11.2 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)

Proposal Submission Instructions




The US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) is responsible for execution of the Army SBIR Program.  Information on the Army SBIR Program can be found at the following Web site:


Solicitation, topic, and general questions regarding the SBIR Program should be addressed according to the DoD program solicitation.  For technical questions about the topic during the pre-Solicitation period, contact the Topic Authors listed for each topic in the Solicitation.  To obtain answers to technical questions during the formal Solicitation period, visit  For general inquiries or problems with the electronic submission, contact the DoD Help Desk at 1-866-724-7457 (8:00 am to 5:00 pm ET).  Specific questions pertaining to the Army SBIR Program should be submitted to:


John Smith

Program Manager, Army SBIR

US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM)



1010 N. Glebe Road, Ste 420

Arlington, VA 22201

TEL:  (703) 399-2049

FAX: (703) 997-6589


The Army participates in three DoD SBIR Solicitations each year.  Proposals not conforming to the terms of this Solicitation will not be considered.  Only Government personnel will evaluate proposals.


Please note, due to recent changes in SBIR policy, Phase II efforts following a Phase I award resulting from the 11.1 and subsequent Solicitations will have a maximum dollar amount of $1,000,000.  Phase II efforts following a Phase I award prior to the 11.1 Solicitation will continue to have a maximum dollar amount of $730,000.




Army Phase I Proposals have a 20-page limit including the Proposal Cover Sheets (pages 1 and 2, added electronically by the DoD submission site---Offerors are instructed to NOT leave blank pages or duplicate the electronically generated cover pages THIS WILL COUNT AGAINST THE 20 PAGE LIMIT), as well as the Technical Proposal (beginning on page 3, and including, but not limited to: table of contents, pages left blank intentionally by you, references, letters of support, appendices, and all attachments). Therefore, a Technical Proposal of up to 18 pages in length counts towards the overall 20-page limit. ONLY the Cost Proposal and the Company Commercialization Report (CCR) are excluded from the 20-pages. As instructed in Section 3.5d of the DoD 11.1 Phase I Proposal Format instructions, the CCR is generated by the submission website, based on information provided by you through the "Company Commercialization Report" tool.   Army Phase I proposals submitted over 20-pages will be deemed NON-COMPLIANT and will not be evaluated. This statement takes precedence over section 3.4 of the general DoD 11.1 SBIR Solicitation instructions. Since proposals are required to be submitted  Portable Document Format (PDF), it is the responsibility of those submitting the proposal to ensure any PDF conversion is accurate and does not cause the proposal to exceed the 20-page limit.

Phase I proposals must describe the "vision" or "end-state" of the research and the most likely strategy or path for transition of the SBIR project from research to an operational capability that satisfies one or more Army operational or technical requirements in a new or existing system, larger research program, or as a stand-alone product or service.


Phase I proposals will be reviewed for overall merit based upon the criteria in section 4.2 of the DoD Program Solicitation.




The Army implements the use of a Phase I Option that may be exercised to fund interim Phase I activities while a Phase II contract is being negotiated.  Only Phase I efforts selected for Phase II awards through the Army's competitive process will be eligible to have the Phase I Option exercised.  The Phase I Option, which must be included as part of the Phase I proposal, should cover activities over a period of up to four months and describe appropriate initial Phase II activities that may lead to the successful demonstration of a product or technology.  The Phase I Option must be included within the 20-page limit for the Phase I proposal.




A firm‑fixed‑price or cost‑plus‑fixed‑fee Phase I Cost Proposal ($150,000 maximum) must be submitted in detail online. Proposers that participate in this solicitation must complete the Phase I Cost Proposal not to exceed the maximum dollar amount of $100,000 and a Phase I Option Cost Proposal (if applicable) not to exceed the maximum dollar amount of $50,000.  The Phase I and Phase I Option costs must be shown separately but may be presented side-by-side in a single Cost Proposal.  The Cost Proposal DOES NOT count toward the 20-page Phase I proposal limitation.  When submitting the Cost Proposal, the Army prefers the small businesses complete the Cost Proposal form on the DoD Submission site, versus submitting within the body of the uploaded proposal.  The Cost Proposal DOES NOT count toward the 20-page Phase I proposal limitation.


Phase I Key Dates

Phase I Evaluations                   July – August 2011

Phase I Selections                     September 2011

Phase I Awards                         October 2011*

*Subject to the Congressional Budget process




Army Phase II Proposals have a 40-page limit including the Proposal Cover Sheets (pages 1 and 2, added electronically by the DoD submission site---Offerors are instructed to NOT leave blank pages or duplicate the electronically generated cover pages THIS WILL COUNT AGAINST THE 20 PAGE LIMIT), as well as the Technical Proposal (beginning on page 3, and including, but not limited to: table of contents, pages left blank intentionally by you, references, letters of support, appendices, and all attachments). Therefore, a Technical Proposal of up to 38 pages in length counts towards the overall 40-page limit. ONLY the Cost Proposal and the Company Commercialization Report (CCR) are excluded from the 40-pages. As instructed in Section 3.5d of the DoD 11.1 SBIR Phase I Propoasl Format instructions, the CCR is generated by the submission website based on information provided by you through the "Company Commercialization Report" tool. Army Phase II proposals submitted over 40-pages will be deemed NON-COMPLIANT and will not be evaluated. Since proposals are required to be submitted in Portable Document Format (PDF), it is the responsibility of those submitting the proposal to ensure any PDF conversion is accurate and does not cause the proposal to exceed the 40-page limit.


Note! Phase II proposal submission is by Army invitation only.


Generally, invitations to submit Phase II proposals will not be requested before the fifth month of the Phase I effort.  The decision to invite a Phase II proposal will be made based upon the success of the Phase I contract to meet the technical goals of the topic, as well as the overall merit based upon the criteria in section 4.3 of the DoD Program Solicitation.  DoD is not obligated to make any awards under Phase I, II, or III.  DoD is not responsible for any money expended by the proposer before award of any contract.  For specifics regarding the evaluation and award of Phase I or II contracts, please read the DoD Program Solicitation very carefully.  Phase II proposals will be reviewed for overall merit based upon the criteria in section 4.3 of this solicitation.


Invited small businesses are required to develop and submit a technology transition and commercialization plan describing feasible approaches for transitioning and/or commercializing the developed technology in their Phase II proposal.  Army Phase II cost proposals must contain a budget for the entire 24 month Phase II period not to exceed the maximum dollar amount of $1,000,000.  During contract negotiation, the contracting officer may require a cost proposal for a base year and an option year.  These costs must be submitted using the Cost Proposal format (accessible electronically on the DoD submission site), and may be presented side-by-side on a single Cost Proposal Sheet.  The total proposed amount should be indicated on the Proposal Cover Sheet as the Proposed Cost. Phase II projects will be evaluated after the base year prior to extending funding for the option year.




Any proposal involving the use of Bio Hazard Materials must identify in the Technical Proposal whether the contractor has been certified by the Government to perform Bio Level - I, II or III work.


Companies should plan carefully for research involving animal or human subjects, or requiring access to government resources of any kind. Animal or human research must be based on formal protocols that are reviewed and approved both locally and through the Army's committee process. Resources such as equipment, reagents, samples, data, facilities, troops or recruits, and so forth, must all be arranged carefully.  The few months available for a Phase I effort may preclude plans including these elements, unless coordinated before a contract is awarded.




If the offeror proposes to use a foreign national(s) [any person who is NOT a citizen or national of the United States, a lawful permanent resident, or a protected individual as defined by 8 U.S.C. 1324b (a) (3) – refer to Section 2.3 at the front of this solicitation for definitions of "lawful permanent resident" and "protected individual"] as key personnel, they must be clearly identified. For foreign nationals, you must provide technical resumes, country of origin, and an explanation of the individual's involvement. Please ensure no Privacy Act information is included in this submittal.




Class 1 Ozone Depleting Chemicals/Ozone Depleting Substances are prohibited and will not be allowed for use in this procurement without prior Government approval.




Small businesses participating in the Fast Track program do not require an invitation.  Small businesses must submit (1) the Fast Track application within 150 days after the effective date of the SBIR Phase I contract and (2) the Phase II proposal within 180 days after the effective date of its Phase I contract.  See section 4.5 in the DoD Program Solicitation for additional information.  




Accounting for Contract Services, otherwise known as Contractor Manpower Reporting Application (CMRA), is a Department of Defense Business Initiative Council (BIC) sponsored program to obtain better visibility of the contractor service workforce.  This reporting requirement applies to all Army SBIR contracts.


Offerors are instructed to include an estimate for the cost of complying with CMRA as part of the cost proposal for Phase I ($100,000 maximum), Phase I Option ($50,000 max), and Phase II ($1,000,000 max), under "CMRA Compliance" in Other Direct Costs. This is an estimated total cost (if any) that would be incurred to comply with the CMRA requirement. Only proposals that receive an award will be required to deliver CMRA reporting, i.e. if the proposal is selected and an award is made, the contract will include a deliverable for CMRA.


To date, there has been a wide range of estimated costs for CMRA.  While most final negotiated costs have been minimal, there appears to be some higher cost estimates that can often be attributed to misunderstanding the requirement.  The SBIR Program desires for the Government to pay a fair and reasonable price.  This technical analysis is intended to help determine this fair and reasonable price for CMRA as it applies to SBIR contracts.


·      The Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Manpower & Reserve Affairs) operates and maintains the secure CMRA System. The CMRA Web site is located here:


·      The CMRA requirement consists of the following items, which are located within the contract document, the contractor's existing cost accounting system (i.e. estimated direct labor hours, estimated direct labor dollars), or obtained from the contracting officer representative:

(1) Contract number, including task and delivery order number;

(2) Contractor name, address, phone number, e-mail address, identity of contractor employee entering data;

(3) Estimated direct labor hours (including sub-contractors);

(4) Estimated direct labor dollars paid this reporting period (including sub-contractors);

(5) Predominant Federal Service Code (FSC) reflecting services provided by contractor (and separate predominant FSC for each sub-contractor if different);

(6) Organizational title associated with the Unit Identification Code (UIC) for the Army Requiring Activity (The Army Requiring Activity is responsible for providing the contractor with its UIC for the purposes of reporting this information);

(7) Locations where contractor and sub-contractors perform the work (specified by zip code in the United States and nearest city, country, when in an overseas location, using standardized nomenclature provided on Web site);


·      The reporting period will be the period of performance not to exceed 12 months ending September 30 of each government fiscal year and must be reported by 31 October of each calendar year.


·      According to the required CMRA contract language, the contractor may use a direct XML data transfer to the Contractor Manpower Reporting System database server or fill in the fields on the Government Web site.  The CMRA Web site also has a no-cost CMRA XML Converter Tool.


