite within days, or even hours, of a battlefield commander’s notification. This capability is essential to meet the operational needs for a variety of responsive space missions. An enabling capability to achieve this goal is the rapid integration of various satellite components and overall system checkout prior to launch. A primary challenge to achieving this vision is the complexity and breadth of satellite to launch vehicle interfaces. The current challenge is that each satellite is integrated to the launch vehicle using a unique custom interface design and satellite on-board systems such as propulsion pose a threat to the launch vehicle during the lift. These hazards complicate the integration process of a satellite on a launch vehicle. This solicitation seeks potential similar solutions to develop a standardized satellite configuration and associated canister to simplify the satellite-to-launch vehicle integration. Similar approaches have been successful in allowing routine access for CubeSats using the Poly-Picosat Orbital Deployer (P-POD) system that represent current state-of-the-art. Unfortunately, the CubeSat venue is small and supports only limited government space mission requirements. Canisterizing nanosat-sized payloads beyond the current 1U x 1U x 1U standard will enable streamlined satellite preparation and launch integration work.

 

The Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office is pursuing the development of innovative standardized satellite systems to include, but not limited to: standardized payload configurations, canister designs, and satellite/canister and canister/launch vehicle interface designs. It is necessary to investigate creative solutions to avoid the need to develop custom hardware, software, and interfaces. The ORS Office will also consider novel modification endeavors to existing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components to meet the needs of this solicitation.

 

Contractors are strongly encouraged to work closely with the ORS Office and its contractors, if necessary, to ensure technical efforts are consistent with overall responsive satellite development goals. Proposed concepts should strive for designs that can eventually achieve a component fabrication and system integration time of a few days for the widest range of relevant satellite capability. In the near term, these techniques should cut integration time by 50%, while decreasing satellite cost to under $5M for a small satellite.

 

PHASE I:  Design, fabricate, and test a proof-of-concept or Engineering Design Unit (EDU) that clearly demonstrates the feasibility for your proposed satellite canister concept. Utilize test results to identify key technical challenges, develop a mitigation strategy, and to develop the Phase II program plan.

 

PHASE II:  Design, fabricate, and test a prototype level concept that achieves the functional and interface specifications of the ORS Office’s responsive space program. Develop an integration strategy that will enable the assembly and checkout of a small satellite within a few days.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  The ability to assemble and launch a small satellite within a few days will allow rapid deployment of space assets to support changing warfighter needs. Ready applications in ORS.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial entities would be able to restore services mush faster than currently possible when an unexpected failure of a space asset occurs.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Buckley, S., "Taking Advantage of Excess Spacelift Capacity-A vision for the Future," Annual AIAA/Utah State University Conference on Small Satellites, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 13 August 2008.

 

2. Watson, William A., "Rapid Spacecraft Development: Results and Lessons Learned by William A. Watson," Rapid Spacecraft Development Office, GSFC 2002 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana.

 

3. Yost, B., "Astrobiology Small Payloads," NASA/ARC Workshop Report, NASA/CP 2007 214565.

 

4. Ledebuhr, Dr. A. G., "Microsats for On-orbit Support Missions," DoE Report, UCRL-JC-142900.

 

KEYWORDS: Satellite bus, modular satellite, standardized satellite interfaces, spacecraft, payload, satellite, responsive space, responsive bus

 

 

 

AF093-065                           TITLE: Advanced Li-ion Battery Cathode

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Electronics, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE: Develop a Li-ion battery cathode that will meet life requirements for Department of Defense (DoD) Spacecraft.

 

DESCRIPTION: Because military communications satellite payload power consumption is trending higher in order to meet exponentially increasing satellite communications capacity requirements to support tomorrows warfighters, the U.S. Air Force is interested in supporting Li-ion (lithium ion) battery development.  State of the art Li-ion batteries have limited life which may not be compatible with 5 year ground storage followed by 15 years of operational lifetimes for DoD satellites deployed in geosynchronous earth orbit, or with up to 60,000 charge/discharge cycles needed for low earth orbiting satellites.  The metal oxide particles used in cathodes for Li-ion cells degrade over time and with each charge/discharge cycle.  This degradation ultimately limits the useful life of these battery cells.  There is a need to develop an advanced cathode for Li-ion batteries, which will provide long life that would meet the life requirements of DoD spacecraft.  Ceramic coatings on the metal oxide particles used in cathodes for Li-ion cells have shown promise of improving the long-term stability of the cathode materials during battery cell operation.  This and other methods for improving the ultimate life of Li-on batteries will be considered for this technology development.

 

The goal of this technology development is to design, develop and test an advanced cathode for Li-ion battery cells, which is capable of twenty year service life in geosynchronous satellite applications and with 60,000 charge/discharge cycles needed over ten years.

 

PHASE I:  Demonstrate a feasibility of the proposed concept through materials analysis and testing. Conduct simulations based demonstrations of advanced Li-ion cathodes based on innovative materials.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate proof of concept with the fabrication and testing of prototypes of a Li-ion battery with advanced cathodes.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Li-ion batteries with long life are needed for all DoD and National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) spacecrafts.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial communications satellites will benefit in the same manner as military spacecrafts from this technology.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Haa, Hyung-Wook, Kyung Hee Jeong a, and Nan Ji Yun, Division of chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea, Ming Zi Hongb, Keon Kima, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022, China, Effects of surface modification on cycling stability of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 electrodes by CeO2 coating, Electrocimica Acta 50 (2005) 3764-3769.

 

2.  Fey, George Ting-Kuo, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan, ROC, Cheng-Zhang Lua, Jiun-Da Huanga, T. Prem Kumara, 1, Yu-chen Chang, Department of Chemical Engineering, Yuan-Ze University, Taoyuan, Nelli 301, Taiwan, ROC. Nanoparticulate coatings for enhanced cyclability of LiCoO2 cathodes, Journal of Power Sources 146 (2005) 65-70.

 

3.  Fey, George Ting-Kuo, P. Muralidharan, Cheng-Zhang Lu, and Yung-Da Cho Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan 32054, Taiwan ROC, Surface modification of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 with La2O3 for lithium-ion batteries," Solid State Ionics 176 (2005) 2759-2767.

 

KEYWORDS: batteries, Li-ion, space power, cathodes, ceramic, service life, charge/discharge cycle

 

 

 

AF093-066                           TITLE: Innovative Laser-based Cueing Technology for Space Protection

Countermeasures

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop laser-based technology capable of cueing countermeasure systems to protect space-based assets (SBA).

 

DESCRIPTION:  Optical cueing for countermeasures can be used to enhance platform and payload survivability by providing situation awareness information accurately and invoking protection capabilities properly. To provide effective cueing, the system will need to characterize adversary space objects (ASO) in sufficient details which is a non-trivial task, considering the distances and relative speed between the ASO and SBA, the pointing accuracy needed, the laser beam losses along the propagation path, and the laser beam wandering caused either by atmospheric turbulence or vibration of the transmitting platform. Solutions to these problems are essential for practical implementation of the required space protection capabilities.

 

Proposals to develop innovative laser systems to support protection of SBA are sought. The concepts with steady tracking and high pointing accuracy capable of selecting and cueing protection countermeasures against a small ASO on the order of 10x10x10 cm, are of interest. The relative velocity between the space object(s) of interest can range from 0.1 km/s to 14 km/s.  Systems with a small form-factor have higher priority for this solicitation as the technology developed under this effort is intended for both ground and space deployment.  Thus the system should work autonomously and operate at a long range for space applications. This effort includes the development of the capability to detect an ASO at the range up to 200 km, identify its imaging sensor at the range up to 50 km, and then automatically initiate appropriate system countermeasure actions. Current state of the art systems do not provide the capabilities and data in sufficient detail to cue the protection countermeasures correctly for robust response as required by this solicitation.

 

PHASE I:  Develop a conceptual system design and determine its expected performance and operating bounds. Use breadboard modeling for proof-of-principle validation. Define an experimental plan to demonstrate its field applicability and a technology roadmap to facilitate transition to acquisition programs.

 

PHASE II:  Fabricate, integrate, and assemble a prototype of the laser based countermeasure system to validate its field operability and performance in both atmosphere perturbed and non-perturbed environment. Define an application and transition plan for a full-scale demonstration.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  The technology developed under this effort can be used to counter ground-based or space-based surveillance systems or as a component of the anti-missile defense system. 

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: This research supports detection/deterring of unauthorized photography, surveillance and long-range object tracking for security application as well as free-space telecommunication. 

 

REFERENCES:

1. Ott, Melanie, "Fiber Laser Components Technology Readiness Overview NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program."

 

2. Hovis, Floyd, "Laser offers robust source for space-based lidar systems," 3 Dec 2006 SPIE Newsroom DOI 10.1117/2.1200610.0444.

 

3. Wilhite, Benjamin A., et al., "Design of a MEMS-Based MicroChemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) System," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 30, No. 8, August 2004.

 

KEYWORDS: Space control and protection, countermeasures, perturbed/unperturbed environments, pointing accuracy, range, range rate, angle of arrival

 

 

 

AF093-067                           TITLE: Data Mining Development for OCS/DCS SSA Operations

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop data mining tool that could be part of a data mining tool library for analyzing large heterogeneous data sets generated by varying data fusion techniques in support of Defensive Counterspace and Space Situation Awareness (SSA).

 

DESCRIPTION:  As is all too often the case in the space domain, operators and analysts are faced with unmanageably large amounts of data.  Given manpower constraints and time constraints, using this data to drive courses of action in a real-time relevant manner is unrealistic without the use of data mining and data fusion techniques.  The Air Force seeks to develop a data mining/fusion tool library to provide information superiority to the war fighter.  Domain experts would use the individual tools in this library to derive relationships that are, in turn, used to derive higher-level information and courses of action. Tool libraries would also be used as a pre-processor to satellite telemetry data to reduce the volume of those data sets that are most likely to be useful for further data fusion processing.  Obviously these tools would utilize a combination of techniques, including but not limited to, data mining, data fusion, intelligent systems, reasoning lenses, astrodynamics, decision trees and resource management.  

 

As an example of data mining applied to Offensive Counter Space/Defensive Counter Space (OCS)/(DCS), a satellite command center receives notice that tactical satellites may be under attack. They use standard procedures to determine if the satellites are being attacked, but the results are ambiguous.  They implement data mining/data fusion procedures  to determine refined results of either an anomalous satellite condition or if an attack is taking place.

 

A second example of a possible tool of this library might take in the raw observation data from the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and mine this data to determine things possibly as small as out-gassing and attitude correction.  This fused data could then be sent to yet another tool that did level 3 & 4 fusion and level 2 resource management to predict estimated satellite life expectance.  Thinking about the potential of the library with a suite of these tools has numerous applications for data intensive applications involving an orbital catalog.

 

PHASE I:  Develop, design and demonstrate a limited prototype capability that determines new, previously unknown, relationships that exist from heterogeneous data sets that are derived from various data fusion algorithms.  The data sets could include the orbital catalog, raw observation data, satellite telemetry, space weather data or any other extremely large dynamic space related data set.

 

PHASE II:  Develop and demonstrate data mining prototype software and demonstrate the accuracy of the information it predicts. At the end of Phase II, the contractor will deliver and demonstrate the prototype using unclassified fused data sets that represent past satellites, pre-process raw unclassified satellite telemetry data sets as input to data fusion methods and provide a written report.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Virtually any DoD space mission could benefit from this technology. Extracting SSA and DCS information from larger data sets is critical to improving our ability to perform situational assessment.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The prototype will be applicable to commercial satellite operations as well as other government satellite operations to reduce the volume of relevant data sets.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Han, Jiawei and Micheline Kamber, "Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques," Morgan Kaufmann, 2001.

 

2. Endsley, M. R., "Toward a Theory of Situation Awareness in Dynamic Systems," Human Factors Journal, 37(1), pages 32-64, March 1995.

 

KEYWORDS: Data Mining, Data Fusion, Space Situation Awareness, Satellite Telemetry, OCS, DCS, orbital catalog, raw observation data, intelligent systems, space weather

 

 

 

AF093-068                           TITLE: Automation of Satellite On-orbit Check-out

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

OBJECTIVE:  Development of technologies which will enable automation and time minimization of the satellite on-orbit check-out in support of operationally responsive space.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Todays Air Force satellites require a lengthy on-orbit checkout process before being placed into operation. Depending on payload type, this period can last from weeks to several months. Prototypes have been developed that perform functional checkout of Satellite Bus components autonomously via on-orbit scripts. In the near term, and with the acceptance of some risk and good software engineering, functional checkout of a satellite can be implemented autonomously with on-board scripts or models. In general, more complex methodologies are needed to perform autonomous payload calibration. In particular, the calibration of imaging sensor payloads can be very labor intensive requiring nonlinear processes that are difficult to automate. Autonomous calibration of these payloads requires more sophisticated reasoning systems that may require adaptive learning. In addition, in some cases fundamental sensor designs may be limiting factors in achieving long term requirements of being able to perform rapid on-orbit checkout in less than one day. It is still unclear how close we can come towards achieving the one day requirement through intelligent software design and at what point fundamental sensor design changes are needed. The objective of this topic is to explore this boundary for a representative set of sensors which would include Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR). Proposals are sought which will analyze this problem and develop technologies that will help perform autonomous calibration for the representative set of sensors. These proposals can be in the form of intelligent software algorithms and methodologies, fundamental design changes, or both. Careful consideration should be given to how the proposed calibration method would fit within the overall on-orbit checkout process of the satellite. Significant time savings may also be achievable by performing some level of calibration on the ground prior to launch. A strong proposal should contain a system level approach in which ground checkout prior to launch flows into on-orbit checkout. Proposals that provide a solution that contain both bus checkout and payload calibration are strongly encouraged.

 

PHASE I:  The objective of Phase I is to provide a detailed analysis of the problem described and to propose a design which would optimize the payload calibration process. If feasible, a prototype demonstration is strongly encouraged.

 

PHASE II:  The objective of Phase II is to extend the work performed in Phase I and to provide a detailed design and demonstration of on-orbit sensor calibration working in conjunction with full bus checkout. Demonstrations using actual hardware are encouraged.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  The proposed technology has high relevance to Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Commercial application: This proposed R&D effort has equal applicability to the commercial satellite domain.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Rapid assembly and on-orbit checkout would also be extremely beneficial to commercial satellite providers like Iridium where quick turn-around of new satellites can be the difference between business success and failure.

 

REFERENCES:

1. OpEd, "Putting the ''Operational'' in Operationally Responsive Space," http://www.space.com/spacenews/archive06/DalBelloOpEd_041007.html.

 

2. Pritchard, E. I., "On-orbit checkout of satellites," Volume 2, Part 3 of on-orbit checkout study, Final Report, Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA., Advanced Orbital Systems Div.

 

3. AFRL Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) 2009, "On-orbit Checkout Summer Study," to be released Aug 2009.

 

KEYWORDS: Satellite On-orbit Checkout, Satellite Automation, Satellite Autonomy, Satellite Payload Calibration, Adaptive Learning, Bus Checkout

 

 

 

AF093-070                           TITLE: Miniaturized Satellite Development for Responsive Space Missions

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:

Develop satellite technologies that increase capability, reliability, and responsiveness while reducing size. The goal of this solicitation is to develop smaller satellite components and satellites with capabilities of current larger satellites through the use of miniaturization technologies.

 

DESCRIPTION:

The Department of Defense ( DoD ) is actively pursuing the capability to assemble and launch a satellite within days, or even hours, of a battlefield commander''s notification. This capability is essential to meet the operational needs for a variety of responsive space missions. Enabling technologies to achieve this goal for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) is miniaturization of the various satellite systems and components while increasing capability by a minimum of 40%. Smaller satellites are easier to store, integrate, and launch. In addition, smaller satellites are generally less expensive and can be easily duplicated to support multiple mission needs; defining the objective of this solicitation.

 

The ORS Office is pursuing the development of miniaturized satellite systems to include, but not limited to: standardized payload configurations, compact sensors, compact bus systems, miniaturized communication components, and flexible operations schemes. It is necessary to investigate creative solutions to avoid the need to develop custom hardware, software, and interfaces. The ORS Office will also consider novel modification endeavors to existing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components to meet the needs of this solicitation.

 

Contractors are strongly encouraged to work closely with the ORS Office and its contractors, if necessary, to ensure technical efforts are consistent with overall responsive satellite development goals. Proposed concepts should strive for innovative concepts that can eventually achieve a component fabrication and system integration time of a few days for the widest range of relevant satellite capability; representing a 50% increase in the current state-of-the-art.

 

PHASE I:  Design, fabricate, and test a proof-of-concept or feasibility design for your proposed satellite miniaturization technology. Utilize test results to identify key technical challenges, develop a mitigation strategy, and to develop the Phase II program plan.

 

PHASE II:  Design, fabricate, and test a prototype-level concept that achieves the functional and interface specifications of the ORS Office’s mission areas. Develop and demonstrate a 10x cost reduction for small satellite fabrication, assembly, and checkout through the use of miniaturization technology.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  The proposed effort would develop satellite component technologies that are applicable to military satellite programs which would be much smaller than current technologies.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  These satellite technologies that would be usable on military satellites will have a myriad of applications on commercial satellites that have never been tried.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Buckley, S., "Taking Advantage of Excess Space lift Capacity-A vision for the Future," Annual AIAA/Utah State University Conference on Small Satellites, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 13 August 2008.

 

2. Ledebuhr, Dr. A. G., "Microsats for On-orbit Support Missions," DoE Report, UCRL-JC-142900.

 

3. Watson, William A., "Rapid Spacecraft Development: Results and Lessons Learned," Rapid Spacecraft Development Office, GSFC 2002 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana.

 

4. Yost, B., "Astrobiology Small Payloads," NASA/ARC Workshop Report, NASA/CP 2007 214565.

 

KEYWORDS: Satellite bus, modular satellite, standardized satellite interfaces, spacecraft, payload, satellite, responsive space, responsive bus

 

 

 

AF093-071                           TITLE: Adaptive Thermal Control Coating for Radiation Hardening of Spacecraft

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Electronics, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop an adaptive thermal control coating that will protect spacecraft structures and payload electronics from high flux radiation doses from manmade nuclear threats and solar storms.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The space environment poses a significant challenge to spacecraft because of high radiation flux from both solar storms and potential natural nuclear threats that can cause charge build-up on exterior satellite surfaces as a result of low energy electron flux. Current state-of-the-art electro-static discharge (ESD) conductive thermal control coatings are poor capacitors in that they store only small amounts of charge. Therefore, electrical conductivity alone is necessary to leak any accumulated surface charge to a nearby electrical ground in order to prevent the build-up of surface voltage and electrical discharges. An entirely new coating approach is desired that can adapt to accommodate high dose electron flux by storing and dissipating charge build-up, thereby eliminating surface voltage and hence electrostatic discharges that can damage spacecraft electronics.