Given the small size of our SBIR contracts and companies, it is our opinion that the modification of contractor payroll systems for automatic XML data transfer is not in the best interest of the Government.  CMRA is an annual reporting requirement that can be achieved through multiple means to include manual entry, MS Excel spreadsheet development, or use of the free Government XML converter tool.  The annual reporting should take less than a few hours annually by an administrative level employee.  Depending on labor rates, we would expect the total annual cost for SBIR companies to not exceed $500.00 annually, or to be included in overhead rates.




In accordance with section 9(q) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 638(q)), the Army will provide technical assistance services to small businesses engaged in SBIR projects through a network of scientists and engineers engaged in a wide range of technologies. The objective of this effort is to increase Army SBIR technology transition and commercialization success thereby accelerating the fielding of capabilities to Soldiers and to benefit the nation through stimulated technological innovation, improved manufacturing capability, and increased competition, productivity, and economic growth.


The Army has stationed six Technical Assistance Advocates (TAAs) across the Army to provide technical assistance to small businesses that have Phase I and Phase II projects with the participating organizations within their regions.


For more information go to:




The objective of the CPP effort is to increase Army SBIR technology transition and commercialization success and accelerate the fielding of capabilities to Soldiers.  The ultimate measure of success for the CPP is the Return on Investment (ROI), i.e. the further investment and sales of SBIR Technology as compared to the Army investment in the SBIR Technology.  The CPP: 1) assesses and identifies SBIR projects and companies with high transition potential that meet high priority requirements; 2) provides market research and business plan development; 3) matches SBIR companies to customers and facilitates collaboration; 4) prepares detailed technology transition plans and agreements; 5) makes recommendations and facilitates additional funding for select SBIR projects that meet the criteria identified above; and 6) tracks metrics and measures results for the SBIR projects within the CPP. 


Based on its assessment of the SBIR project's potential for transition as described above, the Army utilizes a CPP investment fund of SBIR dollars targeted to enhance ongoing Phase II activities with expanded research, development, test and evaluation to accelerate transition and commercialization.  The CPP investment fund must be expended according to all applicable SBIR policy on existing Phase II contracts.  The size and timing of these enhancements is dictated by the specific research requirements, availability of matching funds, proposed transition strategies, and individual contracting arrangements.




All award winners must submit a non-proprietary summary report at the end of their Phase I project and any subsequent Phase II project. The summary report is unclassified, non-sensitive and non-proprietary and should include:

·      A summation of Phase I results

·      A description of the technology being developed

·      The anticipated DoD and/or non-DoD customer

·      The plan to transition the SBIR developed technology to the customer

·      The anticipated applications/benefits for government and/or private sector use

·      An image depicting the developed technology


The non-proprietary summary report should not exceed 700 words, and is intended for public viewing on the Army SBIR/STTR Small Business area.  This summary report is in addition to the required final technical report and should require minimal work because most of this information is required in the final technical report.   The summary report shall be submitted in accordance with the format and instructions posted within the Army SBIR Small Business Portal at and is due within 30 days of the contract end date.




A final technical report is required for each project.  Per DFARS clause 252.235-7011

(, each contractor shall (a) submit two copies of the approved scientific or technical report delivered under the contract to the Defense Technical Information Center, Attn:  DTIC-O, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA  22060-6218; (b) Include a completed Standard Form 298, Report Documentation Page, with each copy of the report; and (c) For submission of reports in other than paper copy, contact the Defense Technical Information Center or follow the instructions at




Participating Organizations                                                   PC                             Phone            


Armaments RD&E Center                                                       Carol L'Hommedieu            (973) 724-4029

A11-080                             Immersive Vision, Data Fusion and Threat Awareness for Enhanced Sensor-to-Shooter


A11-081                             Neuromorphic Parallel Processor

A11-082                             Novel Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) High Flux Heat Exchanger

A11-083                             Advanced High Power, High frequency RF Source


A11-085                             Novel North Orienting Device

A11-086                             Engineered Ignition of Novel Structural Reactive Materials

A11-087                             Low-Power Consumption Control Surface Actuation Devices for Munitions

A11-088                             Novel Compaction Technologies for Nanopowders

A11-089                             Innovative Passivation Technologies for Aluminum Nanoparticles

A11-090                             Innovative Azimuth and Elevation Orientation System for Gun Tubes

A11-091                             Ammonium Dinitramide Desensitization



Army Research Office                                                              Nicole Fox                               (919) 549-4395

A11-092                             Fabrication of High-Strength, Nanostructured Aluminum Alloys


Aviation and Missile RD&E Center (Aviation)                  PJ Jackson                              (757) 878-5400

A11-069                             Rotorcraft Acoustic/Aerodynamics Analyses

A11-070                             Prevention of Ice Accumulation 

A11-071                             Fail Safe Adaptive Energy Absorber for Helicopter Crash Safety Seating Systems

A11-072                             Comprehensive Latency Mitigation in EOIR Sensor Controls

Aviation and Missile RD&E Center (Missile)                     Buddy Thomas                       (256) 842-9227

                                                                                                       Dawn Gratz                            (256) 842-8769

A11-073                             Technologies for Containerizing and Vertically Launching Multiple Missiles Simultaneously 

A11-074                             Affordable Active Phased Array Sensor Systems

A11-075                             Coupled Pyrolysis, Radiant Heat Transfer, and Fluid Dynamics Modeling

A11-076                             Fusion Bonding of Thermoplastic Composite Missile Structures

A11-077                             Process Modeling and Analysis Tools for Thermoplastic Composite Missile Structures 

A11-078                             Quantitative Analysis of the Internal Material Properties of Dome Blanks 

A11-079                             High Bandwidth Terahertz Communication Link


Army Test & Evaluation Command                                      Nancy Weinbrenner             (410) 278-5688

                                                                                                       Michael Orlowicz                  (410) 278-1494

A11-093                             Non-Intrusive Measurement of Network Effectiveness

A11-094                             Ballistic Impact Assessment System


Communications Electronics Command                              Suzanne Weeks                      (732) 427-3275

A11-095                             Edge Enabled Systems for ISR Applications

A11-096                             3 kW High Performance Permanent Magnet Alternator

A11-097                             Distributed Navigation Solutions


Engineer Research & Development Center                         Theresa Salls                          (603) 646-4591

A11-098                             Regenerable Air Filter Media for Adsorption of Toxic Industrial Chemicals

A11-099                             Rapidly Deployable Lightweight Shelters for Austere Environments

A11-100                             Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Instruments for Geotechnical and Geophysical Investigations




JPEO Chemical and Biological Center                                 Larry Pollack                        (703) 767-3307

A11-101                             Wide area standoff hyperspectral-imaging sensor for chemical and biological early warning

A11-102                             Wide Area Collective Protection


Medical Research and Materiel Command                         JR Myers                                (301) 619-7377

                                                                                                       Nancy Smith                           (301) 619-7414

A11-103                             Use rHSPs as Bio-modulator to Promote Healing of Soft Tissue Injuries

A11-104                             Development of Novel Antimicrobial Drug Targeted to Essential Bacterial Genes Against Wound

Infection Pathogens

A11-105                             Blood Purification for Organ Failure

A11-106                             Small Molecule Antiviral Agents Against Flaviviruses

A11-107                             Archive of Samples for Long-term Preservation of RNA and Other Nucleic Acids

A11-108                             Development of Flowable Biomaterials that Promote Wound Healing with Infection Control and


A11-109                             Advanced Composite Insoles for the Reduction of Stress Fractures

A11-110                             Ultraviolet Communication for Medical Applications

A11-111                             Battlefield Medical Situational Awareness Goggles (Human Computer Interface)


Natick Soldier RD&E Center                                                Arnie Boucher                         (508) 233-5431

                                                                                                      Cathy Polito                            (508) 233-5372

A11-112                             Water Conditioning System for Sinks and Sanitation Centers




PEO Command, Control and Communication Tactical     Grace Xiang                          (443) 619-2400

A11-113                             TIME LANCER




PEO Missiles and Space                                                           George Buruss                       (256) 313-3523





Simulation & Training Technology Center                         Thao Pham                              (407) 384-5460

A11-114                             Increased 3D Virtual Image Opaqueness and Contrast Resolution in Optical See-Through Head

Mounted Displays


Tank Automotive RD&E Center                                           

                                                                                                       Martin Novak                        (586) 282-8730

A11-115                             Heads-Up Display for Control of Unmanned Ground Vehicles

A11-116                             High energy/capacity cathode materials

A11-117                             Highly Immersive Virtual Environment (HIVE)





This is a Checklist of Army Requirements for your proposal.  Please review the checklist carefully to ensure that your proposal meets the Army SBIR requirements.  You must also meet the general DoD requirements specified in the solicitation. Failure to meet these requirements will result in your proposal not being evaluated or considered for award.  Do not include this checklist with your proposal.


____     1.  The proposal addresses a Phase I effort (up to $100,000 with up to a six-month duration) AND (if applicable) an optional effort (up to $50,000 for an up to four-month period to provide interim Phase II funding).


____     2.  The proposal is limited to only ONE Army Solicitation topic.


____     3.  The technical content of the proposal, including the Option, includes the items identified in Section 3.5 of the Solicitation.


____     4. Army Phase I Proposals have a 20-page limit including the Proposal Cover Sheets (pages 1 and 2, added electronically by the DoD submission---Offerors are instructed to NOT leave blank pages or duplicate the electronically generated cover pages THIS WILL COUNT AGAINST THE 20 PAGE LIMIT), as well as the Technical Proposal (beginning on page 3 and including, but not limited to: table of contents, pages left blank intentionally by you, references, letters of support, appendices, and all attachments).  Therefore, the Technical Proposal up to 18 pages in length counts towards the overall 20-page limit. ONLY the Cost Proposal and the Company Commercialization Report (CCR) are excluded from the 20-pages. As instructed in Section 3.5d of the DoD 11.1 Phase I Proposal Format instructions, the CCR is generated by the submission website based on information provided by you through the "Company Commercialization Report" tool.  Army Phase I Proposals submitted over 20-pages will be deemed NON-COMPLIANT and will not be evaluated. This statement takes precedence over section 3.4 of the general DoD solicitation instructions. Since proposals are required to be submitted in Portable Document Format (PDF), it is the responsibility of those submitting the proposal to ensure any PDF conversion is accurate and does not cause the proposal to exceed the 20-page limit.


____     5.  The Cost Proposal has been completed and submitted for both the Phase I and Phase I Option (if applicable) and the costs are shown separately.  The Army prefers that small businesses complete the Cost Proposal form on the DoD Submission site, versus submitting within the body of the uploaded proposal.  The total cost should match the amount on the cover pages.