 

Under this new approach, the adaptive ESD coating is allowed to accumulate as much charge as possible through a storage mechanism with the goal of maintaining surface voltage to negligible values (< 10 volts), eliminating dielectric breakdowns, and eliminating electrical discharges. After the event, the adaptive coating leaks the accumulated charge from solar storm or natural nuclear sources to an electrical ground and then re-sets itself in preparation for the next radiation event. This cycle must be reversible with minimal degradation throughout the lifetime of the mission.

 

The goal of this solicitation is a dual-use coating that provides thermal control and radiation hardening through ESD mitigation. As such, such the coating must provide both good thermal control performance including low solar absorptivity, high emissivity, good thermal conductivity, and an operating temperature range from 213 K to 373 K. It must also provide good electrical properties such as high electrical conductivity. In addition, the coating must provide sufficiently low surface voltages after a 99% threat test. Finally, all aspects of the approach must be compatible with the space environment for a ten year mission lifetime and conform to space qualification requirements including high vacuum, microgravity, radiation, atomic oxygen, low out gassing, and high launch loads.

 

Proposers are encouraged to team with system integrators and payload providers to ensure applicability of their efforts and to provide a clear technology transition path.

 

PHASE I:  Demonstrate through analysis and/or hardware demonstration that passive two-phase cooling is feasible in this temperature range. Develop initial concepts and designs for products and describe a strategy for making a product available for developers.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate the technology identified in Phase I. Tasks shall include, but are not limited to, a detailed demonstration of key technical parameters that can be accomplished and a detailed performance analysis of the technology. A subscale demo is acceptable, but a full-scale demo is encouraged. Also, model validation testing, a detailed evaluation report, and recommendations are required.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Military satellites are required to survive natural radiation that affects their operation. This work will enhance the capabilities of future satellites to meet this requirement.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial satellites must be capable of surviving natural radiation that exists in the space environment. This work will enhance the ability of commercial satellites to survive natural radiation.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Purvis, C. K., H. B. Garrett, A. C. Whittlesey, and N. J. Stevens, "Design Guidelines for Assessing and Controlling Spacecraft Charging Effects," NASA Technical Paper 2361, 1984.

 

2.  "Avoiding Problems Caused by Spacecraft On-orbit Internal Charging Effects," NASA Handbook, NASA-HDBK-4002, 17 February 1999.

 

3.  Gilmore, D., Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook: Fundamental Technologies, The Aerospace Press, El Segundo, CA, 2002.

 

KEYWORDS: Adaptive coating, thermal control, radiation hardening, high dielectric permittivity, ferroelectric-paraelectric transition, ESD coatings

 

 

 

AF093-072                           TITLE: Lithium Ion Battery and Ultracapacitors Hybrid for Satellite Power

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Electronics, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop lithium ion battery with integrated ultracapacitor(s) for space power use.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Long term space missions utilizing battery based electrical power subsystems often undergo thousands of charge/discharge cycles over the length of the mission. In order to maximize end of life battery performance, the Air Force would like to integrate an energy buffer such as an ultra capacitor in the electrical discharge circuit for the batteries to ameliorate the effects of  short duration high rate discharge cycles. These cycles can shorten the useful life of the batteries. Ultra capacitors have high power density and can supplying additional current during short duration peak loading periods. An example of a peak load would be an electric thruster used for station-keeping or attitude control. Electric thrusters used in this manner would have step loads in the range of 1Kw for durations ranging from a few seconds to a maximum of one minute. Another application would be ordinance firing loads which are in the range of  250 amps with a duration of  250 milliseconds. An ultra capacitor would be capable of supplying most of these loads relieving the battery of the requirement to supply current for these short duration high demand loads. Employing ultra capacitors and batteries in a hybrid systems will enable the deployment of payloads and spacecraft bus systems which have high power and short duty cycles without adversely impacting the lifetime of the Li-Ion battery. The battery ultra capacitor hybrid should be capable of operating for 7 years in low earth orbit and 15 years in geosynchronous orbit.

 

PHASE I:  Develop designs that integrate battery with ultracapacitor(s) and select promising alternative. Develop manufacturing processes that are consistent with technical objectives including size, weight, battery storage capacity, capacitance, charge discharge cycles, radiation hardness and temperature.

 

PHASE II:  Finalize the design, then fabricate and characterize one or more prototypes.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE: 

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Military applications include any application where battery loading varies significantly in satellite power applications such as ion propulsion.Will have apps in all future satellites when developed.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial battery ultracapacitor hybrid applications include hybrid automobiles and boats.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Gao, Lijun, R. A. Dougal, and Liu Shengyi, "Power enhancement of an actively controlled battery/ultra capacitor hybrid," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, Vol.20, No.1, pp. 236- 243, Jan.2005.

 

2. Dougal, R.A., S. Liu, and R. E. White, "Power and life extension of battery-ultra capacitor hybrids," Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions. Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Vol.25, No.1, pp.120-131, Mar 2002.

 

KEYWORDS: ultracapacitor, battery, lithium ion, DC-DC converter, charge discharge cycle, service life

 

 

 

AF093-074                           TITLE: Thermal Stable Panel (TSP) with Thermal Control Features for Transient Spacecraft Payloads

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop a new thermally stable panel design for highly transient spacecraft payloads, incorporating thermal control features without creating coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch induced stress.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The thermal environment for satellites operating in low Earth orbit (LEO) varies significantly through the course of a single orbit and throughout the lifetime of the system as the beta angle, which is the angle between the satellite-sun vector and the orbital plane, varies over time.  In addition, the operation of many satellite payloads in LEO is highly transient.  The combination of environmental extremes and payload duty cycle frequently results in time varying thermal distortions, which can result in degraded performance or complete mission failure in the worst case.   Performance degradation caused by thermal distortion includes image aberrations and payload pointing errors.  In the worst case, thermal deformation can result in thermal induced stress caused by coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between dissimilar materials within the system and can result in component failure.  For example, CTE mismatch is a major cause of solder bond failures.

 

Because of the performance requirements demanded by Air Force space systems, thermal management of these transient loads along with methods to reduce the thermally induced distortions are quickly becoming an area of great concern to these highly agile LEO satellite systems being proposed for programs such as Space Radar.  The critical thermal management system requirements are described below:

  Orbit and orientation: low-Earth orbit and nadir pointing

  Heat dissipation: Threshold 0.3 W/in^2, objective 0.5 W/in^2

  Duty cycle: 30%

  Temperature range: -40C to 50C

  Temperature change per cycle: 10C

  Number of cycles: 200,000

  Thermal distortion: 5e-5 in/in

 

Coupled with the thermal challenges described above are the complications of operating in the space environment.  As with all satellites, mass and power consumption will be a critical driving factor.  The threshold total thermal control system mass goal is 5% of the payload mass, and the objective is less than 1%.  As for power consumption, a modest amount of power can be provided for active systems; however, passive systems are preferred.  In addition, components must have long-life, high-reliability, maintenance-free operation for lifetimes exceeding ten years.  Finally, all aspects of the thermal control system must be compatible with the space environment and conform to space qualification requirements including high vacuum, microgravity, radiation, atomic oxygen, low outgassing, and high launch loads. 

 

Proposers are encouraged to team with system integrators and payload providers to ensure applicability of their efforts and to provide a clear technology transition path.

 

PHASE I:  Develop conceptual designs of the hardware based on preliminary analysis. Perform sufficient hardware development and testing to verify system requirements can be met. Proof-of-concept experiments should be conducted to indicate the practicality of the design in meeting requirements and objectives.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate the technology identified in Phase I. Tasks shall include, but are not limited to, a detailed demonstration of key technical parameters that can be accomplished and a detailed performance analysis of the technology. A subscale demo is acceptable, but a full-scale demo is encouraged. Also, model validation testing, a detailed evaluation report, and recommendations are required.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Military spacecraft applications include agile Low Earth Orbiting platforms with transient operation and/or varying environmental loads and any space platforms with highly transient power loads.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The validated concepts would appeal to a large number of commercial payloads and will have application to sensor systems on air and ground platforms that require low mass, thermally stable structures.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Gilmore, D., Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook: Fundamental Technologies, The Aerospace Press, El Segundo, CA, 2002.

 

2.  Albright, W. and J. Nicoll, "Empirical determination of thermal noise levels in synthetic aperture radar," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2002. IGARSS '02, 2002 IEEE International Volume 5, 2002 Page(s): 2729 - 2731, Vol.5.

 

3.  Jonas, F.M., A quick look at the expected thermal environment extremes for SBR LEO concepts, Proceedings from the Space Technology and Applications International Forum-1999 (STAIF-99), Albuquerque, NM, 3 Jan - 4 Feb 1999.

 

4.  Techau, P.M., J. R. Guerci, T. H. Slocumb, L. J. Griffiths, "Performance bounds for interference mitigation in radar systems," Radar Conference, 1999. The Record of the 1999 IEEE 20-22 April 1999 Page(s): 12 - 17.

 

KEYWORDS: thermal control, thermal stability, thermal storage, dimensional stability, combined thermal/structure, low thermal distortion

 

 

 

AF093-075                           TITLE: Discrimination and Identification of Closely-Spaced Objects (CSO)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Integrate multi-modality (with both active and passive sensors) and multi-mode surveillance approach to develop novel techniques for identifying and discriminating fast moving, closely-spaced airborne or space objects.

 

DESCRIPTION:  A critical requirement for a practical surveillance system is the ability to identify, discriminate and track closely-spaced objects (CSO). The complexity of CSO cannot be resolved by a tracking system either because the line of sight angle is too close, or the angular resolution of the tracking system is inadequate. Thus typical imprints of the CSO on the detection array will create blurred unresolved clusters where the coordinates, the strength of the signal (radiant intensities) and other features of the objects are not immediately apparent. Various algorithms (such as pixel-cluster decomposition, reversible jump Markov chain, Bayesian-based iterative method) have been proposed to resolve CSO problem based on data already in digital form. However the frontal processing of trustworthy signal detection, feature extraction and transformation to efficient digital format for robust and reliable CSO discrimination and identification has not been sufficiently addressed. Besides, the potential benefits of integrating multi-mode and multi-modality surveillance approach have not been adequately investigated either.

 

This topic calls for exploring the synergy between the passive and active sensors and integrating multi-mode and multi-modality techniques for innovative solution to improve and enhance existing capabilities of discrimination and identification of closely-spaced objects. Focus should be on synergistic integration of multiple sensors (that serves as a multi-modality approach) coupled with multi-mode signal processing for efficient extraction of definite features of the target object resulting in higher probability of CSO resolution.  At least one of the sensors should be active to provide better discrimination capability. The proposed solution should have an operating range up to 200 km for a minimum object size of 10 cm.  Small form factor is critical for space deployment.  Relative velocity between the CSO and the host space platform could be as high as 14 km/s along the line of sight.

 

PHASE I:  Research and assess the feasibility of a multi-sensor (passive and active) tracking system capable of resolving closely-spaced objects and characterizing the pattern of the cluster for effective countermeasures.  Perform proof-of-concept lab experiments to validate the technical approach.

 

PHASE II:  Develop a prototype of the system proposed as a result of Phase I studies and capable of discriminating CSO in a complex operational scenario.  Perform a field test of the system in a realistic environment.  Analyze and assess the test results to improve the system design for longer range of operations.  Determine expected performance envelope and identify development risks of a full scale system.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: The technologies developed under this effort can be applied to many air and space surveillance systems against fast moving, closely-spaced airplanes, missiles and space objects.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  This technology can be applied to air security and air-traffic control, astronomy, navigation systems and other areas where concurrent detection and discrimination of multiple objects is essential.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Korn, Jonathan, Howard Holtz, and Morton S. Farber, "Trajectory estimation of closely spaced objects (CSO) using infrared focal plane data of an STSS (space tracking and surveillance system) platform," Proc. SPIE 5428, 387 (2004).

 

2. Lillo, W., and N. Schulenburg, "A Bayesian closely spaced object resolution technique," in Proc. SPIE Vol. 2235, pp. 2.13, 1994.

 

3. Kirubarajan, T., Y. Bar-Shalom, and K. Pattipati, "Multiassignment for tracking a large number of overlapping objects," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems 37, pp. 2.21, 2001.

 

4. Bar-Shalom, Y., and W. D. Blair, "Multitarget-MultisensorTracking: Applications and Advances," Norwood, MS: Archtech House, 2000.

 

KEYWORDS: Closely-spaced objects, remote sensing, discriminate, track, multi-sensor, active sensor

 

 

 

AF093-076                           TITLE: Space Microelectronics Security Verification

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop innovative methodologies to verify military space microelectronics are protected from unauthorized tampering.

 

DESCRIPTION:  As military satellite systems grow in complexity, with a wider variety of microcircuits embedded in payloads, and as the fabrication of satellite microelectronics is increasingly out sourced to foreign semiconductor foundries, the risk of sabotage from counterfeiting, trapdoors, reliability impairment, and/or circuit editing is becoming of increasing concern to the Air Force.  The purpose of this topic is to support the development of hardware, software, fabrication examination and/or monitoring processes as they relate to ensuring that microelectronics used in military satellite payloads are not compromised by unauthorized modification.

 

PHASE I:  Explore microelectronics security verification methodologies and select promising approach.  Where appropriate validate through modeling and simulation.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate chip verification by examining compromised microelectronics device and/or unauthorized wafer fabrication process alteration.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Military space programs, such as the Transformational Satellite Program, Advanced EHF program, and Global Positioning System Program could benefit from this research.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Officials have warned of a "Cyber Pearl Harbor," and this warning applies to strategic commercial systems as well. Banking, communications, gaming, medical, and others need to consider these measures.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Irvine, Cynthia, and Karl Levitt, "Trusted Hardware: Can It Be Trustworthy?, http://faculty.nps.edu/irvine/Publications/Publications2007/Irvine_Trusted_Hardware_DAC.pdf.

 

2. DARPA Trust In Integrated Circuits Program, http://www.darpa.mil/MTO/programs/trust//index.html.

 

3.  Adee, Sally, The Hunt for the Kill Switch, IEEE Spectrum, May 2008.

 

KEYWORDS: Sabotage, trapdoor, circuit editing, counterfeiting, reliability impairment, wafer fabrication

 

 

 

AF093-077                           TITLE: Rapid, Accurate, Satellite Structural Dynamic Modeling Methods for Responsive Space Needs

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  To develop a finite element tool for predicting a satellite’s structural response from accurate, test verified components.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The dynamic behavior of complex satellite systems is currently verified via orthogonality checks of the test-derived modes shapes against the finite element output.  In many cases there have even been mandated specific metrics regarding the allowable deviations in the orthogonality of mode shapes derived from the reduced Test Analysis Models mass matrix.  Typical requirements have been for cross-generalized mass values greater than 0.95, and coupling terms between modes of less than 0.10 in both cross-orthogonality and orthogonality.  In addition, test-analysis resonance error requirements have been 3% in the 0 to 100 Hz range with an error of only 3 db in the damping estimation.  Overall, this has meant that a considerable amount of time is spent iterating on the finite element model coupled with lots of vibration testing performed to validate performance.  Other programs have examined the paradigm of using test-verified component finite element models as a basis for getting very accurate system finite element models without having to perform a total system test.  Issues such as bolt torque values, the modeling of non-load bearing cables as parasitic mass and other interfacing issues have been shown to cause significant variances in the final models.  In addition, new probability methods have shown promise at lessening some of the test-analysis requirements for interfaces that have significant sensitivity to test-analysis verification methods.  If, however, component interfaces can be more accurately modeled and processes developed to control variances in interfaces, then a total system model can be built quickly without ever having to go through vibration test.  A significant amount of work has been accomplished toward adapting structural health monitoring technologies for space vehicle applications to characterize the uncertainty at the interfaces and at the same time develop structural designs which will control the variance at the vehicle interfaces. Working in conjunction with these efforts, a new structural vibration verification paradigm is necessary to meet the Responsive Space goal of a 6-day satellite build.

 

PHASE I:  The contractor will develop the initial finite element tools to show verification of joining two or more accurate component models into one accurate finite element model.  Test verification of the model will be necessary against the above goals unless verified probabilistic methods are used.

 

PHASE II:  Complete the development of the finite element tool to include typical satellite component structural interfaces to include non-load bearing cables, bolts and other methods.  Testing should include multiple components with different interfaces.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Every military satellite goes through a costly set of vibration tests that could be eliminated with this new paradigm.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications include high frequency effects modeling.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Hasselman, T.K., R.N. Coppolino, and D.C. Zimmerman. Criteria for Modeling Accuracy: A State-of-the-Practice Survey, 18th International Modal Analysis Conference. 2000. San Antonio, TX.

 

2.  Bergman, E. J., M. S. Allen, D. C. Kammer and R. L. Mayes, Probabilistic Investigation of Sensitivities of Advanced Test-Analysis Model Correlation Methods, 26th International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC XXVI), Orlando, Florida, Feb. 2008.

 

3.  Robertson, et. al., Cable Effects on the Dynamics of Large Precision Structures, 48th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, Honolulu, HI, April 23-26 2007, AIAA Paper 2007-2389.

   

4.  Chebli, H., and C. Soize, Experimental validation of a nonparametric probabilistic model of non homogeneous uncertainties for dynamical systems, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 115(2) 697-705 (2004).

 

5.  Arritt, B. J., L. M. Robertson, A. D. Williams, B. K. Henderson, S. J. Buckley, J. M. Ganley, J. S. Welsh, et al., "Structural Health Monitoring: An Enabler for Responsive Satellites," AIAA, Kirtland AFB.

 

KEYWORDS: Structural dynamics, Responsive Space, Satellites, Finite Element Tool, Test Analysis Mass Model Matrix, Component Verification

 

 

 

AF093-078                           TITLE: Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) Network Operations Upgrade- Enterprise Software Prototype

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop automated scheduling algorithms focused towards the next generation  Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) Upgrade.

 

DESCRIPTION:  As the current generation of Air Force satellite control systems data standards and interfaces approach the end of their useful operating lifetime, the Air Force would like to combine ops-critical (operations-critical) satellite control systems into a net-centric enterprise that enhances Satellite Operations (SatOps) Mission Assurance, eliminates single-point failures and improves flexibility and interoperability in operations through enhanced scheduling, tracking station availability and communications bandwidth. The Network Operations (NetOps) upgrade goals include support for interoperability, automation, remote operations, information assurance, interface standardization, spectrum standardization requirements and Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) capabilities. A key technology component of this next AFSCN SATOPS architecture is automated satellite scheduling.  The AFSCN scheduling problem is very complex with multiple failed automation attempts over the past ten years. The primary reason AFSCN scheduling is complex is due to the nonlinear nature of the problem.  Tasks are often ad-hoc with fuzzy time constraints and objectives.  Non-traditional scheduling algorithms are needed which take into account fuzzy constraints and priorities which may be dynamic. The objective of this effort is to investigate innovative solutions to the problem of AFSCN scheduling and to show how a system based on these algorithms might interoperate within the next generation AF SATOPS environment. 

 

PHASE I:  Develop methodology to capture system requirements, develop use-cases, and build initial software prototype. Deliverables include prototype(s) of representative scheduling algorithms and diagrams for how these would operate within an enterprise architecture.

 

PHASE II:  Develop satellite control network system integration demonstration and iterating/improving requirements. Deliverables include automated scheduling tools, software Functional Block Diagrams, and Technical Requirements Documents .

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Military applications include systems that utilize the AFSCN, including Advanced Extremely High Frequency (EHF), Transformational Satellite (TSAT) and Wideband Gapfiller System (WGS).

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial satellite industry could also benefit by streamlining their satellite control operations using these technologies.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Choi, Kyung Soo, et. al., "Service & Network Operation of the Multibeam Switching Satellite Communication System," KSSS 20th Int''l Conference, October 2004, pp. 351.

 

2. Berson, A., Client/Server Architecture, McGraw-Hill, 1996.

 

KEYWORDS: Enterprise software, satellite control network, graphical user interface, information assurance, net-centric, operationally responsive space

 

 

 

AF093-079                           TITLE: High Temperature Heat Pipes and Passive Two-Phase Cooling Systems

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Space Platforms

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop a high temperature heat pipe or passive two-phase system with performance and mass exceeding the current generation of aluminum/ammonia systems & extending the temp. range from 80C to 200C.

 

DESCRIPTION:  High temperature electronics are approaching transition to flight systems such as phased array antennas.  Applications such as this require removal of the dissipated heat and rejection to space via another radiating surface.  In todays systems, this heat transport is afforded by aluminum/ammonia constant conductance heat pipes with both high heat transport capacity and relatively low mass.  Unfortunately, ammonia rapidly loses its capacity to transport heat above 65C with limited remaining capacity above 80C.  Use of high temperature electronics such as GaN for phased array elements allows operation in the temperature range from 100C to 200C with commensurate higher radiator temperatures and significantly smaller radiator area, due to T^4 relationship for heat rejection.  In addition, the heat pipes must be able to survive cold-case temperatures as low as -60C.  To make this type of system a reality, advanced high temperature heat pipes and passive two-phase cooling systems will be needed to transport and reject the heat from the phased array elements to space.

 

PHASE I:  Demonstrate through analysis and/or hardware demonstration that passive two-phase cooling is feasible in this temperature range. Develop initial concepts and designs for products and describe a strategy for making a product available for developers.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate the technology identified in Phase I. Tasks shall include, but are not limited to, a detailed demonstration of key technical parameters that can be accomplished and a detailed performance analysis of the technology. A subscale demo is acceptable, but a full-scale demo is encouraged. Also, model validation testing, a detailed evaluation report, and recommendations are required.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  All satellites will benefit from high temperature electronics by utilizing the T^4 radiation effect to reduce radiator area and mass such as systems that use phased arrays or transmit/receive modules.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial spacecraft, aircraft, and ground vehicles will benefit through increased bandwidth and higher heat load/power payloads. High temp electronics greatly simplify thermal system design.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Gilmore, D. Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook: Fundamental Technologies, The Aerospace Press, El Segundo, CA, 2002.

 

2. McCluskey, P., Podlesak, T., and Grzybowski, R., "High Temperature Electronics," CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1997.

 

3. Maidanik Yu. F., "State-of-the-art of CPL and LHP technology," Proc. of the 11th IHPC, Tokyo, pp. 19-30, 1999.

 

KEYWORDS: High temperature, heat pipes, passive two-phase cooling, high temperature electronics, heat transport, heat dissipation, heat radiator

 

 

 

AF093-080                           TITLE: Ultra High Efficiency Multi Junction Solar Cells for Space Applications

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Space Platforms

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop and demonstrate radiation-hard multijunction space solar cells with AM0 efficiencies greater than 37%.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Solar cells with higher efficiencies are needed to reduce array mass, area, stowed volume, and cost for Air Force space missions.  The current state of the art crystalline multijunction solar cells are lattice matched to Ge and are limited to a maximum practical efficiency of <37%.  The limit is   partially due to increasingly complex device structure and partially due to non-availability of lattice matched or nearly lattice matched materials that possess the needed bandgaps and can be grown with sufficient quality to minimize recombination.  To reach efficiencies above 37%, novel and innovative approaches are needed.

 

The desired new solar cell would be lightweight, and radiation hardened, with emphasis on improved performance metrics at the solar array level (>600 W/Kg) over current state of the art devices (typically ~65 W/Kg).  The goal for the new approach would be >37% efficiency.  Technologies involving external solar concentration or organic-based designs are not expected to be feasible.

 

The overall goal of this solicitation is to develop innovative technology solutions for ultrahigh efficiency solar cells.  In addition to cell performance, AFRL is also interested in realizing a cost-effective design.  System level array and integration issues should be considered in the technology design. The technology should be capable of supporting a 15-year mission in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO).

 

PHASE I:  Develop and validate innovative approaches for producing thin flexible multijunction space solar cells.

 

PHASE II:  Apply the results of Phase I to develop a prototype demonstration of the production process.

 

PHASE III /DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  All DOD Spacecraft use Multijunction space solar cells for electric power generation. Solar cells with high efficiency will increase the power producing capability of military spacecraft.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial communications spacecraft and NASA spacecraft would use this technology.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Law, D. C., C. M. Fetzer, R. R. King, P. C. Colter, H. Yoon, T. D. Isshiki, K. M. Edmondson, N. H. Karam, and M. Haddad, "Multijunction Solar Cells with Subcell Materials Highly Lattice-Mismatched to Germanium," 31th IEEE PVSC, pp. 575, Orlando, FL, Jan. 2005

 

2.  Wanlass, Mark W., J. F. Geisz, Sarah Kurtz, R. J. Wehrer, B. Wernsman, S. P. Ahrenkiel, R. K. Ahrenkiel, D. S. Albin, J. J. Carapella, A. Duba, and T. Moriaty, "Lattice-Mismatched Approaches for High Performance III-V Photovoltaic Energy," 31st IEEE PVSC, pp. 530, Orlando, FL, Jan. 2005

 

3.  Takamoto, Tatsuya, T. Agui, H. Washio, N. Takahashi, K. Nakamura, O. Anzawa, M. Kaneiwa, K. Kamimura, Kouji Okamoto, and Masafumi Yamaguchi, "Future Development of InGaP/(In)GaAs Based Multijunction Solar Cells," 31st IEEE PVSC, pp. 519, Orlando, FL, Jan. 2005.

 

KEYWORDS: High-Efficiency Solar Cells, Thin Multijunction Solar Cells, Space Power, Solar Arrays, Radiation Hardened, Low Array Mass

 

 

 

AF093-081                           TITLE: Rapid Radiation Hardened Prototyping of Obsolescent Military Satellite Microelectronics

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Electronics, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop the capability to rapidly fabricate substitutes of radiation hardened microcircuits that are planned for use in future military satellites that may become obsolete during acquisition cycle.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Due to long production cycles, often lasting several years and spanning the procurement of multiple satellites, military space programs can experience significant cost growth as critical microelectronics become obsolete.  Although this issue is not unique to military space systems, it can be particularly onerous for space electronics due to the high levels of reliability and radiation hardness required for microelectronics in space.  The lack of availability of key microcircuits can force a design change necessitating requalification of one or more subsystems.  This can lead to significant cost and schedule growth and delays in the availability of critical space assets.  In order to minimize the impact of cost and schedule disruptions from obsolete parts, the Air Force seeks research into innovative methodologies for rapid design, fabrication, characterization and qualification of radiation hardened microelectronics for integration into satellite payloads.  The specific microcircuit functions may include digital, analog, and mixed signal.  The purpose of this topic is to support the development of the capability to duplicate the form, fit and function of a broad range of microelectronics commonly used in the manufacture of military satellite payloads for parts at risk of becoming obsolete.  Special attention should be given to ensuring the part will work within the power supply range of the obsolete part, and will meet the input/output voltage and current requirements of circuits with which it communicates.  Consideration should also be given to qualification of the replacement part.  Particular attention should be given to reliability mechanisms that may be different from those of the original part and may require new screening approaches.  Goals include: (1) Operating temperature range of -40 deg. C. to +80 deg. C., (2) Total Ionizing Dose Tolerance > 300Krad (Si), (3)  Immunity to catastrophic single event effects (e.g., single event latch-up) for particles with LET (linear energy transfer) levels up to 100 Mev-cm**2/mg, (4) Single event upset hardness for memory and registers less than 1.0E-10 errors per bit day for a geosynchronous orbit with one solar flare as estimated with the CREME96 code, and  no functional errors for single event transients less than 1.0 ns.

 

PHASE I:  Select a commonly used class of satellite microcircuits and develop a methodology to duplicate the form, fit and function including timing, packaging, and logic.

 

PHASE II:  Develop a prototype microelectronics circuit and characterize for radiation hardness, operating temperature range, functionality and reliability.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  All military satellite programs could potentially benefit from the research towards rapid radiation hardened prototyping of obsolescent military satellite microelectronics.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial satellites and many commercial electronics packages for use in harsh environments will benefit from the research towards rapid radiation hardened prototyping of obsolete microelectronics.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  LeGal, B., E. Casseau, P. Bomel, C. Jego, N. Le Heno, and E, Martin, High-Level Synthesis Assisted Rapid Prototyping for Digital Signal Processing, ICM 2004 Proceedings, 6-8 Dec. 2004, pp 746 - 749.

 

2.  Coussy, P., A. Baganne, and E. Martin, Communication and Timing Constraints Analysis for IP Design and Integration, Proc. VLSI-SOC Conference, pp. 38-43, December, 2003.

 

KEYWORDS: Radiation Hardened, Prototyping, Obsolescent Military Satellite Microelectronics, Fabrication, Design, Integration

 

 

 

AF093-082                           TITLE: Ultra Low Power Logic Device

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop ultra low power logic/memory device suitable for military communications satellite payload processing.

 

DESCRIPTION:  In order to provide the best affordable battlefield satellite communications support to tomorrows warfighter, military communications satellite payloads will likely grow in size, weight and complexity with significantly greater levels of power consumption. Because payload power consumption impacts payload weight, the Air Force would like to develop more power efficient communications processing microelectronics, allowing greater payload performance while maintaining spacecraft weight within the limits of a Medium Launch Vehicle lift capability.  Recent research suggests that innovative design techniques like energy recovery could reduce energy dissipation by at least a factor of two by minimizing voltage differences across conducting devices and by recovering charges from the load capacitors.  The purpose of this topic is to support the development of power efficient, reliable, high speed, Single Event Effect (SEE) immune static Random Access Memory (RAM) and/or device logic capable of operating with a supply voltage of 2.5 volts or less, access time < 10 ns, write energy <1E-10-14 J/Bit, retention time > 15 years, endurance > 109 read/write cycles.  Device technology developed under this SBIR topic must be capable of withstanding the full range of environmental effects from long term (15 years or more) Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) operation. Goals include Total Ionizing Dose (TID) tolerance > 1 Mrad (Si), SEE immunity < 1 X 10-9 errors/bit-day, latchup immunity, transient dose tolerance > 1 X 1012 rads (Si)/sec, operating temperature range -40 to +80 °C.

 

PHASE I:  Design an ultralow power memory cell and accompanying logic meeting the objectives identified above.  Conduct modeling and simulation to validate design functionally and in a radiation environment.

 

PHASE II:  Fabricate one or more prototype devices and characterize for relevant metrics, including power consumption, radiation hardness, bandwidth, and mean time to failure.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Military applications include communications satellites, avionics and ground terminals.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications include commercial satellites, commercial avionics and wireless telecommunications.

 

REFERENCES:

1. J. Kim, C.. Ziesler, M,. Papaefthymiou, Energy Recovering Static Memory, Proceedings of the International Symposium on  Low Power Electronics and Design Conference ISLPED02, pp 92-97, Monterey, California, USA, 2002.

 

2. Nose, K., and T. Sakurai. "Optimization of Vdd and Vth for Low-Power and High-Speed Applications," Proceedings of the Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference, pp. 469-474, Yokohama, Japan, January, 2000.

 

3. Schuster, C., et. al., Architectural and Technology Influence on the Optimal Total Power Consumption, DATE 2006, pp. 1-6., March 6-10, 2006.

 

KEYWORDS: microcircuit, microelectronics, low power, logic, low voltage, nanoscale, memory

 

 

 

AF093-083                           TITLE: Improved Cryogenic Cooling Technology

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Sensors, Electronics, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Improve jitter, mass, and /or power performance for electro-optical (EO) space payloads by improving performance of components of the cryocooling system.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Next generation missile warning and detection infrared sensing and on-board cryogenic cooling needs will require improvements in componentsy that reduce payload jitter, mass, and power budgets through improved thermal management of cooling loads and rejected heat. The issues associated with manufacturability are also of particular interest. All devices must be capable of 10 years operation in a space environment, including 300Krad total dose of radiation (ionizing and proton).

 

Some notional system within which the improved component will operate must be described. The nominal rejection sink of a usual payload is at 250-325 K and the minimal continuous duty lifetime is 10 years. Two axis gimbals operate across 0-359 degrees in azimuth and 0-90 degrees in elevation. High heat flux microcircuits of interest are the radiation hardened versions of various Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and variants of the Power PC CPU. Proposals concerned with waste heat rejection from or cooling load transfer to refrigerated cryogenic sensors must describe how the thermodynamic system notionally proposed supports 40 K or 110 K FPA cooling needs on the order of 2 or 12 W (respectively, 40 or 110 K) and 85 or 170 K optics cooling needs on the order of 20 W, or waste heat rejection on the order of 500 W. Multistage refrigeration is therefore an explicit requirement in these payloads. Showing how the component improvement would benefit currently available designs for space EO payload either as efficiency improvements or as reductions in payload budgets must be discussed in the proposal.

 

Mass improvements for gimbaled (or not) payloads are currently assessed relative to the following payload trade budgets:

0.3 kg/W of heat rejection for rejection radiator

0.2 kg/W of power input

30% of refrigerator mass and radiator for on gimbal cooling

 

Consequently, moving a 100 W input refrigerator of 10 kg mass off gimbal would save 0.3 x[10+ (0.3 x 100)] = 12 kg of payload mass. An alternative to save this same 12 kg mass penalty would be to increase cooling efficiency on gimbal so that the power input would be only 79.7 W. It should be obvious from this analysis approach that controlling size (up to an upper linear dimension limit of 2 meters) or component intrinsic mass is not an objective of this topic; instead, payload mass savings in excess of 10 kg are an objective.

 

This could include demonstration of a process or fundamental physical principle in a format that illustrates how this technology can be further developed and utilized in a space payload simulated in ground testing conditions. The Phase I should make plans to further develop and exploit this technology in Phase II.   Offerors are strongly encouraged to work with system,  payload, and/or refrigeration contractors to help ensure applicability of their efforts and work towards technology transition.

 

Demonstration of improvements for space payloads must be included.  The contractor should further commercialization of this innovation for the Phase III where they should have working relationships with, and support from system, payload, and/or refrigeration contractors.

 

PHASE I:  Phase I SBIR efforts should concentrate on the development of the fundamental concepts for either increased efficiency, manufacturability, reduced mass/cooling ratio, or reduced jitter of space EO payloads or their supported spacecraft.

 

PHASE II:  Phase II SBIR efforts should take the innovation of Phase I and design/develop/construct a breadboard device to demonstrate the innovation.  This device may not be optimized to flight levels but should demonstrate the potential of the prototype device to meet actual operational specifications.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Typical USAF military space applications for cryogenic sensing systems relate to infrared sensing, cryogen management, electronics cooling, and superconductivity.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  This technology has large market potential due to the increased efficiency and to the expected reduction in mass for cryogenic coolers in the telecommunications or health industries.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Roberts, T., and F. Roush, "USAF Thermal Management System Needs," Cryocoolers 15, the Proceedings of the 15th International Cryocooler Conference, 2008.

 

2.  Roberts, T., and F. Roush, "Cryogenic Refrigeration Systems as an Enabling Technology in Space Sensing Missions," Proceedings of the International Cryocooler Conference 14, 2007.

 

3.  Donabedian, M., and D. Gilmore, Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook, Plenum Press.  

 

4.  Rich, Michael, Marko Stoyanof, and Dave Glaister, "Trade Studies on IR Gimbaled Optics Cooling Technologies," IEEE Aerospace Applications Conference Proceedings, v. 5, p. 255-267, Snowmass at Aspen, CO, 21-28 Mar 1998.

 

5.  Razani, A., et. al., A Power Efficiency Diagram for Performance Evaluation of Cryocoolers, Adv. in Cryo. Eng., Vol. 49B, Amer. Inst. of Physics, Melville, NY; p. 1527-1535,  2004.

 

KEYWORDS: Cryocooler, Cryogenic, Infrared sensors, Cryogenic sensing, Infrared sensing, Reduced payload jitter

 

 

 

AF093-084                           TITLE: Low Power, Radiation Hardened Embedded Memory Compiler

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Electronics, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop low power, radiation hardened memory device suitable for insertion into future satellite mission.

 

DESCRIPTION: The Air Force seeks research related to the design and development of a memory compiler for radiation hardened memories to be embedded in high performance radiation hardened application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). High performance ASICs are expected to provide most of the processing functions in advanced satellite systems.  These devices require large amounts of on-chip memory to feed the high speed processing engines and to prevent memory bandwidth limitations from stalling the processors.  In the commercial realm, memory compilers are used to quickly design embedded memory blocks with a variety of different attributes including word length, physical aspect ratio, memory type (i.e., scratch pad, cache, first-in, first-out (FIFO), last-in, first -out (LIFO), single port, dual port, etc.), access time, and power dissipation.  ASICs for space applications are not supported by similar memory compilers, mainly due to the complications associated with developing compilers to incorporate the unique aspects of space electronics such as radiation hardness, low power, and reliability. The desired memory compiler should be suitable for fully scaled semiconductor processing technologies with critical dimensions below 100 nm.  The research should consider the unique requirements for space with particular emphasis on radiation hardness and low power operation.  Issues associated with continuous operation over missions extending from 10 to 20 years and design for end of life performance should be emphasized.  The research is expected to encompass the different types of embedded memory that may be needed in advanced ASICs and should indicate whether a single compiler or multiple compilers are needed to support the requirements.  Architectural issues such as a variety of word lengths, variable physical aspect ratios, use with single or multiple processors, support of three dimensional designs, requirements for error detection and correction (EDAC), bit spacing for mitigation of multiple bit upsets, and periodic scrubbing should be included in the research.  The performance goals for the compiled memories include:  (1) Operating temperature range of -40 deg. C. to +80 deg. C., (2) Total Ionizing Dose Tolerance > 300Krad (Si), (3) Immunity to catastrophic single event effects (e.g., single event latch-up) for particles with linear energy transfer (LET) levels up to 100 Mev-cm**2/mg, (4) Single event upset hardness for memory and registers less than 1.0E-10 errors per bit day for a geosynchronous orbit with one solar flare as estimated with the CREME96 code, and (5) no functional errors for single event transients less than 1.0 ns.