____     6.  Requirement for Army Accounting for Contract Services, otherwise known as CMRA reporting is included in the Cost Proposal (offerors are instructed to include an estimate for the cost of complying with CMRA).


____     7.  If applicable, the Bio Hazard Material level has been identified in the technical proposal.


____     8.  If applicable, plan for research involving animal or human subjects, or requiring access to government resources of any kind.


____     9.  The Phase I Proposal describes the "vision" or "end-state" of the research and the most likely strategy or path for transition of the SBIR project from research to an operational capability that satisfies one or more Army operational or technical requirements in a new or existing system, larger research program, or as a stand-alone product or service.


____     10.  If applicable, Foreign Nationals are identified in the proposal. An employee must have an

H-1B Visa to work on a DoD contract.


Army SBIR 11.2 Topic Index


A11-069                             Rotorcraft Acoustic/Aerodynamics Analyses

A11-070                             Prevention of Ice Accumulation 

A11-071                             Fail Safe Adaptive Energy Absorber for Helicopter Crash Safety Seating Systems

A11-072                             Comprehensive Latency Mitigation in EOIR Sensor Controls

A11-073                             Technologies for Containerizing and Vertically Launching Multiple Missiles Simultaneously 

A11-074                             Affordable Active Phased Array Sensor Systems

A11-075                             Coupled Pyrolysis, Radiant Heat Transfer, and Fluid Dynamics Modeling

A11-076                             Fusion Bonding of Thermoplastic Composite Missile Structures

A11-077                             Process Modeling and Analysis Tools for Thermoplastic Composite Missile Structures 

A11-078                             Quantitative Analysis of the Internal Material Properties of Dome Blanks 

A11-079                             High Bandwidth Terahertz Communication Link

A11-080                             Immersive Vision, Data Fusion and Threat Awareness for Enhanced Sensor-to-Shooter


A11-081                             Neuromorphic Parallel Processor

A11-082                             Novel Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) High Flux Heat Exchanger

A11-083                             Advanced High Power, High frequency RF Source


A11-085                             Novel North Orienting Device

A11-086                             Engineered Ignition of Novel Structural Reactive Materials

A11-087                             Low-Power Consumption Control Surface Actuation Devices for Munitions

A11-088                             Novel Compaction Technologies for Nanopowders

A11-089                             Innovative Passivation Technologies for Aluminum Nanoparticles

A11-090                             Innovative Azimuth and Elevation Orientation System for Gun Tubes

A11-091                             Ammonium Dinitramide Desensitization

A11-092                             Fabrication of High-Strength, Nanostructured Aluminum Alloys

A11-093                             Non-Intrusive Measurement of Network Effectiveness

A11-094                             Ballistic Impact Assessment System

A11-095                             Edge Enabled Systems for ISR Applications

A11-096                             3 kW High Performance Permanent Magnet Alternator

A11-097                             Distributed Navigation Solutions

A11-098                             Regenerable Air Filter Media for Adsorption of Toxic Industrial Chemicals

A11-099                             Rapidly Deployable Lightweight Shelters for Austere Environments

A11-100                             Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Instruments for Geotechnical and Geophysical Investigations

A11-101                             Wide area standoff hyperspectral-imaging sensor for chemical and biological early warning

A11-102                             Wide Area Collective Protection

A11-103                             Use rHSPs as Bio-modulator to Promote Healing of Soft Tissue Injuries

A11-104                             Development of Novel Antimicrobial Drug Targeted to Essential Bacterial Genes Against Wound

Infection Pathogens

A11-105                             Blood Purification for Organ Failure

A11-106                             Small Molecule Antiviral Agents Against Flaviviruses

A11-107                             Archive of Samples for Long-term Preservation of RNA and Other Nucleic Acids

A11-108                             Development of Flowable Biomaterials that Promote Wound Healing with Infection Control and


A11-109                             Advanced Composite Insoles for the Reduction of Stress Fractures

A11-110                             Ultraviolet Communication for Medical Applications

A11-111                             Battlefield Medical Situational Awareness Goggles (Human Computer Interface)

A11-112                             Water Conditioning System for Sinks and Sanitation Centers

A11-113                             TIME LANCER

A11-114                             Increased 3D Virtual Image Opaqueness and Contrast Resolution in Optical See-Through Head

Mounted Displays

A11-115                             Heads-Up Display for Control of Unmanned Ground Vehicles

A11-116                             High energy/capacity cathode materials

A11-117                             Highly Immersive Virtual Environment (HIVE)



Army SBIR 11.2 Topic Descriptions



A11-069                             TITLE: Rotorcraft Acoustic/Aerodynamics Analyses






OBJECTIVE: It is required to develop a new type of tool for the analysis of rotorcraft in-plane harmonic (IPH) and impulsive noise. The method should treat all the primary IPH and impulsive noise sources, encompassing the entire spectrum and all types of relevant propagation environments. The method must have its basis in physical conservation laws, but also possess the speed potential required for engineering and operational application. 


DESCRIPTION: Acoustic radiation is an essential factor in the design and operation of all types of rotorcraft. However our understanding of the acoustic problem is surprisingly incomplete – this is reflected in the very limited quantitative prediction capability for the total acoustic problem (encompassing generation and propagation). While both the aerodynamics and propagation aspects are marked by a many prediction methods, a wide range of physical approximations notably marks the latter, with corresponding method types and limitations. Ultimately, it is required to employ a more complete physical solution method, implying the solution of model equations approaching the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations and the use of discrete Eulerian methods – i.e. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).


Rotorcraft CFD has long been under development and is now approaching an ability to predict complete rotor near-field aerodynamics. However, very different types of methods are presently used to extend the near-field flow into the acoustic far field. These methods (Kirchoff-Helmholtz integral, boundary element, ray tracing, parabolic equation, etc.) all have their particular limitations and areas of applicability, and progress (especially when coupled to full CFD flow models) has been slow.


Recent work has begun to study the acoustic capabilities of CFD, itself, in the far-field – mainly because of its intrinsic completeness, compatibility with near-field computations, and the simplifications of dealing only with local wave interactions. However, it has been found that, while such computations clearly contain identifiable acoustic phenomena, it is not currently possible to extend them to the large distances required for practical quantitative acoustics. It is also important to note that, even with presently attainable computation distances, important higher frequency waves (characteristic of blade wake interactions or tail-rotor thickness noise) are not found in such solutions. The primary difficulty is that the wavelength scales of acoustic waveforms (whether long or short) are far shorter than the required propagation scale lengths – and this implies the need for a grid size that exceeds foreseeable capabilities. That is, it is not possible to resolve propagating flow features for very long, resulting in numerical diffusion – thus, the various waveforms effectively “evaporate” (all of them, eventually). The success of CFD as an acoustic tool requires that this multiple-scale problem be solved or circumvented.  The multi-scale problem implies that eventually, it is not generally possible to resolve an acoustic waveform except perhaps in very small, densely gridded, regions. It is common to employ high order methods to reduce numerical diffusion, but analogous problems in CFD demonstrate that this may only delay the inevitable diffusion by a small amount. Another approach is to numerically treat propagating features as “captured pulses”, which implies that they are eventually defined by a minimum number of necessary conserved properties, rather than by a physically resolvable waveform. Such captured features do not diffuse and are well known in several fields including CFD – they occur in phase-transition problems, radar propagation and, for aeronautical problems, in shock capturing. So, clearly, it is possible to treat the rotor aerodynamics/acoustics problem in a fully Eulerian way, but this has not been done to date – and an effective approach is now sought.


This research addresses Air SID Gap 27, 5.2 Joint Multi-Role Platform: Concepts and Designs.


PHASE I: An innovative discrete Eulerian approach will be developed (in pilot form) for modeling and prediction of acoustic waves. Simple sources can be used initially, but it should also be shown that such solution features develop from wave coalescences and impulsive blade loading. It will be demonstrated that such flow features can be numerically propagated through grids of practical total size with no diffusion or loss of minimum essential wave properties. This propagation will be shown to encompass a realistic range of refractive and reflective effects. A scheme will be developed for obtaining any (or all) significant acoustic characteristics from the above method.


PHASE II:  A code will be developed that effectively unifies the near-field rotor flow (including compressible thickness effects and blade wake interaction effects) with the far-field propagation. The code will have the ability to treat realistic rotor geometries as well as ground topography and models of atmospheric properties – with computations that result in realistic representations of rotor loads and ground sound pressure level maps.


PHASE III: The demonstrated ability to predict complete rotor flow and acoustic fields will be developed into a commercialized product by extended validations and the addition of user interfaces, efficiency improvements and couplings to related rotorcraft analyses, including comprehensive and design methods. It is envisioned that such an analysis will eventually inform designers concerning the acoustic implications of engineering decisions and operations people (both civil and military) concerning best use their equipment in prevailing conditions. Applications to wind turbine design and siting are also envisioned.



1. Gopalan, G. and Schmitz, F.H., “Understanding Far Field Near-in-plane High Speed Harmonic Helicopter Rotor Noise in Hover” Governing Parameters and Active Acoustic Control Possibilities”, AHS Specialist’s Meeting on Aeromechanics, San Francisco, 2008.


2. Baeder, J.D., “Passive Design for Isolated Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise Reduction”, Proceedings of the Americal Helicopter Society 53rd Annual Forum, 1997.


3. Sim, et al, “Direct CFD Predictions of Low Frequency Sounds Generated by a Helicopter Main Rotor”, Americal Helicopter Society 66th Annual Forum, Phoenix, May 11-13, 2010.


4. Wells, V., and Renaut, R., “Computing Aerodynamically Generated Noise”, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 1997, 29:161-99.


5. Attenborough, et al, “Benchmark Cases for Outdoor Sound Propagation Models”, Journal of the Acoustic Society of Americal, 97 (1), Jan. 1995.


6.  Elliot, C.M., French, D.A., “Numerical Studies of the Cahn-Hilliard Equation for Phase Separation”, IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics, 38, 97-128, 1987.


7.  J.Steinhoff, Chitta, S., “Long range numerical simulation of short waves as nonlinear solitary waves”, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 80, 752-762, 2009.


KEYWORDS: rotorcraft acoustics, rotorcraft aerodynamics, rotor wakes, rotor compressible flow, rotor acoustic propagation




A11-070                             TITLE: Prevention of Ice Accumulation 


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes




The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this topic is to develop a light weight method of preventing significant ice accumulation on Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) wings or other crucial surfaces. Durable thin film coatings could be applied to the metallic and composite materials of a Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)over flight critical surfaces as part of an anti-ice system. 