 

PHASE I:  Survey memory embedded memory requirements for high performance radiation hardened ASIC and devise an approach for a memory compiler to support radiation hardened, low power, reliable, embedded memory.

 

PHASE II:  Fabricate one or more prototypes and characterize for power consumption, access time, operating voltage, operating temperature range, and radiation tolerance including total dose, single event effects, transient dose effects and latch-up immunity.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Military applications include avionics, satellites and ground systems where low power and high performance ASICs with embedded memory are required for data and signal processing.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Custom ASICs are used in many commercial applications in harsh environments (temperature, radiation, long lifetimes).  The rad hard embedded memory compiler could also support those designs.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Itoh, Kiyoo, Reviews and Prospects of Low-Voltage Nano-Scale Embedded RAMs, Proc. 25th Conference on Microelectronics (MIEL 2006), 14-17 May, 2006.

 

2.  Itoh, K. "VLSI Memory Chip Design," Springer-Verlag, 2001.

 

KEYWORDS: Random Access Memory, access time, memory device, lookup table, data queue, instruction storage

 

 

 

AF093-086                           TITLE: Compact Type 1 Space Encryption Hardware

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  To establish an ultra-compact, ultra-low-power encryption/decryption solutions for embedded space applications.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Space systems necessarily employ encryption/decryption on their communications links, usually through dedicated box-level components referred to as encryption control unit (ECU).   ECUs play an obvious and important role in protecting satellite information, much as secure web technologies protect consumer financial information for ecommerce.  While ECUs in spacecraft are in common use, they have excessive size, weight, and power, which is a significant impediment to very small spacecraft (i.e. CubeSats, which are often smaller than a typical ECU!) and compete for limited resources even in larger, tactically oriented spacecraft. We are keenly interested in more effective solutions, specifically: (1) the creation of stand-alone ECUs capable of supporting multiple encryption/decryption channels at 100 megabits/sec in less than 250mW and within a 70x70x12.5mm envelope with traditional space environment (i.e. > 100krad(Si), no latchup, < 1 upset/year due to single event effects over a worst case temp range of -55 to +125 C). These solutions should support plug-and-play integration with other spacecraft components; (2) the creation of stand-alone ECUs capable of 1 Mbps in 10x10x4mm envelope at < 75mW (CubeSat compatible); (3) the creation of security provisions in plug-and-play interfaces, such as the appliqu sensor interface module. We believe these specifications admit a large range of creative technology innovations, such as advanced radiation-hardened microelectronics, advanced microelectronics packaging, and plug-and-play interfaces. Proposers are encouraged to explore the use of commercial algorithms such as AES, novel VLSI computation strategies, and to otherwise devise effective architectures for integration ECUs with other communications equipment.

 

PHASE I:  Phase I efforts should address the architecture, design, and supporting developments in concept, hardware, software, and any associated tooling/infrastructure relative to creating an effective target solution (or solution family).

 

PHASE II:  Phase II would seek a qualified implementation, to include component fabrication and test. The offeror would work with the government to establish viable demonstration cases. If successful, the project could be immediately transitioned to one or more advanced spacecraft insertions of direct interest to this organization.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: This technology could apply to modular reconfigurable radio frequency components for robust, terrestrial applications.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The need for encryption solutions are enduring and ubiquitous in the commercial world as well as the military.  Improved size, weight, and power solutions will directly impact a great number of terrestrial applications from mobile telephony to cloud computation / server farms and theft prevention systems in embedded applications.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Schneier, Bruce, "Applied Cryptography," John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1996.

 

2. Alexander, Dave, et.al., Affordable RadHard  An Impossible Dream?, Proceedings of the AIAA Small Sat Conference, August 11-14, 2008.

 

3. Lyke, Jim, et. al., (2005-04-25). "Space Plug-and-Play Avionics," Proceedings of the 3rd AIAA Responsive Space Conference, AIAA.

 

KEYWORDS: Encryption, Radiation-hardened electronics, Plug-and-play, Fault tolerance, Advanced packaging, Software defined radio

 

 

 

AF093-087                           TITLE: Autonomous Space Systems

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Research and develop autonomous flight software threat and anomaly detection and isolation algorithms to support the process of on-board event detection, planning, and task execution in order to enhance satellite responsiveness.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Today’s Air Force satellites are not equipped to respond to real-time events whether those are due to component failure, environmental, or man-made. This has the effect of requiring ground operations to identify, isolate, and mitigate most threats or to respond to opportunistic scenarios. Without embedded flight autonomy, the time to identify and respond to events can be on the order of days. Satellites are at increased risk because of these long timelines. In addition, some surveillance missions are less than effective with increased timelines resulting in the inability of warfighters to respond to observations. In support of future Responsive Space and Space Superiority missions, monitoring and command and control functionality, which traditionally has been hosted on the ground, needs to be migrated on-board the satellite. Investments have been made in developing specialized sensors to detect specific threats. What is needed is a more robust capability to detect and isolate non-deterministic events, plan resulting actions, and then execute activities. Events can be determined from either on-board sensors or as a result of on-board processing of sensor data. This requirement leads to several challenges. Detecting and correctly identifying events via telemetry, on-board sensors and/or environmental conditions are made difficult due to the difficulty in characterizing these events. Once identified, correct courses of action must be determined. To correctly perform this function, embedded knowledge of satellite state, operating constraints and mission objectives must be very accurately maintained. This on-board knowledge base is necessary to robustly plan resulting actions. Once these activities are determined they must then be properly executed in the correct sequence and at the appropriate times. The process described above involves several components which are too complex and beyond the scope of this effort . This topic focuses on the sub-problem of autonomous threat and anomaly detection and isolation.  Prototype software modules are sought which focus on anomaly and/or threat detection.  Desired solutions being sought would go beyond a traditional expert system deterministic reasoning system.  More innovative solutions to handle complex unanticipated anomalies are sought.  These would include but not be limited to machine learning, model-based, or case-based reasoning.  Anomalous conditions to explore would include component failure, co-orbital threats from space objects, or radio frequency (RF) interference.  The solutions chosen should be both robust and scalable in order to satisfy multiple mission requirements.

 

PHASE I:  For selected scenarios described above develop and demonstrate prototype threat detection and isolation algorithms. To the extent possible the research should leverage off of previous research in Failure Detection, Isolation and Recover (FDIR) and autonomous flight architectures. Particular emphasis should be placed on scalability and accuracy.

 

PHASE II:  Build on the architecture developed in Phase I and incorporate higher fidelity components at all levels. This phase will target a set of realistic scenarios and operating constraints. Phase II will culminate in a high fidelity prototype demonstration of the system that clearly shows the utility to Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Defensive Counterspace missions.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: This topic is addressing Space Superiority and Responsive Space missions. Initial target customer for this technology is the Space Superiority Office of SMC.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The associated technologies would be applicable to many NASA missions particularly those that are in deep space where bandwidth limitations are inhibitors to responsiveness.

 

REFERENCES:

1. NASA JPL NMP ST6 "Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment," http://nmp.jpl.nasa.gov/st6/TECHNOLOGY/sciencecraft_tech.html.

 

2. "Automation Issues for Satellite Operations," http://web.mit.edu/aeroastro/www/labs/ASL/satellite_autonomy/satellite_autonomy.html.

 

KEYWORDS: Defensive Counterspace, Space Situational Awareness, Autonomous Flight Software, Satellite Autonomy

 

 

 

AF093-088                           TITLE: Modular Cubesat Architectures and Components

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop modular hardware, software, architectures, and tools for sub-10kg satellite (CubeSat) platforms.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Small spacecraft, especially nanospacecraft and CubeSats (<10kg), have become popular to study due to their relative simplicity, and they are interesting as the basis for space missions due to lower launch cost.  But it is generally felt that these extremely simple spacecraft are mere curios, incapable of conducting "serious" missions of military utility.  If the challenges of size, weight, power, performance, and reliability can be overcome, CubeSats may eventually become a platform of choice for "designer spacecraft" tailored individually (or in small groups) for specific, quick-reaction mission needs.  The challenges in technology are clear: we must identify methods of achieving order-of-magnitude improvements in electronics (e.g., 25 giga-operations/watt, 100 giga-operations/cc), storage (1,000 GB/cc), power generation (e.g., >20W orbit average/"1U cube"), guidance/navigation (knowledge: ~50arc-sec/200cc; control: ~200arc-sec/200cc), communication (omni-access for broadcast telemetry at 10kbps at < 500mW orbit avg power), and other domains (for example, electro-optic, radar, and communications payloads that provide performance thresholds that are usually mission-specific).     Beyond this, we need to exploit solutions that provide the ability to quickly interchange components, allowing third-party component commoditization (as demonstrated in the "space plug-and-play avionics" technology, recently adapted for CubeSats).  We need tools that provide support of rapid development. This solicitation seeks the development of components and infrastructure supporting "cradle to grave" management of Cubesat platforms and constellations, from mission initiation to end-of-life operations, including modeling, simulation, analysis, design, development, fielding, operation, and deorbiting Cubesats.

 

PHASE I:  Find creative solutions to implement plug-and-play cubesat technologies in one or more of the aforementioned technology areas (addressing one or more of the "stretch goals"), with the goal of establishing feasibility with supporting analysis that provide a clear and compelling case for the use of CubeSats in one or more military missions.

 

PHASE II:  Develop to the degree practical demonstrations / prototypes (as applicable) of concepts produced from Phase 1 activities.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  CubeSats are expected to have a number of relevant military applications, to include space environment monitoring and possibly some simple communications and surveillance applications.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  CubeSats are being studied by over 100 organizations for a variety of purposes from material reliability to medicinal uses.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Lyke, J., S. Cannon, D. Fronterhouse, D. Lanza, and T. Byers, "A Plug-and-Play System for Spacecraft Components Based on the USB Standard," Proceedings of the 19th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites, Logan, UT, 8-11 August, 2005.

 

2. Whorton, Mark, Andy Heaton, Robin Pinson, Greg Laue, and Charles Adams. "NanoSail-D: The First Flight Demonstration of Solar Sails for NanoSatellites," Proceedings of the AIAA Small Satellite Conference, August 11-14, 2008, Logan, Utah.

 

3. McNutt, Chris, Robert Vick, Harry Whiting, and Jim Lyke.  "Modular Nanosatellites  (Plug-and-Play) PnP CubeSat", Proceedings of 7th Responsive Space Conference, April 2009, El Segundo, CA

 

KEYWORDS: satellite, miniaturization, nanosatellite

 

 

 

AF093-089                           TITLE: Component and Subsystem Development for Compact, Efficient LADAR Ranging

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the utility and address the technical challenges involved with the design and fabrication of an ultra-compact, high efficiency, long range. space qualified laser radara (LADAR), and key  components required for invisible or non-visible wavelengths to include short wavelength infrared (SWIR), medium wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR).

 

DESCRIPTION:  The Air Force Research Laboratory is interested in researching the technologies needed for ultra low power, ruggedized, compact ranging lasers (LADAR). In support of this objective, the laboratory is seeking proposals to research miniaturization of key components of these devices. We are envisioning highly innovative ranging and possible imaging applications which are highly efficient, light weight, space radiation tolerant and compact in size. These solutions should be high-risk, high-payoff approaches that will also support plug-and-play integration with other spacecraft components.  Offerers must identify an approach to explore the possible trade space in miniaturization for the proposed components to technology readiness level (TRL) 5-6 by the end of the phase II effort. Utilization of the proposed LADAR enabled by components developed in this effort may be in airborne or space applications

 

The objective laser should have a beam quality of less than two times the diffraction limit with a wall plug efficiency of better than 20%. This efficiency number must include all power conditioning required to ensure operation given standard 28V satellite bus power. All proposed components should support these technical requirements. Example components of interest may include but are not limited to: compact capacitors with high energy density, phase conjugation devices enabling multiple path laser amplifiers, and light compact isolators suitable for space.   Current lasers used in LADARs have beam qualities approaching an M2 value of 6 and power efficiencies of less than 10% and those require masses and volumes in the 100kg, 1ft3 size range.  We are interested in components that will help reduce the mass of the subsystem to 10% or less of the current designs.

 

We believe these specifications admit a large range of creative technology innovations, including new classes of lasers, and associated power conditioning electronics and other optical components. Proposers are encouraged to explore the use of commercial and airborne algorithms to devise effective architectures for integration with future small spacecraft systems.

 

PHASE I:  The contractor will investigate the hardware and software architecture, design, and supporting developments that would be necessary to create an effective and valid solution. An effective path to space qualification must be identified. If feasible, prototype hardware with proof of concept data is strongly encouraged.

 

PHASE II:  The contractor will seek a qualified implementation, to include component fabrication and test. The offerer would work with the government to establish potential demonstration scenarios. If successful, the project could be immediately transitioned to one or more advanced spacecraft insertions of direct interest to this organization.

 

PHASE III /DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  The research into these technologies could apply to future Space Situational Awareness (SSA) missions as well as provide modular reconfigurable components for robust, terrestrial applications. Potential utilization in future small satellite system experiments would be of particular benefit.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  These technologies could be implemented in future work and development of docking systems for manned or unmanned space missions and could also have utility for airborne and space applications, including weather related ranging.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Alexander, Dave, et al. Affordable Rad Hard An Impossible Dream?, Proceedings of the AIAA Small Sat Conference, August 11-14, 2008.

 

2.  Lyke, Jim, et al., "Space Plug-and-Play Avionics," Proceedings of the 3rd AIAA Responsive Space Conference, AIAA (2004-04-25).

 

3.  LIDAR in Space Technology Experiment (LiTE), NASA Langley Center.

 

4.  Berthier, S., P. Chazette, J. Pelon, P. Couvert, and T. Pain, "Cloud layer statistics from spaceborne lidar observation," International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies, Leipzig, Germany, 2003.

 

5.  Hostetler, C. A., J. W. Hair, and A. L. Cook, "A Compact Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Observations of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties," 21st International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), Quebec City, Quebec, 2002.

 

6.  Ricklin, J., B. Schumm, and P. Tomlinson, (DARPA), "Synthetic Aperture Ladar for Tactical Imaging (SALTI) Flight Test Results and Path Forward."

 

KEYWORDS: Space qualified LADAR, IR ranging, visible ranging, High energy density capacitors, phase conjugation devices, high efficiency rangers

 

 

 

AF093-090                           TITLE: Responsive, Pre-launch and On-orbit, Electro-Optical Sensor Characterization and Calibration

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Space Platforms

 

OBJECTIVE: This SBIR topic explores new ideas for achieving a dramatic reduction in timescales for on-orbit sensor calibration & telescope pointing verification, while preserving high calibration fidelity.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Space-based electro-optical (E-O) sensing provides revolutionary capability for a variety of Department of Defense (DoD) missions, yet the timescales traditionally needed for attaining high fidelity image data products remain long. Specifically, on-orbit calibration of E-O systems typically requires significantly more time than the desired ~24 hour goal for Operationally Responsive Space missions.  The same remarks also apply to commercial satellite imagery.

 

These space-based imaging sensors comprise a telescope assembly that focuses radiation onto an array of detectors whose temperature is often carefully regulated. In the infrared region, the focal plane array (FPA) is typically cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Calibration of pixel non-uniformities is often in the form of a two-point non-uniformity correction (NUC), where known (calibrated) photon fluxes at high and low extremes are compared with signal outputs from the individual pixels, thereby establishing a gain and offset calibration for each pixel. Given the sensitivity of dark current to FPA temperature, particularly in the infrared, the NUC typically applies over a narrow range of temperatures and will therefore not be immediately beneficial for the sensor that has recently reached orbit and is still equilibrating in temperature.

 

This SBIR topic emphasizes R&D on technologies & techniques for accelerated on-orbit calibration.  R&D on proposed approaches, e.g., improved radiometric and sensor non-uniformity calibration using novel, on-sensor calibration sources (flood & radiometric), or using the calibration star network or ground-based calibration sites that provide uniform radiance over the FPA, might be coupled with processor subsystems that implement the relevant algorithms. Calibration algorithms and associated novel hardware involving advanced concepts for non-equilibrium calibration might include compensating for FPA temperature instabilities (especially for the infrared) and for the out-gassing of particles in the telescopes near-field (of significant interest due to their reflected solar radiation and their thermal emission in the long wave infra-red), are also of interest. For example, a side car approach that implements NUC in proximity to the FPA, based on temperature readings and calibrated scene input onto the FPA, is one possible approach.  Rapid pre-launch characterization & calibration of the E-O sensor also forms an integral part of the overall strategy for achieving a calibrated sensor in orbit, by defining hardware and algorithmic approaches that enable a minimal set of pre- and post-launch calibration activities needed to achieve the desired timeliness.

 

In addition to radiometric calibration issues, improved methods involving hardware and algorithmic subsystems are sought for a timely initial pointing calibration, including advanced concepts for rapid latitude-longitude determination from initial image products.  These initial products might miss the targeted structured scenes (e.g., cities) which facilitate pointing calibration.

 

PHASE I:  The successful offeror would develop proposed hardware and algorithmic concepts that relate to an overall strategy for rapid and improved calibration of space E-O sensors. R&D, analysis, and empirical verifications will be performed.

 

PHASE II:  The successful Phase II offeror would quantify his/her strategy with demonstrations, either laboratory-based or involving scheduled tactical satellite launches on a target of opportunity basis.  Hardware prototypes based on these quantifications would be readied for demonstration.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Missile warning, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), and space-based imaging in general.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Earth observing and imagery:  commercial satellites require up to 30 days to begin returning useful data products (private communication with large aerospace company); this SBIR would shortened these timescales.

 

REFERENCES:

1. CALCON Technical Conference: http://www.spacedynamics.org/conferences/calcon/.

 

2. Thurgood, Alan, and Paul LeVan, Rapid, pre-launch & on-orbit Electro-Optical (EO) sensor calibration, AFRL RV-PSTP-2008-1003, 2008.

 

3. Price, S. D., et al., "Absolute Infrared Calibration of Standard Stars by the Midcourse Space Experiment,"AFRL VS-HA-TR-2004-1109, 2006.

 

4. Arnold, G. S., et al., J. Spacecraft, 26, (5) pp 358-367, 1989.

 

5. Lynch, David K. and Ray W. Russell, The detection of cryogenic water ice contaminants and the IR AI&T environment, Proc. of the SPIE, Vol. 4130, pp 108-118, 2000.