DESCRIPTION: Manned aircraft are often equipped with anti- or de-icing equipment that allows them to operate in most cold weather conditions. The specialized design and construction of UAV make them vulnerable to inclement weather, especially conditions favorable for ice formation. These aircraft typically lack a method for actively removing ice due to the added weight and reduced payload capacity. This topic addresses the development and evaluation of a nano-composite thin film coating that works as a passive anti- or de-icing capability without significantly increasing the weight of the vehicle.  The key operational payoff is increased mission capability (missions will not have to be scheduled to avoid areas where ice accumulation is present or forecasted).


Future benefits of this technology could include application to commercial aircraft, other military aircraft, or even power transmission lines. 


This research addresses Air SID Consolidated Gap "Worldwide Operations."


PHASE I: Establish theoretical nano-composite thin film structure with optimized durability and icephobic properties. Develop and establish a technique to apply icephobic coatings onto representative coupons of carbon fiber, aluminum, and titanium. Test developed coatings under laboratory/benchtop conditions to acquire relative performance data and further coating refinement. Measurement of ice adhesion strength values will be executed during Phase I to assess the potential for Phase II success. If other technologies are used in conjunction with the coating for passive de-ice, they should be developed in parallel with the coating.


PHASE II: The coating process developed in Phase I should be refined and evaluated further to fully characterize material thermal and physical properties. An optimized prototype should be developed and tested on a representative wing to prove out de-ice capabilities, substrate adhesion, durability at any range of temperatures, and durability to withstand other environmental conditions such as UV exposure and sand erosion. If other passive technologies that assist the de-ice capabilities of the coating are incorporated, these should be tested during Phase II as well. Test results should be evaluated against de-ice standards to ensure coating effectiveness and durability.  


Additional items to consider is application skills/training, repairability and/or removal, and cost. However, these items are not quantified here so that innovation is not limited.


PHASE III: If successful, the end result of this Phase I/Phase II research effort will be an experimentally validated passive anti- or de-icing capability adding negligible weight to the aircraft. At this stage, the PM is committed to funding implementation of this project including all air worthiness testing. This technology will be directly applicable to metallic and composite materials of military and commercial aircraft. Prior to incorporation into aviation systems, all regulations and air worthiness testing will be achieved. The most likely customer and source of Government funding for Phase-III will be the Unmanned Aerial System Project Office. 


REFERENCES: These references explain the impacts of icing on UAVs and the need for a passive anti-icing or de-icing capability. 


1. Icing Protection for Composite UAV Aircraft:


2. Impact of Icing on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Operations:


3. AOPA Safety Advisor, Aircraft Icing:


4. Pilot Guide: Flight in Icing Conditions, Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular, 31 December 2007.


KEYWORDS: Icephobic, Nano-Composites, Thin Film Coatings, UAV Icing.




A11-071                             TITLE: Fail Safe Adaptive Energy Absorber for Helicopter Crash Safety Seating Systems






OBJECTIVE: Develop a fail-safe adaptive energy absorber (FSAEA), with an intelligent adaptive load-stroke profile and vibration reduction, to reduce occupant fatigue during normal flight, as well as ensure that lumbar loads and occupant accelerations are adequately attenuated in a high sink rate crash landing. The proposed FSAEA would be capable of rapidly and dynamically changing the seat stroking acceleration and sink distance as a function of occupant weight, vehicle sink rate, and crash pulse profile and severity, using internal and external sensors, if required. During loss of power to such an adaptive device, the FSAEA would provide functionality to ensure a baseline level of performance that that protects the statistically mean male aviator (50th percentile) at the current design requirements.


DESCRIPTION: The U.S. Army is aggressively pursuing novel adaptive crash safety technologies for a range of helicopter applications including stroking crew seats. Such an integrated system of crash protection features seek to minimize the probability of injury to crew for sink rates as high as 50 ft/s in differing aircraft attitudes. However, a key issue for an active device is the need for a load attenuation capability in the event that power is lost to the crash protection system during a crash event. Current state-of-the-art active energy absorbers rely on constant feedback from sensors and control systems, which require continuous electrical power. In a crash event, power can be interrupted due to ballistic and or other damage events, and it is critical that an energy absorber function in this degraded state to protect the occupants. Additional guidance regarding occupant percentile weights and vibrational environment can be found in MIL-S 58095A specification, and JSSG-2010-7 design guide.


This research addresses Air SID Gap 8, 2.2 Safety and Survivability: Crew Seats.


PHASE I: Using existing data, studies, and methodologies from literature, academic journals, and design guides, design an FSAEA capable of providing fail-safe energy attenuation for a stroking seat crash protection system. Analytically predict and model the performance of the FSAEA in response to high sink rate landing in both powered and unpowered modes. Design and analyze the optimal vibration isolation capability into the FSAEA and model the vibration reduction behavior under typical flight vibration spectra. Analyze the protection performance for occupants ranging from a 5th percentile female to 95th percentile male with equipment worn by the typical US Army aviator.


PHASE II: Demonstrate fail safe capabilities for such vibratory spectra and crash pulses for the full range of occupants in both powered and unpowered modes using an actual prototype. Demonstrate via testing, that simulations accurately predict adaptive control capabilities for expected vibratory and crash loads. Integrate the FSAEA with a vertically stroking crew seat crash protection system and ensure that the FSAEA provides critically needed fail-safe capabilities.


PHASE III: Refine the simulation capability based on knowledge gained in Phase II, and expand the simulation capability to handle specific crash events. Develop and execute a technology transfer plan to commercialize a FSAEA across the helicopter and aircraft industry.



1.  Y.-T. Choi and N.M. Wereley (2003). “Vibration Control of a Landing Gear System Featuring Electrorheological / Magnetorheological Fluids.” AIAA J. Aircraft, 40(3):432-439.


2.  Batterbee, D.C., Sims, N.D., Stanway, R., and Rennison, M. 2007, “Magnetorheological Landing Gear: 1. A Design Methodology,” Smart Materials and Structures, 16(6):2429-2440.


3.  Batterbee, D.C., Sims, N.D., Stanway, R., and Rennison, M. 2007, “Magnetorheological Landing Gear: 2. Validation Using Experimental Data,” Smart Materials and Structures, 16(6):2441-2452.


4.  M.R. Smith, S. Chodhury, and C.-H. Cho, “Crash Attenuation Systems for Aircraft.” US Patent Pending 12/089,884.


5.  Y.-T. Choi, N.M. Wereley (2005). “Biodynamic Response Mitigation to Shock Loads Using Magnetorheological Helicopter Crew Seat Suspensions.” AIAA J. Aircraft, 42(5):1288-1295.


6.  G. Hiemenz, Y.-T. Choi and N.M. Wereley (2007). “Semi-Active Control of a Vertical Stroking Helicopter Crew Seat For Enhanced Crashworthiness.” AIAA J. Aircraft, 44(3): 1031–1034.






KEYWORDS: helicopter, rotorcraft, survivability, crash safety, fail-safe




A11-072                             TITLE: Comprehensive Latency Mitigation in EOIR Sensor Controls


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Sensors




The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: To mitigate the impact of system latency on EO/IR sensor operator’s workload and performance when controlling manned and unmanned air systems. The contractor shall develop a set of advanced graphic user interfaces (GUIs), automated controls and displays, automated UAV sensor controls, and object/image processing software for use on an operator workstation.


DESCRIPTION: The impact of latency on UAV operation has substantially impacted the usability of many unmanned systems. The primary way we currently try to deal with latency has been to minimize it, improve processing, and develop appropriate training. Although future technologies are likely to help the problem, others (such as image processing, compression, encryption, and ultimately more distributed control systems (internet/networked based)) have the potential to substantially increase the latency, especially and more significantly when combined with potential problems with comms and networks. Latency can lead to an inability to lock on a target due to over-steering, losing the target as it moves out of the field of view, and higher fatigue and workload from controlling the sensor. Latency also increases the operator’s uncertainty and decreases his real-time situational awareness leading to increased cognitive stress and workload.


To truly compensate for latency at the operators end, you need to consider not just the latency on sensor data (RF transmission times) but also the latency in the control system. Complicating the problem is that in some situations the amount of latency in a system can be quite variable in time (i.e. those due to comms degradation or network traffic) while in others it can be pretty consistent in time but vary by the operator location (i.e. network routing and operator’s hardware configuration). Therefore, to try to compensate for latency in a general sense, a system needs to measure latency real-time and then apply appropriate methods to aid the operator in doing his desired tasks.


This effort will focus on developing a combination of GCS interfaces (GUI), automation in the sensor control, systems monitoring, and image processing to compensate for latencies in EOIR sensor data and control. An effective solution should support a wide range of latencies and their causes in UAV operations. The goal is compensating for latencies in the range of 500ms to greater than 5 seconds and changing dynamically. Under this effort the contractor should include methods for estimating latency in near real-time for the signal coming down to the controller as a minimum and include estimation of the responsiveness of the sensor to control inputs (latencies of the control) as a desired capability. Displays shall be developed and integrated into a Ground Control Station like the ones on the UGCS or the OSRVT with Bi-directional technology (LOI 3) which includes at least a Sensor display and a Falcon view map. The system needs to work with a wide variety of common sensor controllers including joysticks and space balls, cursor (thumb-force controller, mouse, etc.) and touch screen. Good human factors and how well it works in representative operational environments need to be considered throughout the effort. The target platform for developing this capability will be a near-term (next 5 years) “tough book” type notebook computer running an OSRVT like application. The software and interface should be developed with other applications in mind and in such a way as to expedite transition to systems like the Army’s Universal Ground Control Stations, manned helicopter systems, or even possibly as a generic internet browser or smart phone application.


This research addresses Air SID Gap 58, 8.5 Sensors/Payloads: Target Acquisition/ Detection, by enhancing the ability to acquire and track targets regardless of latency in the sensor system; and, the 2010 Human Dimension & Training Technology Gap 6.2 by reducing the cognitive burden of the soldier doing recon and targeting using remote sensors.


PHASE I: This effort will include a trade study to investigate various options for estimating latency for an aviation EO/IR sensor control system, as well as methods of compensating for the latencies. Develop a concept for an entire latency compensation system and estimate its overall performance in a variety of latency conditions. Conduct proof of concept testing to refine key technologies and to assess the overall feasibility of the concept. Phase I will deliver a trade study (including methods, analysis, and results), and a well-conceived and well-documented concept for a comprehensive latency estimation and compensation system, performance estimates, results of proof of concept testing, and feasibility assessment.


PHASE II: Refine the concepts from Phase 1. Build prototype components and systems and test them on a contractor simulation or emulation of a UAV sensor system that can emulate the various types and amount of latency. User assessment(s) should supplement Human Factors analysis to determine the effectiveness of the final prototype.


PHASE III: This technology has broad application to controlling sensors remotely on both air and ground systems. This software has direct application to many existing and planned Army Systems including One System/Universal Ground Control Station, OSRVT 2 (with Bi-direction technologies), Apache and other manned air vehicle cockpits as well as corresponding system for ground and sea (UGV GCS, USV GCS, TOCs, APC, tanks, ships, etc.) and any place where remote viewing and control of sensor systems is likely to happen). Beyond current military systems, this supports a wide variety of commercial uses where sensors are controlled remotely but where latency impacts the fidelity and effectiveness of using the sensor. Other applications would include systems for both fixed and mobile site/facility security, internet based access controlled systems where remote viewing and control is involved (web cams), homeland defense/boarder security, forestry surveillance, and a variety of academic and research applications.



1. R. van der Merwe, E. Wan, S. Julier, A. Bogdanov, G. Harvey, and J. Hunt "Sigma-Point Kalman Filters for Nonlinear Estimation and Sensor Fusion: Applications to Integrated Navigation," in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance Navigation & Control Conference, (Providence, RI), August 2004. [10 pages]


2. Alkkiomaki, O.; Kyrki, V.; Kalviainen, H.; Yong Liu; Handroos, H.;"Challenges of Vision for Real-Time Sensor Based Control"; Computer and Robot Vision, 2008. CRV '08. Canadian Conference on Windsor, Ont.: 28-30 May 2008:


KEYWORDS: latency, UAS, OSRVT, unmanned, remote sensing, EOIR, control, controllers, ground control station, automation, interfaces, estimation




A11-073                             TITLE: Technologies for Containerizing and Vertically Launching Multiple Missiles







The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE:  Identify, develop, and demonstrate materials and technologies for packaging multiple interceptor missiles into a single canister of an existing launcher container.


DESCRIPTION:  The Extended Area Protection and Survivability (EAPS) is an Army Technology Objective (ATO) Science and Technology (S&T) Program that is currently in an Integrated Demonstration (ID) Phase. The EAPS program is developing a complete system that consists of interceptors (missiles), fire control sensor (radar), technical fire control (computer), and launcher to defeat rocket, artillery, and mortar (RAM) threats.


The EAPS program was directed by the Army to utilize the former Non-Line of Sight Launch System (NLOS-LS) Container Launch Unit (CLU). The current CLU was designed to contain fifteen All-Up-Rounds (AURs) with only one missile in each AUR canister.  The AUR canister provides isolation between missiles.  In order to provide enough stowed kills for multiple engagements, each canister will have to contain multiple EAPS interceptors. 


The canister is roughly 7in in diameter and 5 ft long; EAPS missiles are significantly smaller and can be as small as 1.75 in diameter and 2 ft long.  Due to the smaller size of the EAPS missile, multiple rounds can be packaged into the original canister.  Internal canister designs for packaging multiple missiles in a single canister will require analysis, based on government provided design information of current canisters and EAPS missiles, of technical issues related to storage, transportation, and simultaneous/near simultaneous launch.  Critical issues requiring consideration are canister/missile’s ability to withstand the drop and shock environments associated with storage and transportation and the provision of maintaining environmental protection to the other missiles even if only one missile is launched.  Critical issues associated with simultaneous/near simultaneous launch include the mitigation and control of the shock, gasses, and heat generated by the launch of a missile so as to not damage the adjacent missiles in the canister. The canisters must be electrically separated from each other since the original canister has a single electrical plug in on the bottom that interfaces with the launcher computer. The challenge is how to split the signal from the single electrical connector then send an individual signal to each individual missile, without accidental cuing or launching of the other missiles.


International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR) is required

Contract Security Classification Specifications, DD FORM 254, is not required


PHASE I:  Conduct a technical feasibility study to indentify materials and technologies that allow high density packaging of missiles in a small, enclosed space. Areas of the feasibility study should include:

•Indentify possible insulating materials

•Perform a thermodynamic analysis of these indentified material to find out if they insulate the surrounding missiles from the heat from an adjacent missile launch

•Develop innovative methods to cradle missile to provide protection from the shock of adjacent missile launch and shocks associated with storage and transportation

•Develop innovative methods for gas management from launch

•Develop a system to electrically isolate and split launch signal from a single connector

•Develop a system to environmentally protect adjacent missiles if only a single missile is launched


PHASE II:  Mature and demonstrate the selected materials and technologies explored in Phase I:

•Model the thermodynamic properties of materials

•Refine ideas and technologies identified in Phase I

•Fabricate proof-of-concept prototypes

•Develop a credible plan, containing cost estimates and identify risks to mature technology into Phase III


PHASE III:  Prototype hardware from Phase II will be provided to government or contractor facilities for demonstration testing.  This will include tests to verify feasibility of packaging, storing, transporting, and launching of multiple missiles in a single canister.  Design revisions and prototype finalization will be conducted based on demonstration testing. 


The technology developed for packaging multiple missiles into a container designed for a single, larger missile has uses for all the services for launching smaller missile with existing launch containers.  The U.S. Navy has expressed interest in this technology to insert smaller missiles into their existing missiles launchers onboard ships for greater weapons flexibility.



1.      Performance of Reinforced Polymer Ablators Exposed to a Solid Rocket Motor Exhaust Personal; Boyer, C., Burgess, T., Bowen, J., Deloach, K., Talmy, I.; Naval surface warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA;  October 1992


2.      Impingement Flow-Fields for Tube-Launched Rockets;  Bouslog, Stanley A., Bertin, John J., Wingert, William B. II; Texas University at Austin Fluid Dynamics Institute;  August 1982


3.      Joint Time-Frequency Analysis of Static Pressure in Semi-Closed Container-Launcher;  Qiang Xu, University of Science and Technology of China; Et al.; AIAA Paper Number: AIAA-2002-4302, 38th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Indianapolis, Indiana, July 7-10, 2002


4.      Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Flow Confined in a Vertical Missile Launcher,  Frédéric Sourgen, French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis; Et al.; Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 2009, vol.46 no.2 (307-317)


5.      Assessing Rocket Plume Damage to Launch Vehicles, Charles Dennis, QinetiQ, Sevenoaks; P. Sutton, QinetiQ, Sevenoaks AIAA Paper Number: AIAA-2005-4163, 41st AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Tucson, Arizona, July 10-13, 2005


6.      Experimental study of the thermal erosion in a subscale solid-propellant launcher, Yeh, Yeu-Pin, Engineering Research and Consulting, Inc., Tullahoma, TN; Et al.; AIAA-1992-3511; 28th SAE, ASME, and ASEE, Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Nashville, TN, July 6-8, 1992.


KEYWORDS:  Launcher, Vertical Launch, Packaging, Gas Management, Multiple Launch, Material, Thermodynamics, Plume




A11-074                             TITLE: Affordable Active Phased Array Sensor Systems






The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: Develop prototype active phased array sensor systems in the millimeter bands (Ku and Ka) to demonstrate capabilities that can provide tactically significant power levels for missile seeker applications.


DESCRIPTION: A capability gap exists for affordable, solid-state, RF missile seeker sensors with reliable performance, reduced weight and small footprint. Current solid-state systems lack the necessary power to be tactically significant. Tactically significant power levels have increased component heating, requiring thermal management solutions. Thermal management solutions may include the use of new, exotic power amplifier substrates with high power added efficiencies. Phased array advantages allow for the ability to track multiple incoming targets through multiple beam generation or fast beam switching. Non-mechanical phased array scanning eliminates mechanical gimbals and increases reliability through graceful degradation associated with MMIC-based solid-state solutions. Reduced footprint, highly integrated, surface mounted or MMIC/wire-bonded printed wiring assembly layouts reduce intrinsic losses compared to common fabrication methods. The use of commercial products, fabrication methods, and manufacturing techniques such as those used by the telecommunications industry ease manufacturing and producibility while enabling affordability. For affordability, the use of mature processes with a direct link to commercial industry is a necessity, with the hierarchy of chosen components being: commercially available (off-the-shelf (COTS)), followed by the use of commercial processes and fabrication techniques when COTS are not available. Finally, specialized components requiring specific design work, fabrication and tooling should only be considered after all other more affordable means have been exhausted. ITAR control is required.


PHASE I: Determine the technical feasibility of a design for both Ku- and Ka-band phased array assemblies including radiating elements, Transmit/Receive (T/R) millimeter wave circuitry, and beam-steering methods capable of tactically significant radiated power levels. These assemblies should be designed with a 6- to 7-inch missile frame in mind and utilize a traditional array element spacing. Determine thermal management techniques to support phased array power level in a tactical environment, researching novel ways to overcome the power wall associated with solid-state system solutions. Determine an innovative method to support in-flight calibration. From this feasibility study, develop a strategy to construct laboratory-scale technology demonstrators that will allow AMRDEC to assess the performance of these potential millimeter wave sensor systems. Designs should be based on affordability by utilizing commercially-available components, commercial fabrication techniques and methods. This technical challenge should be addressed using non-conventional methods achieved through "out-of-the-box", innovative and creative thinking. Although not a requirement, exotic and recently matured substrates to address power and thermal requirements should be considered.


PHASE II: Develop a phased array assembly sensor prototype and conduct fabrication and test to verify thermal management and in-flight calibration techniques that support the designs that were developed in Phase I. Implement thermal management and in-flight calibration techniques in the design and construct and deliver to AMRDEC a laboratory-scale technology demonstrator of active phased array sensor systems at both Ku- and Ka-bands in a 2-Dimensional form to verify thermal transport and demonstrate phased array beam-steering. The thermal transport techniques should support full form-factored missile seeker arrays in both the Ku- and Ka-bands. Per SBIR Solicitation paragraphs 3.1, 5.6, 5.14 g, and 6.1, a DD Form 254 may be required for Phase II and beyond.


PHASE III: Phased array sensor systems support multiple military applications including both air and ground based systems.  Examples include missile seeker systems, fire control sensors, surveillance radar systems, data and communication links.  Phased array sensor systems to support missile seeker applications must address mission specific duty factors, applicable electronic attack and protect missions, and have necessary anti-tamper protection. The insight and technology developed in earlier phases will support the designs, fabrication, thermal management and test of form-factored phased array sensor systems for both Ku- and Ka-band missile seeker systems at tactically significant power levels. Construct and deliver to AMRDEC a form-factored demonstrator to verify thermal solutions, conduct laboratory evaluation and field demonstration of missile seeker sensor systems. This demonstrator should include radome or array protection to allow for environmental protection during a tower test or captive flight carry. Demonstrate that the technology being delivered utilizes affordable fabrication methods and demonstrate system manufacturability, leading to possible commercialization by the telecommunications industry. Dual-use and commercial applications of phased array technology include broadcast engineering, weather radar applications, space probe satellite communications including satellite/satellite operations and/or satellite/earth operations as well as Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless communications networks. Solid-state phased arrays are applicable anywhere directed RF energy is employed.