 

KEYWORDS: space, sensor calibration, focal plane arrays, infrared, visible wavelength

 

 

 

AF093-092                           TITLE: Space and Operational Environmental Protection for Thin Multijunction Solar Cells

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop a flexible space protective coating for thin multijunction solar cells that enables their practical application in flexible high performance solar arrays to realize very high specific power and highly stowable arrays for satellite power generation systems.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Advanced multijunction space solar cell technology with efficiencies (>33%) is being realized now through devices based on a novel new inverted growth process.  In addition to high efficiency, the solar cells resulting from this new growth process are thin and flexible. The thin, flexible nature of these devices allows them to be stowed in a rolled configuration, which opens up the possibility of using innovative solar array deployment and support structures. Innovative solar array configurations could achieve quantum leap levels of solar array specific power (W/kg) and stowed volume efficiency (kW/m3). Typical array metrics today are a specific power of ~60-70 W/kg and a stowed volume efficiency of ~13 kW/m3.  A flexible protective coating coupled with novel array deployment and support structures has the potential of achieving a specific power of 600 W/kg and a stowed volume efficiency approaching 70 kW/m3. Therefore, an innovative space environmental protection scheme is sought for the thin, flexible solar cells that maintains the flexible nature of the device. The desired coating must maintain its flexibility while protecting the solar cell from ionizing radiation, atomic oxygen (LEO), humidity (pre-launch), and high voltage discharge. The entire coating stack (Adhesive, Cover Glass, Anti Reflective, and Conductive Electrostatic Discharge) must have high transparency in the wavelengths that the solar cell is active (300 nm to 1800 nm), and maintain this high level of transparency (>90%) when subjected to the space environment exposure. Desired design life is 5 years in LEO and 15 years in GEO. The coatings must also have high thermal emissivity and resist cracking during flexing and thermal cycling of the solar cells.

 

PHASE I:  Design a representative prototype for the proposed coating technology. Show feasibility of coating with solar cell technology traceable to 33% designs.   Limited pathfinder space environmental exposure testing of the coating is encouraged.

 

PHASE II:  Using the lessons learned from fabricating and testing prototype articles in Phase I, continue work to optimize and increase the transition readiness level (TRL) of the advanced coating. The prototype should be subjected to a complete complement of pathfinder space environmental testing.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  All DOD Spacecraft use multijunction space solar cells for electric power generation. Thin solar cells with high efficiency will increase the power producing capability of military spacecraft.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial communications spacecraft and NASA spacecraft would use this technology.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Aiken, D. J., High Performance Anti-Reflection Coatings for Broadband Multi-Junction Solar Cells, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 64 (2000), 393-404.

 

2. Martinu, L. and D. Poitras, Plasma Deposition of Optical Films and Coatings: A Review, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 18(6), 2000, 2619-2645.

 

KEYWORDS: solar cells, coverglass, coatings, space

 

 

 

AF093-095                           TITLE: High Performance High Reliability Weapon Bus Switch

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  This topic will investigate innovative Fibre Channel switching technologies that are compatible with the existing Mil-Std-1760E Interface Standard and smart small and micro-munitions.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The proliferation of smart small (250 to 50 pounds), micro-munitions (50 to 5 pounds) and/or small electronic stores has created a need for new technology that supports reliable, high performance, small size and low cost data bus switching systems for operational applications.  New technology is required for the warfighter or end-user to fully utilize the high speed data transfer potential provided by the Mil-Std-1760E interface standard which includes Fibre Channel for high speed data transmission.  Data is required by smart attack weapons to remain on course, steer and/or navigate to their desired aim-point, avoiding flight path deflection and countermeasure threats.  The Mil-Std-1760E interface standard specifies platform to weapon functional and electrical interfaces.  It was developed prior to the proliferation of smart small and micro-munitions.   Current Fibre Channel switch technology is bulky, slow, expensive and is not efficient for high mission load outs of a new class of smart small, micro-munitions and/or stores.  These new classes of munitions and stores have stringent requirements for mass quantities of error-free, high speed, efficient and standardized format data.  Even though Fibre Channel supports extremely high speed data transmissions at or above 1 Ghz (1 billion bits per second), system designers and end users must accept significant reductions in overall system performance, due to inefficiency, and /or antiquated Fibre Channel switch system or data bus router technologies.  This topic will explore and investigate new technology applied to rerouting and/or retransmission of high speed Fibre Channel data packages to two or more smart stores, without significant loss of overall transmission speed or functional throughput.  All advanced programming architectures and digital processing techniques should be considered.  The goal would be the development of technology supporting zero or no loss of data transmission speed, accuracy and latency.  In addition, new technology should give consideration to component size, cost, manufacturability, and performance reliability.  Ideally, this innovative technology would be retrofittable to existing systems which utilize Fibre Channel technology.

 

PHASE I:  The Phase I effort will investigate and develop innovative technology leading to improved performance and overall system throughput of Mil-Std-1760E Fibre Channel data bus packages to two or more smart small and micro-munitions and/or stores. A Phase I final report will document all findings.

 

PHASE II:  The Phase II effort will address user requirements, prototype the hardware and verify performance of technology concept/s developed under Phase I.  A Phase II final report will document all findings, discoveries, test results, and performance evaluations.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: This topic will address technologies that would assist smart small and micro-munitions guidance to remain on course, and navigate to their desired target aim-point, avoiding flight path deflection.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The commercial application supports the development of technology supporting zero or no loss of data transmission speed, accuracy and latency to commercial data bus routing and/or switching.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), Mil-Std-1760E adds Fibre Channel to Interface,http://www.sae.org/servlets/index

 

2. Fibre Channel Industry Association (FCIA) , Fibre Channel Roadmap

 

3. INCITS technical committee responsible for FC standards,This is the WWW home page for Technical Committee T11, which is the committee within INCITS responsible for Fibre Channel Interfaces. T11 (previously known as X3T9.3) has been producing interface standards for high-performance and mass storage applications since the 1970s.

 

KEYWORDS: fibrechannel, bus-switch, bus-router

 

 

 

AF093-096                           TITLE: Non-Conventional (Non-Nuclear) Techniques for Defeating HDBT/UGF

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Determine an ideal material/geometry configuration for a warhead capable of maintaining stability in sand and continuing on to penetrate concrete.  Revolutionize target neutralization mechanisms.

 

DESCRIPTION:  A fascinating topic in the defeat of hard and deeply buried target (HDBT) defeat is the penetration of sand and other granular media. The Air Force Research Laboratory, along with many other government organizations, has conducted many studies to quantify and qualify the performance of various metals involved in a sand penetration event. Likewise, more research has led warhead engineers to consider the use of novel nose shapes in order to increase the performance of a warhead involved in these events. Unfortunately, many of these nose shapes are not suitable for concrete penetration. In some instances a hardened target (rock, concrete, etc.) may be located under a layer of sand or a similar geologic material.

 

This target set demands a unique and creative approach to combining a removable nose shape capable of delivering the warhead through sand with one optimized for the penetration of hard materials. Materials considered for this external sheath should be highly wear- and friction- resistant. Once this temporary nose has proven its utility in completing the sand penetration portion of the event, it will slough off and give way to the interior metal portion of the warhead. There are many candidate materials ranging from lightweight composites and plastics to alumina based ceramics, earthen materials, and even structurally functional biologic materials such as chitin that could be considered for this purpose. Recent developments in friction welding and other material bonding techniques will also be very important to this research effort.

 

Additionally, we seek to identify and assess other potential approaches to neutralize underground facilities (UGF).  We are not interested in either larger or nuclear kinetic energy penetrators, but for other original methods for disrupting, degrading, or destroying an UGF/HDBT.

 

Innovative solutions requiring ingenuity in both material selection, warhead geometry, and proper terminal delivery methods (if applicable) will help establish the technical feasibility of this idea.

 

PHASE I:  Select candidate materials and geometries. Perform subscale testing into layered sand/concrete targets or demonstrate feasibility of non-traditional UGF/HDBT neutralization mechanisms.

 

PHASE II:  Optimize the materials, designs, and methods from the previous phase. Down-select and perform mid-scale testing. Couple testing with modeling and simulation to validate and verify results.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Development of novel abrasion- and wear-resistant materials & mechanisms for application to metal surfaces.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Development of low-cost, long-life abrasion resistant materials for manufacturing.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Defense Modeling and Simulation Office. Online M&S Glossary. DoD 5000.59M. Washington: Department of Defense <www.dmso.mil/public/resources/glossary>.

 

2.  U.S. Patent 6601516: Super-cavitating penetrator warhead.

 

3.  Defense Tech Briefs: Dynamic Cavity Formation Imaging, 31 March 2006.  Available at http://www.defensetechbriefs.com/content/view/1085/34/1/1/.

 

4.  J.P. Borg, T.J. Vogler, Mesoscale simulations of a dart penetrating sand, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Volume 35, Issue 12, Hypervelocity Impact Proceedings of the 2007 Symposium - HVIS 2007, December 2008, pp. 1435-1440.

 

5.  M.J. Forrestal, V. K. Luk, Penetration into soil targets, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Volume 12, Issue 3, 1992, pp. 427-444.

 

KEYWORDS: Warhead, penetrator, bunker buster, sand, penetration, nose, bomb, munition, low collateral damage, LCD, ordnance, damage mechanisms, UGF, penetration mechanics, concrete

 

 

 

AF093-097                           TITLE: Modeling Techniques for Assessing Counter-Electronic Effects

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Objective is to evaluate approaches for assessing CE effects & define the engineering level method that provides an acceptable approach.  Possible Solutions include CNA, EA, High Power Microwave

 

DESCRIPTION:  The Air Force has need for new and innovative engineering level methods of assessing  damage and upset on electronic equipment when the details of the equipment, its enclosure, and surrounding geometrical configuration is not well known.  Classical methods of analysis (such as hydrocodes and solving maxwell's equations directly) are not well suited, because they often times require geometrical detail which may not be sufficiently known.   Additionally, the high fidelity methods are often too time consuming and narrowly focused to a specific effect.

 

The objective of this SBIR topic is to evaluate the current approaches used to assess counter-electronic effects and define a new software tool that alleviates the shortfalls currently associated with these methodologies and provides a more robust and universally acceptable approach.  The offerers will focus on methods that directly yield observables of interest, e.g., probability of effect (damage, upset), sensitivity to mitigating effects, and quantification of effectiveness with the uncertainties associated with the target to name a few.

 

As an example, statistical electromagnetic methods have found applicability to ElectrioMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO) problems in highly reverberant spaces but have not been used for counter-electronic effects.

 

The resulting software tool will be used to evaluate current and conceptual weapon systems in varied environments.  Examples of the scenarios could range from disrupting one component such as a computer, deny or disrupt electronics in a targeted structure or disrupt electronics over an area.

 

The focus and concern for this research is often times the uncertainties of the target (such as exact location of the elements we wish to disrupt, layout of the target, etc.) are not known.  There still exists a need to evaluate effectiveness of weapon systems with this minimal knowledge.  A stochastic type tool that can analyze these situations and deliver sensitivity of the system to these variables is needed.   This code would still be required to contain physics based methods but not at the level of First Principle codes.

 

PHASE I:  Research the available methodologies and assess their capabilities (or lack of) as they relate to this problem.  Define capability gaps and devise a method to address them within the guidelines of this research. If possible develop a prototype tool to demonstrate methodology capability.

 

PHASE II:  The offerers will identify data sources required (geometry, threats, susceptibilities), how those data will be acquired, and how those data would be utilized in the new methodology. The offerers will develop and deliver the required software module The offerers will outline a verification and validation program leading to accreditation of the methodology for use in DoD analysis applications.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  The resultant software model will be utilized in analysis of alternative studies for weapon systems.  This engineering level capability will be unique, allowing evaluation of weapon capabilities.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The technology produced via this SBIR will allow for simulation of electronic infrastructure to assess vulnerability as well as aid in design of mitigation schemes for commercial applications.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  ELECTRONIC WARFARE, 25 JANUARY 2007, JOINT PUBLICATION 3-13.1

 

2. AIR FORCE INSTRUCTION 10-706, 30 NOVEMBER 2007, ELECTRONIC WARFARE (EW) OPERATIONS

 

KEYWORDS: Electronic, countermeasure, stochastic, electronic, model, simulation

 

 

 

AF093-098                           TITLE: High Density or Multi-Functional Compact Power Source

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Ground/Sea Vehicles, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Establish approaches to increase power density for application in small unmanned autonomous systems and/or allow other system components to store energy while still performing their intended functions

 

DESCRIPTION:  Current power systems lack adequate energy to fully utilize the electronic systems on weapons and smaller platforms such as small unmanned autonomous systems (SUAS) and micro autonomous systems (MAS) for extended periods of time.  This causes both range and loiter time for aircraft and munitions to be less than desired.  Worse, it necessitates that some electronic systems stay powered down and not become fully functional until right before engagement of target.  This means that advanced electronics are not being used to their full potential and instead are simply acting as dead weight until activated.  This eliminates an array of possible data and information that could be used to aid the mission.  A system capable of having more on-board power would allow for prolonged sensor use and greater transmitting ranges allowing more eyes on more targets for longer periods of time.  This is an extremely difficult problem to address when dealing with weapons, SUAS, and MAS due to the size and weight constraints.  We seek a paradigm shift in how energy is stored in these small systems, whether that means more densely stored energy, required components that can also function as energy storage devices, a combination, or any other manner as long as more energy is put into these smaller systems.

 

PHASE I:  Survey representative and future weapons, SUAS, and MAS and develop a power increasing concept that is viable for implementation on such systems. The effort should identify concepts and methods to increase on-board energy storage without adding much total weight and develop manufacturing approaches.

 

PHASE II:  Develop and demonstrate a design based on the best approach or approaches from Phase I concepts.  Establish performance parameters through experiments and prototype fabrication.  The offeror shall develop viable demonstration cases acceptable to the sponsor.  Explore opportunities for transitioning the new power concept to fielded or newly developed SUAS and MAS.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  This effort will benefit the military by increasing the efficiency and applicability of all weapons and small platforms such as SUAS and MAS.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial benefits include more available power for everything from toys to laptops to backup power systems.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Roos, J.G. For want of batteries Armed Forces Journal, 142(4): 4-5, Nov 2004.

 

2.  Ritter, S. Biofuels Cells Get Smaller. Chemical & Engineering News, 79(36), 10, Mar 2001.

 

3.  Roberts, S.C., Aglietti, G.S. Satellite multi-functional power structure: feasibility and mass savings. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, part G (Journal of Aerospace Engineering), 222(G1): p41-51, Feb 2008.

 

KEYWORDS: multi-functional devices, dense power sources, compact power

 

 

 

AF093-100                           TITLE: Laser Beacon for Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF) and Combat Identification

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop an inexpensive multispectral IFF device that can be worn or used by a Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) or used on a Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS) for close air support missions.

 

DESCRIPTION:  A need exists for the development of a multi-color, hemispherical-emitting, pulsed-source that emits in designated Near Infrared (NIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) and Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) wavebands.  Such a unit is needed for small UAS and man-worn identification or for placement on the ground.  It would enable aircraft to positively identify (PID) allies in a Global Positioning System (GPS)-denied environment. 

 

A novel device could be developed using high efficiency arrays of room temperature NIR, MWIR, LWIR, and green lasers just now becoming available.  Such a unit would be small and could be man-worn, or placed on the ground and would be visible by coalition aircraft laser targeting sensors and ground forces.  It must also be eye safe at the aperture. 

 

The goal of this proposed program is to replace the limited capability devices currently being used with a small, battery powered version for man-wearable and air dropped applications.   A recent technological breakthrough has allowed a millimeter-sized laser diode to emit > 0.5 W optical power in the MWIR band at room temperature.  This and similar recent technological breakthroughs could be leveraged to field lightweight, high-output systems to meet this critical war fighter need.

 

This topic solicits novel concepts and technologies in design, development, and demonstration of components, subsystems, and systems for a multispectral beacon meeting the following goals:

 

- The source should be able to emit all bands simultaneously, or in a programmed fashion in a number of spectral regions of interest to the Air Force.

- The device must be eye safe and be easily detectable at long distances (greater than 10 nautical miles) by current targeting pods.

- The device must have the capability to be modulated to enable friendly identification and data transfer. These spectral regions include but are not limited to the NATO laser designator wavelength and Night Vision Goggle (NVG) waveband (860nm); 1064 nm (NATO Code Compliant), and 1550 nm, and MWIR/LWIR bands.

 

-  Size Weight and Power: < 120 cm3; < 0.5 lbs; internally powered for > 4 hours

-  Full hemispherical coverage desired

-  Emission in designated NIR, MWIR and/or LWIR wavebands

-  Adjustable frequency between 0.25 and 60Hz (goal for much higher than 60Hz)

-  Operating Temperature range between -40 and +60 °C (goal)

- Power efficiency to work with existing CR123 photobattery power sources (1 to 4 hours on 4 CR123 maximum)

 

PHASE I:  Develop initial concept design(s) and model key component elements for a long range multispectral beacon device(s).  Establish performance goals and develop experiments for laboratory and field demonstrations. Develop a model to predict performance for operational targeting pods and sensors.

 

PHASE II:  Develop prototype IFF devices and demonstrate in laboratory and realistic operational environment to assess their operational suitability over extended environmental operating conditions. Develop a drawing package for production of the devices and produce a limited quantity of prototype devices for field trials. Investigate higher frequency pulsed operation for data transfer.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  This system could be used in numerous military applications where identification and tracking are necessary for example, in overseas peacekeeping operations or in search and rescue operations.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  This system could be used in a broad range of civilian security applications where identification and tracking are necessary including airports, train/ship yards, and emergency vehicles.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Razeghi, M., Slivken, S., Bai, Y., and Darvish, S. R., The Quantum Cascade Laser: A Versatile and Powerful Tool, Optics and Photonics News, July/August 2008, Pages 42-47.

 

2.  Achtenhagen, M., Amarasinghe, N.V., and Evans, G.A.: "High-power distributed Bragg reflector lasers operating at 1065 nm", Electron. Lett., 2007, 43, (14), pp. 757-759.

 

3. M. Achtenhagen, W.D. Bragg, J. O Daniel and P. Young, Efficient green-light generation from waveguide crystal, Electron. Lett., 2008, 48, (16), pp.

 

4.  M.L. Osowski, R.M. Lammert, S.W. Oh, D. Qian, and J.E. Ungar, High Power Frequency Stabilized Surface Emitting Arrays, Osowski-SSDLTR 2005, poster session.

 

KEYWORDS: Sensors, laser diodes, video, surveillance, IFF, search and rescue, Infrared beacon, MWIR, LWIR, target marking, SUAS

 

 

 

AF093-101                           TITLE: Hyperspectral and Persistent Sensor Signal Processing Platform and Algorithms

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop next generation hardware and computing algorithms for hyperspectral and multi-sensor image processing, sensor fusion, mission planning, command-and-control, simulation and test.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The Air Force has requirements to identify and track hundreds of ground moving objects from large volumes of persistent sensor data from multiple airborne sensors in multiple spectra.   This requirement addresses the need to dynamically reallocate power and processing in real time to accommodate varying data bandwidths from disparate sensors in different mission modes. The goal of this topic is to optimize sensor revisit rates, reduce and minimize sensor operator workload, and provide real time fuzed data to the analyst/weapons controller. The need also exists to simultaneously execute physics based prediction models of atmospheric, target signature, and background signatures to aid is assisted target recognition.  