1. Skolnik, Merrill I., Introduction to Radar Systems, 3rd edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001. Print.


2. Mailloux, Robert J., Phased Array Antenna Handbook. Norwood, MA: Artech House, Inc., 1994. Print.


3. Balanis, Constantine A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1982. Print.


4. Lo, Y.T., and S.W. Lee, Antenna Handbook: Theory, Applications, and Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1988.


Print Keywords: active phased array, millimeter wave, missile seeker, Ku-band, Ka-band, MMIC


KEYWORDS: missile seeker; phased array; electronically-steerable phased array; power wall; thermal management; calibration; affordable; communications; sensor systems; radio frequency; millimeter wave; solid state




A11-075                             TITLE: Coupled Pyrolysis, Radiant Heat Transfer, and Fluid Dynamics Modeling


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Space Platforms, Weapons


The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: To develop advanced modeling for coupled pyrolysis, radiant heat transfer, and fluid dynamics interior to post burn-out solid rocket motors.


DESCRIPTION: Structural failure, extended low level thrust, and even signature following propellant consumption and burn-out in solid propellant rocket motors may be attributed to the thermal pyrolysis and consequent gas/particulate effluent of liner and/or insulation interior to the rocket motor chamber and exhaust nozzle. The pyrolysis process may be driven and extended by heat transfer, either radiant or conductive, from residual slag, for metallized propellants, or other metal parts, i.e. exhaust nozzle, to the liner/insulation. Heat soak through the motor structure may be enhanced by the failure of adhesive bonds and loss of char/liner/insulation subsequent to this process. Structural failure and protracted signature are obvious problems, but even extended low level thurst can prove most problematic to missile operation, i.e. post-separation missile stage collisions.


It has been shown that, for specific motors with given assumptions for the initial and boundary conditions, an iterative process using existing models for pyrolysis, radiative/conductive heat transfer, and fluid dynamics running uncoupled in a quasi-steady mode will produce anticipated post burn-out thrust levels and motor case temperature histories. This existing modeling process, however, is deficient as a high quality predictive tool in that the current radiative transfer modeling does not account for participating gases and particulates, i.e. carbon soot, the radiative view factors are complex, and the models for pyrolysis, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics are uncoupled. Model coupling may well be a second order effect but gas/particulate absorption and emission must be accounted for in the model physics along with energy loss in the exhaust flow.


High fidelity models already exist for conductive heat transfer, radiative heat transfer, pyrolysis, char formation, fluid dynamics, and gas/particle absorption/scattering/emission and need not be developed from scratch. Innovation, however, is certainly needed to appropriately couple these models for this specialized problem area and to produce a predictive capability with reasonable accuracy using readily available computational resources.


This research addresses Effects SID gap 7.3, Propulsion & Flight Control.


PHASE I: This solicitation seeks advanced modeling to accurately predict post burn-out effects in solid rocket motors while accounting for the known physical phenomena. A plan will be developed during Phase-I for the staged integration of existing submodels for heat conduction, pyrolysis, radiative transport, and fluid dynamics into an all encompassing post burn-out rocket motor model. Specific submodels for radiative exchange and fluid dynamics will be selected during Phase-I. Since pyrolysis and conductive heat transfer are largely motor specific, submodels for those phenomena will be provided by the Government during Phase-II but allowances must be made in the Phase-I plan for their integration into the all encompassing model. The Phase-I plan will also include a prioitization rationale for the progressive development of submodel coupling since strong coupling may prove to be an intensive process and the need must be established.


One innovative, meaningful demonstration will be executed during Phase-I to verify the need for radiative heat transfer and fluid dynamics coupling with gas/particulate participation. This demonstration shall model the simple case of a spherical rocket motor and nozzle as follows:


Motor case diameter = 2 m

Nozzle throat diameter = 20 cm

Initial motor stagnation pressure = 13.8 kPa

Initial motor stagnation temperature = 735 K

Wall temperature = fixed 735 K

Pyrolysis gas mole fractions = 0.300 H2, 0.125 CH4, 0.575C (graphite)

Slag heat source temperature = fixed 2700 K

Slag surface area = 0.6 m**2

Slag emissivity = 0.4

Motor interior surface emissivity = 0.98

Pyrolysis mass flux (kg/s/m**2) = a+b*q**2 where   

  q = surface wall radiant heat flux (W/m**2)

  a = 4.17237E-02

  b = 7.89322E-11


Nozzle back pressure = vacuum


For simplicity, assume that the slag forms a perfect sphere located at the center of the motor.


The calculations shall be run both with and without gas/particulate participation for comparison purposes.


PHASE II: The Phase-I plan for the integration of existing submodels into an all encompassing post burn-out solid rocket motor model will be implemented by stage to include general submodels for radiative transport and fluid dynamics along with motor specific submodels for pyrolysis and heat conduction. Coupling of the submodels, loose or strong, will be advanced as the need is demonstrated along with parallelization for execution on multiprocessor linux cluster machines. Additionally, this advanced model for coupled pyrolysis, radiative heat transfer, and fluid dynamics will be run blind for comparison with a given solid rocket motor test case, such as the Castor-IVB, for which detailed data has been obtained to demonstrate the predictive capabilities for post burn-out solid rocket motor phenomena.


PHASE III: If successful, the end result of this Phase-I/Phase-II research effort will be a validated predictive model for the analysis of post burn-out phenomena - heat transfer and thrust - in solid rocket motors. The transition of this product, a validated research tool, to an operational capability will require additional upgrades of the software tool set for a user-friendly environment along with the concurrent development of application specific data bases to include the required input parameters such as solid rocket motor material properties, geometries, and designs.


For military applications, this technology is directly applicable to all solid propellant rocket propulsion missile systems and may have special significance to dual pulse rocket motor design.


The most likely customer and source of Government funding for Phase-III will be those service project offices responsible for the development of advanced missile concepts such as the PAC-3 and THAAD programs.


For commercial applications, this technology is directly applicable to all commercial launch systems such as the Delta and Atlas families with probably application to industrial furnace design.



1. Simmons, F.S., Rocket Exhaust Plume Phenomenology, ISBN 1-884989-08-X, AIAA, 2000.


2. Sutton, G.P., and Biblarz, O.,Rocket Propulsion Elements, ISBN 0-471-32642-9, Wiley-Interscience, 2009.


3. Yang, V., Brill, T., and Wu-Zhen, R. Solid Propellant Chemistry, Combustion, and Motor Interior Ballistics, ISBN-13: 978-1-56347-442-2, AIAA, 2000.


4. Siegel, R. and Howell, J., Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, ISBN 1-56032-839-8, Taylor & Francis, 2002.


KEYWORDS: conduction, radiation, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, pyroysis, thrust, gas, particulate




A11-076                             TITLE: Fusion Bonding of Thermoplastic Composite Missile Structures


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes




OBJECTIVE: Develop the processes, materials and analysis techniques for fusion bonding of fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite missile structures in cylindrical lap joint configuration. Fusion bonding will be required for cylindrical lap joints at the motor case and airframe components. If resistance welding is used, a non-metallic heating element is preferred.


DESCRIPTION: Recent advances in the production of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites (TPMC) have greatly increased the availability and reduced the cost of these materials to a level worthy of serious investigation for use in missile airfame and motorcase design and fabrication. TPMCs could provide solutions to current issues experienced with thermoset polymer matrix composites such as impact damage tolerance, processing and fabrication times, and reduction in weight of joints. Fusion bonding of TPMCs offers significant potential for reducing weight, increasing manufacturing speed and improving joint strength in future TPMC airframes. Current thermoplastic bonding techniques have been demonstrated on flat panels using resistance welding with metal mesh embedded in thermoplastic films. Further process development and characterization of thermoplastic fusion bonded joints is needed to realize the potential weight savings, increased manufacturing speed, and improved joint strengths for representative TPMC geometries. Specifically, bonding of cylindrical components in a lap joint configuration (not butt joint) presents a challenge because of the difficulty in applying pressure on the bondline during cooling of the polymer. The lap joint could include a cylindrical component recessed inside of a cylindrical tube. The fusion bonding process cannot disturb fiber orientation of the components being bonded. A novel approach to applying pressure to the bondline while the polymer is molten must be employed in order for components such as closures or mounting structures to be bonding internally to a missile airframe to increase performance and reduce cost to manufacture. This research addresses Effects SID Gap “Deployable, Smaller, Lighter.”


PHASE I: Develop the processes, materials and analysis techniques for fusion bonding of fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite missile structures in cylindrical lap joint configuration. Fusion bonding will be required for cylindrical lap joints at the motor case and airframe components. If resistance welding is used, a non-metallic heating element is preferred. Void areas within the bondline should be minimzed with a maximum allowable disbond length of .25 inches and a maximum area of .050 square inches.  Contractor should propose a void detection method (e.g.ultrasound, thermography). Bonds should be evaluated against standard thermoset joints for lap shear strength. 


PHASE II: Demonstrate seven inch diameter TPMC motorcase and airframe joined by newly developed fusion bonding technique. Also provide: the processing documentation defining the parameters used to join the TPMC missile segments, the results of the thermal and structural analysis used to determine and validate the fusion bonding process, and results of the destructive and non-destructive testing done to characterize integrity of the bonded joint. 


PHASE III: Weight reduction in joints is important in many missile and aviation applications. As the use of thermoplastic composites increase, the results of this project will deliver the technology necessary to reduce the weight and cost of bonded joints. This technology could be used on many different applications that utilize TPMCs. It will not only be applicable to cylindrical missile structures, but also complex contour structures, e.g wings, fairings, etc. It will find dual use application in military and commercial applications. This technology has direct transition to the Applied Smaller Lighter Cheaper Munitions Components-Army Technology Objective.



1. Hall, L., Roberts, K., Michasiow, J., and Foedinger, R., “Investigation and Characterization of Commercially-Available Carbon/Thermoplastic Matrix Composite Materials,” SAMPE 2010, Seattle, WA,  May 2010.


2. Yousefpour, A., Hoijati, M., and Immarigeon, J-P. “Fusion Bonding/Welding of Thermoplastic Composites,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, Vol. 17 No. 4, July 2004, 303-341.


3. C. Ageorgesa, L. Ye and M. Hou, “Advances in Fusion Bonding Techniques for Joining Thermoplastic Matrix Composites: A Review,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 32, Issue 6, 1 June 2001, Pages 839-857.


4. A. Chazerain, P. Hubert, A. Yousefpour, H. Bersee, "Mechanical Performance of Resistance-Welded Thermoplastic Composite Double Lap Shear Specimens," SAMPE 2009, Baltimore, MD, May 18-21, 2009.


KEYWORDS: Thermoplastic, composite, fusion bonding, thermoplastic welding, joining, bonding




A11-077                             TITLE: Process Modeling and Analysis Tools for Thermoplastic Composite Missile Structures 


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes




The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: The goal of this effort is to develop material/process model for integrating high performance thermoplastic matrix composites (TPMC) into next generation missile systems.


DESCRIPTION: Thermoplastic matrix fiber-reinforced composites (TPMCs) have recently gained attention for use in high performance missile and aviation structures. TPMCs provide damage tolerance, virtually unlimited shelf life with minimal storage requirements, and recycling options which thermoset composites typically cannot offer. Advances in thermoplastic processing, such as long fiber compression molding, fiber placement, and high strength injection molding compounds, have allowed the potential for mass production of high stiffness/strength thermoplastic composites at lower costs.


Despite the above advantages, TPMCs are relatively uncharacterized compared to most thermoset matrix composites, A better understanding is needed to relate the material processing parameters with the mechanical properties of the final product. Mechanical properties of TPMCs are directly affected by processing parameters such as heating rate, tooling temperature, applied pressure, and especially cooling rate in semi-crystalline polymers such as PEEK and PPS. Various processing methods (i.e. automated fiber placement, injection molding, compression molding, etc) produce varying mechanical properties with the same material.


This research addresses Effects SID gap 12.1, Deployable - Smaller/Lighter.


PHASE I: Develop material models and specialty algorithms that can predict mechanical performance (stiffness, strength, damage tolerance) of TPMCs. The model should start with a database of fiber (i.e., Hexcel IM7 and IM10) and matrix (i.e., PEEK, PPS, PEI) constituent properties, and scale up to laminate level predictions. The models should be compatible with compression molding and injection molding process to include such parameters as fiber lengths, molding or injection pressures, and cooling rates that would maximize properties. Lab scale experiments should be performed to prove the validity of the process models.


PHASE II: Using the results from Phase I, efforts should be transitioned for the prediction of structural components from various processes, such as a fiber placed motor case, injection molded end cap, compression molded hardback sleeve, etc. Curvature effects should be included in the models to account for fiber orientation and placement in these sections. Structural tests should be performed on components to validate models.


PHASE III: Efforts will focus on commercialization of the analytical tools for use in both military and commercial applications. Material models and algorithms should be bundled to create a comprehensive, user-friendly software program (stand-alone or integrated as a sub-module in a third party commercial program). The software could allow major defense and aerospace companies to employ TPMCs in future systems.



1. Hall, L., Roberts, K., Michasiow, J., and Foedinger, R., “Investigation and Characterization of Commercially-Available Carbon/Thermoplastic Matrix Composite Materials,” SAMPE 2010, Seattle, WA,  May 2010.


2. Chapman, T.J. et al., “Prediction of Process-Induced Stresses in Thermoplastic Composites,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 24, No. 6, 616-643 (1990).


3. Vaidya, U.K. et al., “The Process and Microstructure Modeling of Long-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites,” JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society Volume 60, Number 4, 43-49.


4. Sonmex, F. O. et al., "Process optimization of tape placement for thermoplastic composites," Composites Part A 38, 2013-2023 (2007).


KEYWORDS: Thermoplastic, composite, fiber placement, modeling, continuous fiber, analysis




A11-078                             TITLE: Quantitative Analysis of the Internal Material Properties of Dome Blanks 


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes




The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: The goal of this topic is to develop a method for assessing dome and window blanks while in the as-fired or rough ground states.


DESCRIPTION: Multiple sensor packages are being used in current missile seeker designs. As a result, dome specifications have become tighter and dome finishing costs have increased. Optical ceramic missile domes are delivered to the optical fabricators with either no processing after final heat treatment or with only a rough ground surface. This makes it extremely difficult to determine the quality of the dome as it sits in inventory. Since variations in dome material vary from vendor to vendor and even from run to run, inspection of a small sample may not be sufficient. When production rates are high this becomes a huge issue. The dome must be partially finished before it can be determined if it will produce a dome that meets final design specifications. The investment of time and resources on bad domes will increase dome costs and reduce production rates which increase the manufacturing risk. What is needed is a method for dome manufacturers or dome fabricators to inspect the dome blanks prior to being placed in inventory. ITAR control is required. Contract Security Classification, DD Form 254, not required.


PHASE I: Develop a method for inspecting optical ceramic dome blanks with an as-fired or rough ground surface. The method must be compatible with the dome materials ALON and Spinel. Index matching fluid may be used to overcome surface roughness if required. The method must be able to measure internal material properties such as skin thickness, stress, inclusions, and homogeneity, and be conducive to operation in a shop environment. Skin thickness must indicate the depth at which the optically dense material located under the surface. Inclusion will be measured in microns and their number and location within the dome indentified. An overall measurement of the amount of homogeneity and stress in the part will also be provided. It is very important that the inspection can be made with minimal time and with minimal operator involvement. A bread board demonstration is needed to verify the proposed method. ALON and Spinel flats may be used for initial testing. 


PHASE II: Demonstrate the ability to accurately measure ALON and Spinel dome blanks using the method developed in Phase I. Build upon the previous results to develop a prototype system capable of measuring the required internal material properties of optical ceramic dome blanks. The system should require minimal operator training and perform the inspections in a short amount of time, preferably in less than 2 minutes. The demonstration must include 7 inch hemispherical dome blanks made of ALON and Spinel. 


PHASE III: Demonstrate a commercial system based on the dome inspection system refined in Phase II. Such a system would provide the dome manufacturers and optical fabricators a tool for ensuring the quality of their dome blank inventory. The system would work equally well on flat sensor windows. The Army is investing in research for large ballistic windows and the Navy currently has a need for a very large, ship mounted sensor window. Detecting material flaws prior to processing could potentially save thousands of dollars of unnecessary finishing costs. This system has direct application to any industry, such as in military, space, and surveillance, that needs to protect sensors from the external environment with the use of a dome or window. Meeting schedules and reducing costs are the two main benefits of this system.



1. "Material for Infrared Windows and Domes," Dan Harris, ISBN 0-8194-3482-5, SPIE Press, 1999.


2. "Materials for infrared windows and domes: Properties and performance", Daniel C. Harris, Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, August 1999.


3. "Tri-mode seeker dome considerations", James C. Kirsch, William, R. Lindberg, Daniel C. Harris, Michael J. Adcock, Tom P. Li, Earle A. Welsh, Rick D. Akins, Proc. SPIE Vol. 5786, p. 33-40, Window and Dome Technologies and Materials IX; Randal W. Tustison; Ed., 18 May 2005.


4. “Technologies for precision manufacturing of current and future windows and domes”, Bob Hallock, Aric Shorey, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 7302, Windows and Dome Technologies and Materials XI; Randal W. Tustison; Ed., 27 April 2009.


KEYWORDS: missile dome, optical testing, inspection, ALON, Spinel




A11-079                             TITLE: High Bandwidth Terahertz Communication Link






OBJECTIVE: Develop a prototype high bandwidth (>1 Gb/s), large field of view, one-way heterodyne communication link with a sub-terahertz (0.1-0.4 THz) local oscillator frequency for outdoor, short-range (<1 km) covert communications.


DESCRIPTION: There is a growing need for high bandwidth, short-range, jam-proof data and communication links for a wide range of outdoor applications, including control of unmanned ground vehicles, fire control systems, wireless reconfigurable local area networks, and active command and control during covert operations. One-way laser communication links can achieve high data rates over short ranges, but they are impractical for such dynamic operational environments because they require precise line-of-sight alignment. Terahertz (THz) technologies may provide high bandwidth, one-way line-of-sight communication links that are protected from jamming and eavesdropping by atmospheric water vapor absorption.[1-5] Sub-terahertz technologies are rapidly maturing, and heterodyne transmitters and receivers are commercially available. However, technological innovation is required to overcome the dual challenges of achieving high bandwidth (>1 Gb/s) links with sufficient signal strength that the receiver may operate resiliently in the (preferably large) field of view of the transmitter’s antenna.


The purpose of this topic is to perform a feasibility study and design (Phase I), then demonstrate and deliver (Phase II) a wide field of view (FOV) heterodyne sub-THz transmit/receive prototype link capable of communicating high bandwidth (>1 Gb/s) data over outdoor distances less than 1 km. The transmitter and receiver must be able to operate independently without precise alignment or scanning, preferably with a frequency-tunable local oscillator so the propagation range may be adjusted in response to ambient atmospheric conditions. Of greatest interest are those approaches that can simultaneously demonstrate high bandwidth links to receivers within a large FOV over various user-selectable propagation ranges. The functioning prototype must be delivered to AMRDEC by the end of Phase II.


PHASE I: Design a prototype tunable sub-THz frequency heterodyne transmitter and receiver capable of high bandwidth (>1 Gb/s), one-way transmittal of data and communications over distances less than 1 km. The feasibility study must include a thorough link budget analysis that considers performance trade-offs between bandwidth, directionality, and propagation range in order to justify the proposed choice of operational frequencies, transmitter power, antenna gain, source modulation and detector bandwidth, etc.  The deliverable will be a thorough design and development plan to construct, test, and deliver a working prototype by the end of Phase II.


PHASE II: Construct, test, and deliver a prototype tunable sub-THz frequency heterodyne transmitter and receiver capable of high bandwidth (>1 Gb/s), one-way transmittal of data and communications over user-adjustable distances up to 1 km. The prototype must demonstrate the ability to transmit data at the full bandwidth of the deliverable over the propagation range specified in a fashion robust against variability in the receiver’s orientation or location within the transmitter’s FOV. The prototype will be delivered to AMRDEC by the end of Phase II.


PHASE III: Develop a compact, high bandwidth, large FOV, two-way, short-range sub-THz communication link that may be tested in an actual or simulated battlefield environment as well as indoors. Size, weight, and power should be reduced so that the transceiver(s) can be man-portable and operated on batteries. A tunable local oscillator frequency will be required so that the link may operate in all types of weather conditions over user-selected distances. A means for coordinating operating frequency among multiple transceivers should be provided.


DUAL USE:  A high bandwidth communication link is of increasing interest for high data rate indoor communications.[2,6] Of particular interest are resilient high bandwidth indoor local area networks or quasi-permanent wireless data links over distances < 1 km in urban environments for which lower frequency (< 0.1 THz), lower bandwidth (< 1 Gb/s) systems are commercially available.