 

This effort aims to develop field ground station and airborne solutions that will provide high resolution, high speed processing for detection and tracking to aid in the accomplishment of reconnaissance and mission planning duties.  Disparate sensors on a platform range from Radio Frequency (RF), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), broad area Infrared (IR) and Electro-Optic (EO) Imaging arrays, and in the future potentially laser radar.   For an airborne solution, reallocation of power and processing will be required in order accommodate varying data bandwidths, in real time, from disparate sensors in different mission modes. Recent advances in high performance compact heterogeneous computing solutions may be able to address these technology shortfalls within the constraints of low power availability on unmanned aircraft.

 

This effort should address tracking, identification, fusion, and modeling algorithms based on heterogeneous execution on system components, including Central Processing Units (CPUs), General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GP-GPUs), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs). Offerors will be required to analyze and estimate overall algorithm execution rates given heterogeneous execution on system components.  The system to be developed will be required to simulate (and/or demonstrate) suitability to accomplish persistent surveillance, and multi-spectral search, detect, and track missions with target ranges that consider real operational requirements.

 

PHASE I:  Perform an analysis of sensor processing, discrimination and tracking algorithm partition and heterogeneous hardware platforms suitable for such algorithms.   Simulate/demonstrate suitability of the approach for persistent surveillance, and IR search and track missions with operational requirements.

 

PHASE II:  Develop a prototype hardware and software solution based on the results of Phase I design and experiments.  Using real sensor data from Government sources, demonstrate the ability of different form-factors to process this data, with an emphasis on avionic/embedded applications for transition to small manned and unmanned sensor platforms.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Military applications include Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS), real time exploitation ground stations for hyperspectral and persistent surveillance imagery and other airborne/space platforms.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications include geophysics exploration, medical diagnostics and imaging, nuclear medicine, automated manufacturing, seismic monitoring, and computational fluid dynamics modeling.

 

REFERENCES: 

1. Vladimir I. Ovod; Christopher R. Baxter; Mark A. Massie; Nicholas I. Rummelt; Paul L. McCarley,  FPGA-based processor for high frame-rate target detection on cluttered backgrounds using LVASI sensors, Proceedings Vol. 6206 Infrared Technology and Applications XXXII, Bjrn F. Andresen; Gabor F. Fulop; Paul R. Norton, Editors, 62061,  18 May 2006

 

2.  Mark Duchaineau, Jonathan D. Cohen, Sheila Vaidya, Toward Fast Computation of Dense Image Correspondence on the GPU, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, High Performance Embedded Computing Workshop, 18-20 September, 2007. http://www.ll.mit.edu/HPEC/agendas/proc07/Day2/24_Duchaineau_Pres.pdf

 

3.  Michael Roeder, Jeremy Furtek, Nolan Davis, Cezario Tebcherani, Masatoshi Tanida and Dennis Braunreiter, "Power Consumption of Desktop and Mobile GPUs for IRSTAP Applications," High Performance Embedded Computing (HPEC) Workshop, 23-25 September 2008 http://www.ll.mit.edu/HPEC/agendas/proc08/Day2/16-Roeder-Presentation.ppt

 

4.  U. Thomas , F. Kurz , D. Rosenbaum, R. Mueller , P. Reinartz, “GPU-Based Orthorectification of Digital Airborne Camera Images in Real Time”, http://www.isprs.org/congresses/beijing2008/proceedings/1_pdf/100.pdf

 

5.  B. McMillian, D. Ferguson, G. McMillian, D. Snyder, “ Multipath RDMA for Instrumentation” , ITEA Journal, 2008: 29, p. 301-309. http://www.itea.org/files/2008/2008%20Journal%20Files/September%202008/jite-29-03-04.pdf

 

KEYWORDS: graphics, avionic, hyperspectral, image processing, mission planning, sensor fusion, pattern matching, tracking

 

 

 

AF093-102                           TITLE: Microladar collision avoidance and target detection technology

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop and demonstrate an innovative approach for micro-laser radar (LADAR) technologies in support of Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS) object avoidance and targeting applications.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The use of SUAS in support of military operations is becoming common place.  SUAS are typically operated at very low altitudes and operators must navigate amongst obstacles such as buildings, towers, guide wires, trees, etc.  In many cases, obstacles are not observed via operator video link until to late.  There is a need for a short range capability to identify possible obstacles to the operator in time to avoid the obstacle and to facilitate landings.  In addition to operating SUAS safely, these platforms are being explored as a possible weapons delivery platform.  A key objective is to accurately target the SUAS against specific ground targets (i.e., dive the platform into the target).  

 

This effort looks at researching and developing technology for short range micro-LADAR technologies that can fit within the size, weight, and power (SWaP) constraints of SUAS.  Lowered SWaP will enable use of LADAR on previously inaccessible platforms (SUASs, micro-munitions, etc.).   Successful bidders will adapt micro-LADAR related technologies that can meet SWaP goals of 2 lbs, 0.25 cubic ft, 150 Watts for a small UAS and smaller for micro UAS (8 cubic inch (2 x 2 x 2), 50 gram or less goal).  Meeting SWaP goals is not critical for the initial demonstration but a path to reach the goals must be identified. 

 

The long term goal of this effort is to reduce SWaP and cost to support SUAS systems including hand and air launched systems.  Military SUAS applications for short range micro-LADAR applications include: collision avoidance/situational awareness; docking/refueling/recovery; landing assistance; terrain following, target detection/targeting; wire detection and other applications.

 

Expectations are that SWaP goals can be met by replacing heavy and/or power consumptive mechanics with chip-scale non-mechanical laser scanners and/or replacing traditional high power laser transceivers with Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) laser diode transceivers. The critical need is to address the two foremost impediments to micro-LADAR SWaP reduction: the mechanical scanners and the high power lasers.

 

Micro-LADAR ranges in excess of 100 meters are desired with 500 meters as a goal. For low altitude terrain following, forward and down-looking modes drive the scan rate and pulse repetition rate requirements. For collision avoidance and landing, longer ranges/larger apertures are required with 360 degrees in elevation coverage and 270 degrees in azimuth (forward and either side). For terrain following/targeting applications, less than 6 inch spot size is required with less than 3 inch desired. From 300 meters altitude at least 240 pixels should be generated for a vehicle sized target.  Eye safe operation is desired to facilitate ease in deployment for hand launch applications.

 

Signal processing should account for scan nonlinearity due to platform motion, multiple returns from tree canopies or camouflage, and pulse stretching due to clouds or aerosols. The system should discriminate either first or last pulse in the sensor electronics. The micro-LADAR should have an interface to both common UAS autopilot Guidance Navigation Control (GNC) systems and to telemetry data links for compressed imagery transmission and reporting. This program should integrate developed component technologies, interfaces, and software necessary to demonstrate in the laboratory and or field. Collect and analyze return data for multiple UAS flight scenarios, tree canopy, road following and target imaging. Define signal processing requirements either alone or in conjunction with imaging systems to identify closing air targets or ground targets.

 

PHASE I:  Perform an analysis of critical component technologies and a design concept for less than a short range micro-LADAR radar system. Develop and demonstrate in a laboratory setting, experiments to validate component suitability for small UAS applications.

 

PHASE II:  Develop, demonstrate, and validate integrated brassboard prototype sensors for tower and if possible, flight test for intended applications. Develop a miniaturization plan to produce a fieldable version for in-situ functional performance verification on Air Force small UAS platforms.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Military applications include SUAS navigation, collision avoidance, perimeter security, weapon fuzing, and targeting.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications include ground vehicle collision avoidance, airline ground maneuvering, machine vision, aerial refueling, space craft docking, package sorting, and precision farming

 

REFERENCES:

1. Analog, non-mechanical beam-steerer with 80 degree field of regard,

Author(s): Scott R. Davis; George Farca; Scott D. Rommel; Alan W. Martin; Michael H. Anderson, SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6971;Acquisition, Tracking, Pointing, and Laser Systems Technologies XXII, Steven L. Chodos; William E. Thompson, Editors, 24 March 2008

 

2. Miniature Laser Rangefinders and Laser Altimeters, J. Geske, M. H. MacDougal, R. P. Stahl, Aerius Photonics, Ventura, CA, USA, J. Wagener, US Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin AFB, FL, USA and D. R. Snyder, US Air Force, Crestview, FL, USA; 2008 IEEE Avionics Fiber-Optics and Photonics Conference, Avionics Fiber-Optics & Photonics Conference, San Diego, California, 30 September - 2 October 2008.

 

3. Sense and Avoid for Small UAS, David Maroney, Robert Bolling; MITRE Corp; AUVSI DC Capitol Chapter; http://www.auvsidccapitol.net/images/UAS-Innov-Exch-for-AUVSIDC.pdf

 

KEYWORDS: Micro-LADAR, laser radar, automated refueling, laser altimeter, laser mapping, laser aided navigation, collision avoidance

 

 

 

AF093-103                           TITLE: Microscale Ordnance Technologies for Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs)

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Sensors, Electronics, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop microscale technologies or micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMs) for ultra-small, low collateral damage ordnance packages.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Improved guidance and navigation has given us the ability to deliver precision effects, and has allowed us to reduce our ordnance payloads and, thereby, reduce collateral effects.  This trend toward ever smaller munitions is being driven by our need to conduct military operations in urban terrain and to severely control collateral effects.  The goal in this effort is to further miniaturize ordnance components (damage mechanisms, energetics, fuzing) for delivery by micro air vehicles.  Damage mechanisms other than blast/fragmentation may be proposed.

 

Although not limited to these areas, RW is interested in the following topics:

 

(a) nanoenergetics [Ref. 1] and microdetonics [Ref. 2], and their application to highly miniaturized explosive systems.

 

(b) nanosilicon explosive devices [Ref. 3-4], in which solid-state devices of porous silicon impregnated with an oxidant are incorporated into silicon based electronic packages.  

 

(c) bio-inspired composites [Ref. 5] incorporating energetic or multiphase blast constituents, and having high yield strength and fracture toughness (comparable to aluminum alloys). 

 

(d) conformal fuze electronics using very flexible (bend radius < 0.25") printed circuit substrates (flex-boards), integrated electronics (e.g., organic polymer transistors and switches), or antenna structures without the use of rigid electronic components (discretes).  An example is conformal sub-millimeter wave antennas and antenna arrays that enable advanced fuze sensors to be integrated with composite or metallic micro-air vehicles.

 

(e) capabilities that will enable the fabrication of miniaturized and integrated ignition sources capable of reliably carrying low or high current densities. 

 

(f) highly flexible, low-loss, mechanically and electrically robust interconnections between electronic modules with minimal weight yet capable of handling high current densities.

 

(g) novel miniaturized safety environment sensors capable of providing unique, safety-critical information on a micro air vehicle's status in either dynamic or static configuration.  An example of a dynamic sensor is a miniature airflow sensor capable of positively identifying the micro air vehicle is in powered flight even at extremely low speeds (<10 mph).  A static sensor might detect a unique release signature based on the release mechanism, an irreversible change in the vehicle itself, or detection of an external environment that is not detectable or present in storage, transport, or carriage.

 

PHASE I:  The contractor will develop the system concept or sub-system component through modeling, analysis, and breadboard development.  Small-scale testing to show proof-of-concept is highly desirable.  Merit and feasibility must be clearly demonstrated during this phase.

 

PHASE II:  The contractor will develop, demonstrate, and validate the component technology in a prototype based on the modeling, concept development, and success criteria developed in Phase I. Deliverables are a prototype demonstration, experimental data, a model baselined with experimental data, and substantiating analyses.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Ordnance suitable for military operations in urban terrain (MOUT) and other low collateral damage scenarios.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Homeland Security operations and law enforcement operations requiring low collateral damage.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  D.D. Dlott, Thinking big (and small) about energetic materials, Materials Science and Technology, 22 (4), pp. 463-473 (2006).

 

2.  D.S. Stewart, "Towards the miniaturization of explosive technology," Shock Waves, v11, pp 467-473 (2002).

 

3.  A. Tappan et al., Microenergetic Materials Microscale Energetic Material Processing and Testing, AIAA 2003-242, 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 6-9 January 2003, Reno, Nevada.

 

4.  M. du Plessis, Nanoporous silicon explosive devices, Materials Science and Engineering: B, v147, pp 226-229 (2008).

 

5.  E. Munch et al., "Tough, Bio-Inspired Hybrid Materials," Science, 322, 1516 (2008)

 

KEYWORDS: ordnance, miniaturization, micro air vehicle (MAV) collateral damage, collateral effects, urban combat, military operations in urban terrain (MOUT), warhead, damage mechanisms, energetic materials, microenergetics, nanoenergetics, reactive materials, fuze, conformal electronics, micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMs), microdetonics, nanosilicon, reactive composites, multiphase blast

 

 

 

AF093-104                           TITLE: Boundary layer control of flow separation for Micro Air Vehicles

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Perform Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) Calculations of Micro Air Vehicles with Flexible Lifting Surfaces.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) which have become increasingly important for military operations in recent years. At the smaller end of the UAV scale Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) present unique challenges. Due to their small wing dimensions and relatively low cruise speeds, MAVs often operate within a low Reynolds-number flight regime for which a strong interaction exists between separation and transition. Since separated flow over small areas of a lifting surface has negative effects on both lift and drag successful control of boundary-layer separation for lifting surfaces could lead to major performance gains. Laminar separation reduces the usable lift and, therefore, the payload. It also increases drag and, thus, lowers the range. In the worst case, separation can lead to complete stall and loss of the vehicle. Controlling the flow on airfoils is very difficult because the underlying physics are highly complex. Both unsteady separation and transition mechanisms are at work interactively. Individually, transition from laminar to turbulent flow and unsteady separation are two of the least understood areas of flow physics. For MAVs the lifting surfaces are usually flexible to the degree such that the entire flow around the lifting surface can change dramatically as flexure occurs.  When one includes transition, separation, and flexible lifting surfaces together, this presents unique challenges. In order to simulate these complex flow features should be resolved to the Kolmogorov scale by validated unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes capable of Direct Numerical Simulation calculations on moving and deforming computational grids. Of special interest here is the ability to correctly resolve near-wall turbulence. While DNS calculations have been performed on non-flexible wings and airfoils, the current challenge is to study the flow physics of flexible lifting surfaces to study various means of controlling the flow separation. The goal of this effort is to conduct an investigation of the flow physics of flexible lifting surfaces by resolving flow features to the Kolmogorov scale, and then to investigate innovative approaches to flow control. Previous studies have identified numerous technologies (vortex generators, distributed roughness elements, pulsed vortex generator jets, plasma actuators) that can offer dramatic performance improvements at low operating Reynolds numbers. However, these studies were for non-flexible lifting surfaces. This effort proposes to extend the current body of knowledge to flexible lifting surfaces.

 

PHASE I:  Demonstrate validated DNS flow simulations of Micro Aerial Vehicles with flexible lifting surfaces. At the completion of Phase I the simulations tools and methodology should be proven as suitable to meet the goals of Phase II.

 

PHASE II:  Using the capability demonstrated during the Phase I the contractor will investigate flow features and analyze flow control concepts.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Micro Aerial Vehicles

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Homeland security, law enforcement, and other uses where Micro Air Vehicles could be used for surveillance purposes.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Fasel, H. F. and Saric, W. S., Editors, Laminar-Turbulent Transition: IUTAM Symposium, Sedona/AZ, Springer, Berlin, 2000.

 

2. M. Gad-el-Hak, Flow Control: Passive, Active and Reactive Flow Management (Cambridge Univ. Press, London, 2000).

 

KEYWORDS: computational fluid dynamics, turbulence, micro aerial vehicles, air vehicles, Direct numerical simulation, flow separation, flow transition, boundary layer, flow control, low reynolds number, aerodynamics

 

 

 

AF093-107                           TITLE: Micro Seeker Technology

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Weapons

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop wide-field-of-view (FOV) technologies applicable to micro air weapons to allow for target engagement, greater situational awareness, and obstacle avoidance in an urban or indoor environment.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Current and future military operations in urban terrain as well as the desire for controlled damage effects requires improved levels of situational awareness, responsiveness and weapon precision.  This complex setting provides unique challenges for the traditional target engagement chain and is mostly characterized by highly heterogeneous topologies, denied GPS, degraded communication and control, and rich in obstructions.  The introduction of Micro-sized Unmanned Aircraft Systems (MUASs, also known as Micro Air Vehicles), however, is fast becoming an attractive solution for cost-effective intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), and target engagement in urban warfare.  Precision engagement using a micro air vehicle, however, requires improved levels of autonomy, information processing, and sensor performance beyond current state-of-the art. 

 

The objective of this topic is to investigate innovative technologies for the development and testing of a micro-sized seeker (not just a sensor) for target acquisition and engagement of enemy assets in urban/indoor environments while performing obstacle/terrain/structure avoidance.  The seeker must be capable of utilizing sensor data (e.g.: imaging sensors, radar, ladar or others) and process it to acquire a target, track it, and generate information to guide a micro weapon on an unobstructed collision course.  Although state of the art seekers have been developed with the resolution, sensitivity, and packaging adequate for miniature weapons, its applicability to the urban/indoor environment is limited.  Several factors complicate this task.  First, to provide adequate resolution for acquisition and tracking, current state-of-the art seekers have narrow field of views (~5-10 degrees), not sufficient for collision avoidance.  Additionally, miniature seekers are typically strapdown which further limits the field of regard.  It is therefore required the development of technologies for a seeker with a minimum field-of-regard of 2p? steradians.  Secondly, target sets for these environments are also distinct.  While, traditional target sets include military vehicles or aim points in fixed structures with a physical extent greater than 10m2, it is a goal of this effort to acquire and track targets, mostly moving or stationary technicals (improvised armed vehicle), with a physical extent as small as 5 m2.  Thirdly, due to the much smaller warhead payload, smaller CEP requirements are expected from the micro weapon.  This is further complicated by the potential unavailability of conventional navigation aids such as GPS and horizon tracking which degrades the accuracy of target state estimates.  Therefore, this research should investigate technologies that allow for demonstration of seeker errors and update rates to support a system CEP of less than 1 meter.  Lastly, due to several considerations, traditional seekers operate at ranges no closer than a few tenths of meters.  For the indoor case, however, this seeker should provide collision detection at ranges as close as 1 foot.  This effort should also demonstrate that the notional seeker supports both lock on after launch (LOAL) and lock on before launch (LOBL) functionality.

 

It is also desired for the notional seeker to maintain comparable size, weight and power consumption metrics as conventional micro air vehicles sensors.  Desired seeker attributes include: aperture less than 0.75 inches, weigh less than a pound, be no larger than 2 in3, operate for 2 hours, consume less than 10 Watts, be capable of day/night operation, and operate at ranges of up to 1000 ft.

 

PHASE I:  Identify innovative technologies for development and testing of micro seekers that will lead to meeting the described goals. Develop a conceptual design and analyze the performance and limitations of the technologies.

 

PHASE II:  Produce a system design and prototype of a seeker capable of producing guidance commands and collision avoidance in a cluttered, urban environment.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Small or micro unmanned aircraft systems engaged in combat and ISR missions.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  General law enforcement and rescue activities such as air traffic control, coastal and border surveillance, homeland security, and search and rescue.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Office of the Secretary of Defense Unmanned Systems Roadmap, 2007, http://www.acq.osd.mil/usd/Unmanned%20Systems%20Roadmap.2007-2032.pdf

 

2. Huber, A.F.; Death by a thousand cuts:  Micro-Air Vehicles (MAV) in the service of Air Force missions, 2001 Air War College, Air University

 

3. SPIKE Missile, http://www.nawcwd.navy.mil/nawcwd/news/2008/2008-02_spike_demo.htm

 

4. Fontana, R.J.; Richley, E.A.; Marzullo, A.J.; Beard, L.C.; Mulloy, R.W.T.; Knight, E.J.; An ultra wideband radar for micro air vehicle applications, 2002 IEEE Conference on Ultra Wideband Systems and Technologies, Baltimore, MD, May 20-23, 2002.

 

5. Green, W.E.; Oh, P.Y.; Barrows, G.; Flying insect inspired vision for autonomous aerial robot maneuvers in near-earth environments, 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2004.

 

6.  Zufferey, J.C. ; Floreano, D.,;  Optic-flow-based steering and altitude control for ultra-light indoor aircraft, 2004 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)

 

KEYWORDS: Seeker, Wide Field-of-Regard, MAV, MUAS, collision avoidance

 

 

 

AF093-108                           TITLE: Technology for Dynamic Characterization of Micro-scale Aerial Vehicles

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop 6 Degree-of-Freedom (DoF) motion apparatus and required technologies for investigating flight mechanics, structural-aerodynamic interactions and flight control of micro-scale aerial vehicles.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The quest for micro-scale autonomous aerial vehicles is taking us from the realms of science and engineering, as with the University of California at Berkeley micro mechanical flying insect, into areas that would have been the realm of science fiction just a few years ago, as in DARPA’s Nano Air Vehicle program. Emboldened by advances in micro-scale technologies and inspired by insight into the mechanisms associated with biological locomotion, eventual realization of bird or even insect scale autonomous aerial robots seems certain. However significant technical challenges remain, many motivated by an incomplete understanding of the physics associated with aerodynamic flight at small size scales. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is conducting and sponsoring a wide range of technology research efforts to address these challenges. Unfortunately, further scientific progress is being hampered by an inability to quantitatively characterize the interaction of 6 DoF rigid body and aero-structural dynamics under controlled experimental conditions at micro-scale sizes. This topic will address this deficiency through development and prototyping of a concept for characterizing 6 DoF motion of a micro-scale aerial vehicle and measuring its dynamic response under experimental flow conditions.

 

Typically, the dynamic response of medium and large scale aerial vehicles can be characterized as quasi-steady pitch and coupled roll-yaw dynamics, with higher frequency aero-structural dynamics excited by and perturbing the rigid-body 6 DoF motion. Research to date suggests that micro-scale aerial vehicles experience higher degrees of dynamic coupling due to the interaction of non-rigid airframes, small moments of inertia and low Reynolds number unsteady aerodynamic effects.  Experimentation to investigate these dynamic couplings typically falls into three classes: instrumented free flight; video-motion capture dynamics reconstruction in free-flight arenas; and static or limited-DoF aerodynamic or aero-structural dynamics characterization in wind tunnels. Currently, there exists no capability for characterizing realistic 6 DoF motion in controlled experimental flow conditions while simultaneously measuring forces and moments, structural deformations, and fluid dynamics associated with the motion.  The objective of this research topic will be to conceptualize, design and prototype an experimental apparatus that will allow realistic 6 DoF motion of a micro-scale aerial vehicle with accurate force and moment measurements from a high-precision sting balance.

 

The motion apparatus should be capable of producing realistic, near free-flight 6 DoF motion of a micro-scale aerial vehicle (e.g., < 18 wingspan, < 1kg). Whether under proscribed motion or motion resulting from vehicle control effectors or external disturbances (e.g., turbulence, gusts) the device should produce realistic vehicle motion in response to aerodynamic and inertial forces experienced by the vehicle. This will require that the motion apparatus suspensory hardware allow up to and including 6 DoF experimental test article motion; that the motion apparatus be capable of compensating for and removing the dynamic effects of the suspensory hardware from the force and moment measurements; that the motion apparatus be capable of generating proscribed motion through the suspensory hardware; and that the motion apparatus be capable of producing realistic 6 DoF response from the vehicles and its control effectors interactions with moving air flow or disturbances.

 

PHASE I:  Based on a detailed literature survey and discussions with the AFRL sponsor and researchers in micro-scale aerial vehicle aero-structural dynamics, develop alternative concepts, prioritize the concepts and develop a final motion apparatus design to achieve the capabilities described above.

 

PHASE II:  Develop, prototype, demonstrate and evaluate the motion apparatus in an experimental wind tunnel approved by the AFRL sponsor. The demonstration and evaluation should include proscribed vehicle motion up to and including realistic 6 DoF motion. Deliver the prototype to the AFRL sponsor for subsequent evaluation and experimentation.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  The motion apparatus will enable rapid and realistic testing of future military micro-scale air vehicles so that a better product is delivered to the warfighter.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The availability of such a motion apparatus would be of great interest to universities and organizations which study micro-scale air vehicles.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Ol, M. et. al., "Flight Controls and Performance Challenges for MAVs in Complex Environments," AIAA Paper 2008-6508.

 

2. Albertani, R. et. al., "Validation of a Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamic Characterization Facility," AIAA Paper 2009-880.

 

3. Stewart, K. et. al., "Development and Initial Flight Tests of a Single-Jointed Articulated-Wing Micro Air Vehicle," AIAA Paper 2008-6708.

 

4. Albertani, R. et. al., "Analysis of Wind Tunnel Unsteady Aerodynamic Data of Flexible Micro Air Vehicle Wings," AIAA Paper 2008-6249.

 

KEYWORDS: Structural-aerodynamic response, agile micro-scale aerial vehicles, low Reynolds number aero-structural experimentation.

 

 

 

AF093-109                           TITLE: Cost Reducing Processing Development of High Performance Transparent Armor

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop an innovative approach that will reduce the direct labor cost associated with shape forming ceramic powder for optical ceramic transparent armor.

 

DESCRIPTION:  High performance optical ceramic transparent armor materials such as aluminum oxynitride (ALON) have demonstrated greatly improved performance against armor-piercing ballistic threats in comparison to conventional transparencies. However, due to the large number of processing steps, they are markedly more costly to fabricate to the required optical transparency and ballistic resistance requirements. The need to develop innovative low cost consolidation methods from optical ceramic powder are vital in reducing the overall cost of the direct labor associated with the consolidation process. More cost effective, high rate processing methods are needed to make these materials more readily available in product sizes required for current applications in aircraft and vehicles. Prior experience with innovative shape forming methods is desirable.

 

PHASE I:  Develop an approach to reduce the direct labor cost associated with the consolidation of optical ceramic powder to produce ALON. Produce a minimum of three 6X6-inch prototype panels based on the recommended approach for limited testing. Perform a cost analysis to estimate cost reduction potential.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate the approach from Phase 1 by fabricating a minimum of twelve 14X20-inch panels. Conduct mechanical and ballistic testing to demonstrate the materials properties meet the prescribed criteria. Provide a cost analysis, detailing the resulting cost to fabricate the material.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Transparent armor will have applications to military aircraft. Additional applications include use in military vehicles and armor for security forces personnel.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  This developed transparent armor panel can be applicable to law enforcement body shield and security.

 

REFERENCES:

1. J.Wahl, T.Hartnett, Recent advances in ALON optical ceramic, Proceedings of SPIE Windows and Domes, Volume 5786, March 2005.

 

2. R.Cook, M.Kochis, I.Reimanis, H.Kleebe, A new powder production route for transparent spinel windows, Proceedings of SPIE Windows and Domes, Volume 5786, March 2005. 

 

KEYWORDS: Keywords: Transparent Armor, Optical Ceramic Materials, ALON, Ballistic Testing

 

 

 

AF093-110                           TITLE: Canopy/Transparency Advanced Coating Technology

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Explore solutions for the precipitation static (p-static) discharge which limits the life of current canopy coatings.   Develop an improved coating system to meet durability, transparency and cost.

 

DESCRIPTION:  This effort will research and develop new coating materials or coating designs for use on the canopy in order to eliminate precipitation static (p-static). The coating system must resist rain erosion, UV degradation, and wear under typical, fighter ground and flight operation. Coatings must resist degradation due to precipitation static discharge and other environmental variables such as salt, sand, rain, acid rain, de-icing fluid, and extreme heat and cold. The coating must also meet requirements for light transmission, electrical conductivity, adhesion, and optical distortion. Coating must be applicable to polycarbonate and/or acrylic based transparencies while maintaining the strength or structural requirements of these assets.  The developed coating must have at least 55% light transmission measured at 550nm, demonstrate a current density of 50 micron amps/ft square at -40F for 60 minutes without breakdown, and survive salt fog testing per ASTM G85-02, annex A2, all on a polycarbonate substrate.

 

PHASE I:  Determine the feasibility of developing a coating formulation that incorporates the properties described above. Develop a functional prototype coating on coupons for laboratory testing and provide test data.

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate that the coating can be applied to large, complex-contoured, canopy transparencies.  The Phase II effort will address processing scale up and validate resultant coating meets typical fighter aircraft flight profiles and environmental conditions.  An assessment will be made on the cost of the coatings in a production environment.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: The advanced coatings are applicable for use on fighter applications

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The technologies developed under this effort may have application to flexible displays and transparent covers on solar arrays

 

REFERENCES:

1.  http://www.smartcockpit.com/pdf/flightops/meteorology/7

 

2. Self-Assembled Multifunctional Canopy Coatings Title Classification: Unclassified Descriptive Note: Final rept. 1 Jun 2001-1 Dec 2003 Personal Author(s): Lalli, Jennifer H Claus, Richard O Report Date: Dec 2003, Contract Number: F33615-01-C-5006 Report Number(s): AFRL-ML-WP-TR-2004-4009

 

3.Sol gel derived erosion protection coatings against damage caused by liquid impact, M. Grundw rmera, b, , , O. Nuykena, M. Meyerb, J. Wehrb and N. Schuppb,

a. Technische Universitt Mnchen, Department of Macromolecular Chemistry, Munich, Germany,

b.EADS Corporate Research Centre, Department of Surface and Chemical Engineering, Munich, Germany, Received 14 August 2006;  revised 7 December 2006;  accepted 8 December 2006.  Available online 23 May 2007.

 

KEYWORDS: canopy, coatings, p-static

 

 

 

AF093-111                           TITLE: Lead-free Solder Alternative Interconnect Material

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop and demonstrate an innovative electronic interconnect material that is lead-free, non-whiskering, and suitable for aerospace applications.

 

DESCRIPTION:  This effort would develop and demonstrate a lead-free interconnect material and associated manufacturing and repair processes suitable for military aircraft applications. Current environmental requirements mandate the use of non-leaded solder formulations intended to be chemically and mechanically compliant with commercial parts vendors. These vendors have mostly transitioned to a pure tin component lead dip as a result.  At the same time, lead-free solder in combination with pure tin component lead finish has the potential to develop crystalline growths also known as tin whiskers that have the potential to short or damage electrical circuits. In addition, existing lead free solders are brittle, and have a higher melting point than the previously used tin-lead formulations which can effect device reliability. No current industry standards exist for lead free solder or its application processes. A solution would be lead-free, compatible with existing electronic components and finishes, reworkable, and suitable for the military aircraft environment.

 

PHASE I:  Determine feasibility of innovative electronic interconnect materials which meet the military specifications and requirements. Identify application techniques and equipment required to apply (and reapply) materials to electronic assemblies (circuit cards, connector attachments, etc).

 

PHASE II:  Demonstrate that selected materials and processes can be applied to military aerospace equipment. Working with a selected military hardware supplier, apply these materials and processes to selected components. Demonstrate through qualification test that the hardware built with these materials meets specification requirements as defined by Mil-W-5088K.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION: Solution will be applicable/usable by any and all aircraft in the DOD inventory.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Solution will be applicable/usable by any and all commercial aircraft.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Military Specification Mil-W-5088K

 

KEYWORDS: solder material, lead free, interconnect, electronics

 

 

 

AF093-112                           TITLE: Innovative Methods to Reduce Aircraft Outer Mold Line (OML) Repair Cycle Time

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this effort is to develop equipment and processes to accelerate current cure/repair times of aircraft Outer Mold Line (OML) materials and stack-ups.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Current materials used for aircraft topcoat repairs require extended cure times and controlled environments to achieve proper material performance. The impact of extended cure times is magnified considering the multiple component layers within an Outer Mold Line (OML) stack-up that require cure. Innovative approaches to reduce overall repair time for a complete stack-up should be considered. Approaches could target cure time reduction via equipment, process, or material improvements or stack-up simplification via consolidation of primer layers with other constituent components. This program develops the capability and process to accelerate the repair cycle associated with current aircraft materials.

 

PHASE I:  Demonstrate the feasibility of producing/demonstrating repair cycle time reductions:

-Partner with airframe manufacturers

-Analyze & identify candidate equipment, process, or material approach

-Develop initial approach/establish performance goals

-Identify success criteria/critical parameters

 

PHASE II:  Implement the best approach from Phase I and demonstrate the improvement in accordance with the success criteria developed

-Define field test objectives and procedures and conduct limited testing

-Define practical implementation approach

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Any legacy or next generation fighter and bomber aircraft would benefit from the reduced DMMH/FH associated with reduced repair cycle times for material stack-ups

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  This process could be used in applications such as planes, automobiles, and boats by allowing shorter cure times during manufacturing and repair.

 

REFERENCES:

1. http://govexec.com/story_page.cfm?filepath=/dailyfed/0209/022009cdpm3.htm

 

2. http://www.airforce-technology.com/glossary/low-observables.html

 

3. http://www.intota.com/experts.asp?strSearchType=all&strQuery=low-observable+material

 

4. http://www.tpub.com/content/cg1999/ns99097/ns990970009.htm

 

KEYWORDS: Cycle time repair, Stack-up cure process

 

 

 

AF093-113                           TITLE: Multi-layer Coating Thickness Probe

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop a sensor/measurement technique to determine the thickness of individual layers of a multi-layer coating stack.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Some specialized aircraft require a conductive surface coating to dissipate electrostatic charge and provide electromagnetic integrity over the outer surface of the aircraft.  Aircraft requiring a conductive coating typically employ a layered stack wherein each layer imparts a specific functionality, e.g. primer (adhesion), conductive layer, transition layer (adhesion), topcoat (color and wear).  The coatings consist of polymeric resins and a variety of inorganic pigment and are often placed over fiber reinforced composite (FRC) materials for structural integrity.  The total coating thickness on the composite system is on the order of 75 - 90 microns.  Point inspection tools such as waveguides and reflectometers are currently employed to measure the conductive and resistive properties of the aircraft surface.  Direct measurement of the electrical properties of the conductive layer yields accurate and useful information that can be used to assess the performance of the aircraft and need for repairs.  However, in an operational environment, direct access to the conductive layer is not available and electrical measurements have to be made with intervening material layers.  In these cases, calibration procedures include an estimate of the intervening material layers.  A weakness in this system is the assumption that the intervening material thickness on the aircraft is similar to the calibration standard for the point inspection probe.

 

PHASE I:  1) Identify an existing sensor design and/or measurement technique to determine the actual thickness of each layer of a multi-layer coating stack nondestructively. 2) Demonstrate feasibility of design concept and methodology.

 

PHASE II:  1) Fully develop and fabricate sensor and methodology, as demonstrated in Phase I, to accurately measure material thickness.  2) Deliver a prototype system for Air Force evaluation.  3) Provide a technical manual, a user manual, and all necessary hardware and software.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Measurement will be used to aid in probe calibration and electrical performance measurements on aircraft.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  This developed sensor measurement technique is applicable for use on ship hull inspection and automotive paint inspection.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Sihvola, A., "Electromagnetic Mixing Formulas and Applications," IEEE Electromagnetics Series 47, 1999.

 

2. Gray, S., and Zoughi, R., "Dielectric Sheet Thickness Variation and Disbond Detection in Multi-Layered Composites Using an Extremely Sensitive Microwave Approach," Materials Evaluation, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 42-48, 1997.

 

3. Yasui, T., Yasuda, T., Sawanaka, K., and Araki, T., "Terahertz Paintmeter for Non-contact Monitoring of Thickness and Drying Process in Pain Film," Applied Optics, vol. 44, no. 32, pp. 6849-6856, 2005.

 

KEYWORDS: aircraft maintainability, coating thickness, NDE, point inspection tool

 

 

 

AF093-114                           TITLE: Peel and Stick Adhesive for Outer Mold Line (OML) Material Repair

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) that will reduce the maintenance downtime required to join extruded polymer parts to military aircraft panels.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Aircraft coating material damage and durability issues result in significant aircraft downtime as a result of extended cure times associated with the repair process for extruded materials. Current adhesives for extruded polymer parts require wet application as well as other time intensive procedures such as vacuum bagging and/or clamping. This process is labor intensive, requires extensive cure time, and must be accomplished by highly skilled technicians. Furthermore, current adhesives have not demonstrated acceptable durability when subjected to typical aircraft operating environments. This program develops an affordable pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) that will significantly reduce downtime by eliminating the cure cycle associated with current adhesives while improving durability. Current experience demonstrates a strong need for this type of repair - material damage and durability failures are top maintenance drivers. Reductions in the repair timeline will have a direct impact on reducing Direct Maintenance Man Hours (DMMH). The PSA will need to be applied during a Low Observable (LO) Maintenance Standard Day environment. This environment is from 60F - 100F and from 5 - 95% humidity. Once the PSA is applied and cured, it will need to withstand operating conditions that take the aircraft from -3G to +9G and a temperature range of -65F - 250F. The PSA must also be able to be removed without causing collateral damage to the aircraft.

 

PHASE I:  Identify and define requirements for adhesive material performance and processing application. Formulate and develop potential affordable PSA solutions and demonstrate feasibility while working with the contractors.

 

PHASE II:  Using results from Phase I, fabricate and validate a prototype of the PSA materials. Demonstrate full scale application from extruded polymer parts to representative aircraft components. Provide a scale up plan for meeting future manufacturing demands.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Any legacy or next generation fighter and bomber aircraft would benefit from the reduced Direct Maintenance Man Hours per Flight Hour (DMMH/FH) associated with a PSA.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Improvements in PSA adhesives would have broad commercial application. It could be used on commercial airlines to repair damages, stop cracks, and increase the aerodynamic properties by reducing drag.

 

REFERENCES:

1. http://govexec.com/story_page.cfm?filepath=/dailyfed/0209/022009cdpm3.htm

 

2. http://www.airforce-technology.com/glossary/low-observables.html

 

3. http://www.intota.com/experts.asp?strSearchType=all&strQuery=low-observable+material

 

4. http://www.tpub.com/content/cg1999/ns99097/ns990970009.htm

 

KEYWORDS: Peel and Stick Adhesives, PSA, Aircraft Repair

 

 

 

AF093-115                           TITLE: Conformal Infrared Window with Structural and Distributed Aperture Capability for Airborne Platforms

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop methods enabling improved placement of infrared transparencies for airborne sensors through increased structural and simplified conformal shaping.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Airborne spectral sensors need to operate in a protected environment.  However, aircraft windows or transparencies that help maintain temperature, pressure, and humidity are not necessarily transparent to spectral frequencies of interest and may interfere with sensor function.  A critical factor limiting the placement of infrared transparencies in an airborne platform is the structural limitations that window materials currently possess.  Available materials for windows are capable of exceptionally high rupture strength but are lacking in fracture toughness to be considered load bearing on an aircraft.  This limits the location of windows in several instances to places where aerodynamic turbulence reduces sensing performance.  A load bearing window would simplify and reduce the cost of the adaptive optics needed to compensate for poor window location.  Mechanical property performance shall be evaluated throughout Phase I.  Such a window design needs to be accomplished, however, with minimal effects on optical quality such as high optical transmission and reduced optical scatter. Characterization of optical quality shall be performed throughout the effort.  In Phase I of this SBIR, an innovative materials design shall be developed that will result in improved structural performance and durability of infrared transparencies with sufficiently high optical quality within the 3- to 5-micron infrared (IR) transmission band to be useful for airborne targeting and navigation. Optical quality goals for Phase I include a minimum of 80-percent optical transmission for an uncoated 2-inch window at least 0.2-inch thick, with low optical scatter. Mechanical property goals for the transparency include a fracture toughness of at least square-root(5 MPA-m) and rupture strength of 500 MPA.  Also, initial optical concepts for distributing the infrared image to a location at least one meter in lateral distance from the window shall be evaluated.  During Phase II, the program objectives shall be the development of the Phase I design to a useful 8-inch size and having the same optical and mechanical attributes as those developed in Phase I.  The window materials shall be measured for optical transmission and scatter within the 3- to 5-micron IR waveband.  Also, mechanical properties shall be surveyed and statistically significant measurements of rupture strength and fracture toughness shall be made for the final materials design achieved.  Development of the means for optical distribution of the IR image evaluated in Phase I shall be performed in the second phase to meet the program goals.

 

PHASE I:  Structural toughness and durability shall be developed and demonstrated in the mid-wave infrared band on a two-inch window as determined by physical and mechanical testing.

 

PHASE II:  Structural toughness and durability shall be developed and demonstrated in the mid-wave infrared band as determined by physical and mechanical testing on a completely fabricated eight-inch window.  Characterize the performance of fabricated windows and perform an analysis of the resultant yield and estimate the cost of the tiled window approach.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  The materials design and processing development are applicable to airborne mid-wave infrared windows, missile domes, seeker lenses, and industrial sensor windows.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications arise from the potential to make available a method for achieving load bearing capability for transparent materials not currently possible.

 

REFERENCES:

1. S. Joseph, O. Marcovith, Y. Gladin, A. Steimberg, and H. Zipin, "Improved Rain Erosion Protetion for Multi-Spectral ZnS" Proc. SPIE-Window and Dome Technologies and Materials IX, Vol 5786, pp. 373-392.

 

2. Harris, D.C., "Materials for Infrared Windows and Domes - Properties and Performance," SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 1999, pp. 163-167.

 

3. Korenstein, R., Cremin, P., Varitimos, T.E., and Tustison, R., "Optical Properties of Durable Oxide Coatings for Infrared Applications," Proc. SPIE-Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VIII, Vol 5078, pp. 169-178.

 

4. Goldman, L.M., Tustison, R.W., Harker, A.B., Ondercin, R.J. and Kelly, Lt. E.S., "Rain and Sand Erosion Protection Using LWIR Transparent Durable Claddings, Proc 6th DoD Electromagnetic Windows Symposium, Sparkman Center, Redstone Arsernal Alabama, 1995.

 

KEYWORDS: Scatter, Absorption, Transmitted Wavefront Error, Infrared Optical Transmission, Mid-wave Infrared Transmitting Materials, Rupture Strength, Fracture Toughness, Optical Fibers

 

 

 

AF093-116                           TITLE: Material Approaches to Mitigate Gap Filler Cracking

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.

 

OBJECTIVE:  Investigate and validate material solutions that will mitigate occurrence and/or impact of induced cracking, resulting from combined thermal and mechanical strain, w/in gap filler on fielded aircraft.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Degradation of Outer Mold Line (OML) aircraft materials results in a significant increase in Direct Maintenance Man Hours per Flight Hour (DMMH/FH) and also result in reduced system performance. One area of degradation involves cracking of conductive gap fillers used between aircraft skins and panels. Severe flight loads (-3G to 9G), combined with a wide range of operating temperatures (-65F to 250F) and required manufacturing tolerances result in elevated mechanical and thermal strains within conductive gap filler which is placed between aircraft fixed and/or removeable panels. To date, no conductive filler has demonstrated an ability to withstand the induced environment without cracking, and hence innovative approaches to mitigate or mask cracking are required. A broad range of approaches should be considered to include solutions that involve material introductions within a gap to deter cracking onset as well as material introductions over the gap to conceal cracking . Solutions should mitigate or eliminate the occurrence of cracking or serve as a barrier that prevents cracking from surfacing. Solutions must be viable across the full range of operating conditions and should be tested to representative extremes of mechanical and thermal stress.

 

PHASE I:  Determine feasibility of producing/demonstrating mitigation approaches:

-Encourage partnership with airframe manufacturers

-Analyze & identify candidate approaches for within & over gap solutions

-Develop initial concept design for each, model key elements

-Identify success criteria/critical parameters

 

PHASE II:  Using results from Phase I, fabricate and validate a prototype for selected approache(es)

-Establish objective performance parameters through experiments and prototype fabrication

-Conduct life-cycle and environmental testing to validate that solution(s) are viable and effective across the broad range of thermal and mechanical loading

-Demonstrate in accordance w/ success criteria

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Any modern fighter/bomber could benefit from solutions that mitigate cracking on the OML of the air vehicle. The occurrence of cracking drives maintenance & performance loses on all platforms.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial applications include commercial aircraft as the technology may result in more durable coating or sealant systems.

 

REFERENCES:

1. http://govexec.com/story_page.cfm?filepath=/dailyfed/0209/022009cdpm3.htm

 

2. http://www.airforce-technology.com/glossary/low-observables.html

 

3. http://www.intota.com/experts.asp?strSearchType=all&strQuery=low-observable+material

 

4. http://www.tpub.com/content/cg1999/ns99097/ns990970009.htm

 

KEYWORDS: Gap filler cracking mitigation

 

 

 

AF093-117                           TITLE: Integrated Processing and Probabilistic Lifing Models for Superalloy Turbine Disks

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Materials/Processes, Space Platforms

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop modeling tools that integrate local microstructure and residual stress profiles from processing models with probabilistic lifing methods for the optimization of superalloy turbine disks.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The primary goal of aerospace turbine disk designers is to optimize the component for lowest weight and longest life. However, these disks are seldom optimized concurrently with development of the component manufacturing processes leading to overly conservative designs or expensive process escapes. Fracture critical components such as turbine disks are machined from large forgings that often contain significant variations in microstructure and bulk residual stress. Current lifing approaches are primarily data-based and empirical, based on specimens extracted from various locations in the component. Physics-based lifing prediction approaches are potentially more efficient but require knowledge of the location and size distribution of life-limiting microstructural features (e.g. pores, inclusions, deviations from nominal microstructures, etc.) as well as the three-dimensional variation of bulk residual stresses within the component.

 

Process modeling technologies for forging, heat treating and machining are now mature enough to offer very good qualitative predictions of part performance and in some cases accurate quantitative simulations of microstructure, processing anomalies and bulk residual stresses. These predictions are now being used to predict mechanical properties and fatigue life for features on complex aerospace components. These emerging capabilities of process models can provide reasonably accurate estimates of the size, shape, number and location of processing defects such as pores and large or unrecrystallized grains. But tools or modules that directly link the output from process models with mechanical design tools do not exist. Therefore, there is no simple way to optimize the process steps to account for the life requirements of the resultant structure without tedious manual intervention.

 

This work will provide a much-needed interface tool or plug-in for existing tools that automatically links output from a process model with a property prediction tool thereby enabling true optimal designs. Payoffs include the capability to evaluate the full range of process conditions that can exist when producing production hardware. This would allow one to define process sensitivities for critical part details early in the production process. The resulting information could then be used to restrict (or potentially open-up) the process window as required to ensure adequate mechanical properties in the production hardware. In addition, these tools could be used for Materials Review Board evaluations once it was determined that the process window was breached.

 

Proposed efforts should develop techniques to link validated processing models that predict the following: (a) location-specific microstructure, (b) location-specific size distribution of life-limiting microstructural features resulting from variations in process parameters, and (c) complete distribution of the bulk residual stresses, with probabilistic microstructure-sensitive component life prediction codes. Proposers should utilize commercially available processing, structural and lifing codes to the greatest extent possible. Since the integration of processing and lifing requires in-depth knowledge of current material manufacturing practice and life management strategies, close technical collaboration with OEM''s is strongly recommended in all phases.

 

PHASE I:  Establish a tool to link modeling and simulation tools for a process controlled material property and lifing properties that will enable an optimal turbine disk. Demonstrate the model using published or internal data to show the life benefit of the optimized combined models.

 

PHASE II:  Apply validated tool / plug-in to optimize the processing and structural design to produce fracture-critical turbine disks for multiple design constraints that are common in aerospace. In coordination or collaboration with an appropriate original equipment manufacturer establish and execute process and design improvement of a current component using the new tool / add-in.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  The technology developed will be applicable to the design of propulsion systems for military aircraft.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Commercial airliners use turbine engines that are similar to those in military platforms and thus the technology will be applicable to the design of more efficient, reliable commercial aircraft.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering: A Transformational Discipline for Improved Competitiveness and National Security, Committee on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering, National Research Council, The National Academic Press, Washington DC,ISBN: 0-309-12000-4 (2008).

 

2. Buchanan, D., John, R., Brockman, R., and Rosenberger, A., A Coupled Creep Plasticity Model for Residual Stress Relaxation of a Shot Peened Nickel-base Superalloy, Superalloys 2008, eds. R. Reed, et al., TMS, Warrendale, PA, pp. 965 (2008).

 

3. Jha, S., Caton, M., and Larsen, J., Mean vs. Life-Limiting Fatigue behavior of a Nickel Based Superalloy, Superalloys 2008, eds. R. Reed, et al., TMS, Warrendale, PA, pp. 565 (2008).

 

4. Stoschka, M., Stockinger, M., Leitner, H., Reidler, M. and Eichlseder, W., Assessment of Lifetime Calculation of Forged IN718 Aerospace Components Based on a Multi-Parametric Microstructural Evaluation, Superalloys 2008, eds. R. Reed, et al., TMS, Warrendale, PA, pp. 573 (2008).

gas turbine engine, life models, process optimization, residual stress, forging, microstructure models, location specific properties

 

KEYWORDS: gas turbine engine, life models, process optimization, residual stress, forging, microstructure models, location specific properties

 

 

 

AF093-118                           TITLE: Development of a New Structural Film Adhesive for On-Aircraft Repair

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE:  To develop a structural film adhesive for on-aircraft repair with high performance characteristics at 350°F.

 

DESCRIPTION:  Composite aircraft structures, while tolerant to corrosion and fatigue cracking degradation found in metallic airframe structure, are prone to damage in service.  Repair of these structures often requires an adhesive bonding approach to provide the load transfer and restore the structural integrity of the component. For safety and design reasons, weapon systems such as the F-22 and the F-35 are limited to on-aircraft (i.e. without removing the part from the aircraft) repairs made with cure temperatures that do not exceed 350°F; however, to meet design criteria, the composite structure must also retain its properties at hot/wet operating conditions. Current structural film adhesives for repair provide inadequate strength retention and cannot support the high strain levels of tactical aircraft at operating temperatures approaching the cure temperature, especially in the presence of absorbed moisture. The lack of suitable adhesive materials will decrease the maintainability of components, likely limiting repair capability, and driving units to replace an entire component when damage occurs. Challenges are present in the repair environment that further complicate adhesive bonding approaches.

 

The program goal is to seek innovative new materials that will maintain adequate bond strength and durability under hot/wet conditions and are compatible with the military aircraft repair environment. The structural adhesive must meet the following technical objectives: it cannot exceed a cure temperature of 335±15°F and it must retain a minimum shear strength of 2500 psi before onset of plasticity at 350°F under moisture saturated (wet) conditions. For on-aircraft repair, the processing procedures must be considered, and the adhesive cure must require no more pressure than a vacuum bag can impart.  Innovative bagging procedures will be considered. This repair adhesive must have known flow properties, controlled thickness, good tack and drape, and extended freezer storage capability (at least 1 year) for depot-level and field-level convenience. Adhesive chemistry must be compatible with precured bismaleimide (BMI) and epoxy composite laminates and primed metallic structure.

 

Although not a requirement, it is desirable that the adhesive retain a shear strength of at least 3500 psi at -65°F and 3000 psi at 350°F under moisture saturated (wet) conditions. Enhanced performance above 350°F would be advantageous. Preference will be given to materials that work over honeycomb core as well as solid composite laminates. Cocuring with BMI materials is also desirable.

 

Material affordability is also a key component and should be considered relative to current baseline materials.

 

PHASE I:  Develop a film adhesive (335±15°F cure) for applications requiring hot performance (=2500 psi shear strength before plasticity at 350°F wet). Perform screening to establish properties & demonstrate vacuum processibility. Repair environment issues (cure time, storage, handling, etc) must be considered.

 

PHASE II:  Refine and optimize downselected film adhesive, including validated processing procedures. Thoroughly characterize mechanical and physical properties of adhesive. Demonstrate the transition of the developed adhesive through cocuring and secondary bonding evaluations on large area representative repairs. Develop the necessary capabilities and process controls to produce production-scale adhesives.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  The new materials and processes developed will be applicable to all military aircraft (metallic or composite structure) requiring adhesively bonded technology.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  The adhesive, processes, & technologies developed will be readily applicable to bonded commercial aerospace and consumer goods if adhesive performance requirements can be met with improved processing.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Wang, Chun H., et al, "Structural Repair Techniques for Highly-loaded Carbon/BMI Composites," SAMPE Fall Technical Conference Proceedings: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials & Process Engineering, Cincinnati, OH, October 29-November 1, 2007. Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering.

 

2. Baker, A. A., et al, Scarf Repairs to Highly Strained Graphite/Epoxy Structure, International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives, Vol. 19, 1999, pp 161-171. 

 

3. Wang, Chun H. and Gunnion, Andrew J., On the Design Methodology of Scarf Repairs to Composite Laminates, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 68, 2008, pp 35-46.

 

4. Zhong, Yang and Biney, Paul O., "Study on the Thermal and Hygrothermal Behaviors of Epoxy and Polyimide Adhesives," Proceedings of the 46th International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition - Science of Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Series, Vol. 46, Long Beach, CA, May 6-10, 2001. Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering.

 

KEYWORDS: Adhesive, Repair

 

 

 

AF093-120                           TITLE: Innovative Methods for Automated Controlled Removal of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) and Bondcoats from Turbine Airfoils for Rework and Repair

 

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes

 

OBJECTIVE:  Develop and demonstrate an innovative method(s) for controlled removal of TBCs from turbine airfoils that require rework and/or repair. The removal process cannot damage underlying substrate material.

 

DESCRIPTION:  The TBC rework and repair on gas turbine engine parts requires complete removal of TBCs before recoating the surfaces with fresh bond coat and TBC. Currently, TBCs are removed from turbine airfoils, for rework or repair, using a combination of autoclave, caustic and acidic solutions, and grit blast. This process is labor intensive, time consuming, waste-producing, and neither consistent nor well controlled. Contractors and maintenance depots need for coatings removal to be selective and controllable. Currently, after the autoclave, parts have areas with remnant TBC. This TBC is removed with a light grit blast that can damage the bond coat, requiring reapplication of both the bond coat and the TBC. Caustic and acidic solutions selectively attack certain phases, resulting in a rougher than nominal substrate surface which, when re-coated, has been shown to have a greater susceptibility to spallation. Currently, when acidic solutions are used to completely strip diffusion bond coatings, a thin layer of substrate material is also removed. The material removal rate of this process is very difficult to control with any precision and can result in scrapping of stripped airfoils due to unacceptably thin walls. Repeated acid removal of bond coats not only thins the walls of the airfoils but increases the effective cooling hole sizes in multihole blades, thus increasing the airflow through the blades. As a result, in most cases, only one full strip is allowed for repairing blades. Thus, a process to remove TBCs from parts without attacking or damaging the underlying bond coat and/or substrate is needed.

 

This program requires innovative techniques other than mechanical or chemical removal to selectively remove TBCs and bondcoats. The removal processes could be via laser or other means and should incorporate monitoring methods with the removal process to account for varying coating thicknesses and also to optimize removal rates.

 

PHASE I:  Contractor shall demonstrate proof of concept and/or a prototype, for the controlled removal of TBCs from turbine airfoils, including the monitoring of material removal, and provide a business analysis comparing the time and cost of the as-is to the to-be process.

 

PHASE II:  Contractor shall demonstrate the controlled method developed in Phase I in a production representative environment.

 

PHASE III / DUAL USE:

MILITARY APPLICATION:  Applicable to all military and commercial gas turbine engines, technology developed could also be applied to other types of coatings.

 

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION:  Applicable to all military and commercial gas turbine engines, technology developed could also be applied to other types of coatings.

 

REFERENCES:

1.  Thermal Barrier Coating Removal on Flat and Contoured Surfaces, United States Patent 5643474, General Electric Company.

 

2.  Thermal Barrier Coating Removal Process, United States Patent EP19990310239, United Technologies Corporation.

 

KEYWORDS: coating, removal, thermal barrier coating, TBC, turbine airfoil, blade, laser

 

 

 

AF093-121                           TITLE: Small-Hole Measurement Techniques

 

TECHNOLOGY