1. J. Federici and L. Moeller, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, p. 111101 (2010).


2. R. Piesiewicz et al., IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 49, p. 24 (December, 2007).


3. C. Jastrow et al., Electronics Letters Vol. 44, p. 213 (2008). C. Jastrow et al., 2008 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2008), p. 2.


4. J.S. Rieh, D. H. Kim, 2009 IEEE Globecom Workshops, p. 6 (2009).


5. M.J. Rosker and H.B. Wallace, Microwave Symposium 2007, IEEE/MTT-S International, p. 773 (2007). H.J. Liebe, International J. of Infrared and Milimeter Waves, Vol. 10, p. 631 (Springer, 1989). S.T. Fiorino et al., Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7324, 732410 (2009); doi:10.1117/12.818922.


6. N. Krumbholz et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol 88, p. 202905 (2006). I.A. Ibraheem, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 18, p. 67 (2008).


KEYWORDS: High bandwidth communication, short range communication, covert communication, terahertz communication, heterodyne terahertz techniques, high bandwidth data link




A11-080                             TITLE: Immersive Vision, Data Fusion and Threat Awareness for Enhanced Sensor –to-Shooter





OBJECTIVE: Develop a low-cost, real-time, portable, immersive, three-dimensional, mapping and localization system to enhance threat awareness, responsiveness, survivability, network effects teaming, and effects delivery during small unit mounted/dismounted operations in urban and complex terrain. Demonstrate the capability to fully integrate in real time acoustic and video data with 3D platform/target sensors, including GPS, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), IR, and LADAR to construct an accurate, georeferenced 3D structure/terrain map populated with dynamic threat position/description updates and slew-to-cue detection alerts.


DESCRIPTION: Soldiers within the Future Force and those in the current force engaged in combat operations must be able to quickly reduce opposition within urban environments while minimizing friendly force casualties in urban combat. This challenge requires tremendous situational awareness and knowledge of the urban terrain. Currently the mounted/dismounted soldier is limited to 2D map displays (e.g., Land Warrior and FBCB2) and Falconview, which provides limited 3D visualization of static terrain/features without real-time 3D structural mapping or immersive threat visualization capability. Recent algorithm advances in real-time 3D mapping, point cloud processing, data representation, image and data registration, visualization, GPS degraded/denied navigation, and feature tracking coupled with today’s high-speed, high-resolution processing and display technology offer the potential to quickly map and visualize the internal and external features of buildings to automatically identify, classify, and track potential threats and personnel. In addition, this data can be disseminated to the small unit leader and soldier as required to support real-time target-to-shooter hand-off and collaborative engagement. This capability must be complemented with the ability to simultaneously self locate and construct a 3D environment map, often in the absence of GPS. The hardware package must be designed to be man portable and capable of being integrated with soldier-worn or robotic-platform  mapping and targeting sensors. Viable solutions will require leveraging state-of-the-art advances in high-speed graphics computing, networking, data compression, image/sensor processing, gaming technologies, 3D imaging, mapping and localization, augmented/virtual reality display, and visualization technologies to provide an immersive view of the battlespace optimized for fire, maneuver, and collaborative target engagement. As an example, advances in low cost flash LADAR can provide an 800 x 600 pixel resolution depth map at 30 frames per second vs. 50,000 3D points per second for a scanning LADAR. Desired solution approaches will be capable of processing in real time (frame rate) the higher fidelity flash LADAR data and will produce high resolution georeferenced 3D maps accurate within 2 meters with registration accuracy within approximately 3 centimeters. Solution approaches should be modular, open architecture, and standards based to provide maximum flexibility for integration with commercially available manned/unmanned platforms and sensor/targeting payloads with the goal of achieving a 50 percent reduction in collaborative engagement timelines compared to standard 2D mapping and soda straw sensor view technologies for fleeting, time-sensitive, and high-threat targets, including snipers. Developed technology will enhance system and system-of-system performance in terms of quality and responsiveness of individual and netted platform data-to-target engagement decision processing, target/IED detections, survivability and rounds per kill.


PHASE I: Develop algorithm approach and architecture design concept and formulate preliminary development, implementation, and demonstration approach. Develop top level hw/sw architecture specification, determine measures of performance and demonstrate feasibility of approach.


PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a functional prototype and operator interface in a realistic hardware and man-in-the-loop simulation and/or field environment representative of a small unit manned/unmanned effects teaming, target hand-off, and collaborative engagement scenario. Validate measures of performance established in phase I.


PHASE III: This system could be used in a broad range of military and civilian security applications where real-time 3D mapping, GPS denied tracking and targeting is required – for example, in military operations in urban and complex terrain, in search and rescue, fire fighting, drug interdiction, law enforcement, counter terrorism operations in urban structures, border tunnels, industrial/nuclear facilities, surface vessels etc.



1. S. Thrun, W. Burgard, and D. Fox. A real-time algorithm for mobile robot mapping with applications to multi-robot and 3D mapping. ICRA-2000.


2. Q. Li, C. Zhao, Q. Zhang, Region Based Artificial Terrain Texture Generation, Proceedings Second Int. Conf. on Virtual Reality, Beijing China 2007.


3. D. Kang, B. Shin, Acceleration of Terrain Rendering Using Cube Mesh, Proceedings Second Int. Conf. on Virtual Reality, Beijing China 2007.


4. P. Aguiar, J. Moura, Three-dimensional Modeling from Two-dimensional Video, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, V.10, No. 10, Oct 2001.


KEYWORDS: real time 3-D mapping, gps denied tracking, sensor-to-shooter, visualization, immersive visualization, terrain visualization,sensor/data fusion, threat awareness, battlespace awareness




A11-081                             TITLE: Neuromorphic Parallel Processor


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Electronics


OBJECTIVE: To research and develop an innovative, programmable, low-power, neuromorphic parallel processor that functions with power comparable to that of the biological neuron that is 1000 times more power efficient than popular processors available today.


DESCRIPTION: The US Army ARDEC is in search of a novel means to address the urgent need for a low-power parallel processor with functionality similar to that of the biological neuron to facilitate massive computational resources necessary to support soldier-wearable computation, such as digital imaging, acoustic comprehension, and other power intensive applications. This technology can reduce the cost of precision munitions by providing in-flight and terminal guidance. Standard systems have demonstrated that their ability to process and integrate data from various modalities is insufficient to provide valuable information judiciously. In addition, power constraints are often a restrictive factor when considering deployment in theatre. Due to the limitations of conventional processor technologies, there is a critical necessity for a fundamentally unique processor in which the goal is to supply adequate computational capability with optimal and acceptable power requirements. The goal of this effort will be to design a parallel processor based on the neuromorphic characteristics of the biological neuron. Leveraging the efficiency of the human brain, based on numerous electro-chemical mechanisms and neuronal activity, provides an innovative methodology for logic interpretation and the transmission of signals.


Considerable investigation has gone into the modeling and simulation of the human brain and its neuronal components. This has led to the development of hardware configurations that can emulate neuronal behavior and functionality called neuromorphic architectures. Understanding the various components in these architectures has allowed for the development of complex simulations in software as well as small-scale, prototype integrated circuits. A predominant amount of this work has been performed to comprehend neuronal operation rather than prioritizing the application of neuromorphic concepts for a utilizable processor with favorable size, weight and power attributes. An example of a hardware simulation of neuronal characteristics has been performed by Dr. Boahen of Stanford University (See References below) with great detail in mimicking the electrochemical properties of the neuron, but it is not energy efficient. To accurately emulate the cellular neuron and all its intricacies it will be necessary to incorporate a mixed-mode element to accurately implement the integration of signals as in the neurons within the brain. These elements should consist of several individual neurons with the ability for their interconnections to be reconfigured dynamically. To augment processing capabilities and decrease power necessity, the internal network should be able to execute in parallel with the potential for the sub-units to be interconnected and networked for dedicated applications, as in the brain. 


PHASE I: In Phase I, the contractor shall create one or more innovative and practical designs that leverages various neuromorphic research and development efforts to develop a technical approach for a low-power neuromorphic parallel processor. The technical approach should include the various bio-inspired components included within the proposed neuromorphic design as well as how these elements will implemented in a prototype solution. The proposed approach must demonstrate the ability for numerous neurons to operate simultaneously in parallel or/and in series with a timely data flow between the neurons and outside stimuli. In addition, details should be provided on the dual analog/digital capabilities of the neuron as well as the ability to reprogram interconnections (synapses) dynamically.  Phase I should present a fundamental advancement in processor technology and provide a framework for which consequent phases can be supported. Deliverable of Phase I should be a paper study demonstrating feasibility of concept.


PHASE II: Phase II will consist of a complete  prototype neuromorphic architecture design, simulation to ensure communication and system design functions properly, and a manufactured hardware chip with the appropriate semiconductor technology based upon the  selected architecture. The neuromorphic design should be equivalent to the processing power of fifty million neurons in a package that weighs less than twenty grams, occupies less than ten cubic centimeters, and operates on less than two pico-Joules per operation. Current state-of-the-art neuromorphic processors utilize slightly under 1 watt per 1 million neurons with size comparable to a small IPOD device. IBMs BlueGene project simulates in software 1.6 billion neurons and 8.87 trillion synapses with the C2 cortical supercomputer. The neuromorphic processor must be fully programmable through self or guided learning. The memory, i.e., synaptic junctions, should be greater than one hundred per neuron. The devise should be interfaced to a laptop for programming, control, and graphical user interface. Prior to fabrication, the full up prototype design shall be thoroughly evaluated through computer simulation of all components and their integrated whole to provide the highest level of confidence that the prototype will function as a neuromorphic system. The simulations shall include execution of multiple types of mathematical and logic algorithms, self learning, that is, self adjustment of synaptic strengths based on changes in outside stimuli, and power off with full recovery to the learned state prior to power off. Multiple simulations should be executed in which the processor correctly identifies hundreds of graphical structures where the outside stimuli is equivalent to that which would come from ten thousand rods in the human eye viewing those structures. Deliverable of Phase II should be a prototype of the neuromorphic system.


PHASE III: This technology will support many applications where computational requirements are severe while power consumption must be at the lowest possible level. Applicable mission related activities include surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR), automated target recognition and detection, IED detection, and acoustic processing. This solicitation may be used in support of the ATO R.IS.2008.04 - Soldier Sensor Component & Image Processing.Commerical applications include software defined radio, imaging systems and other smart sensor modalities.



1. J G Elias, H H Chu and S Meshreki, A neuromorphic impulsive circuit for processing dynamic signals,  IEEE International Conference on Circuits and Systems, pp 2208-2211, IEEE Press, 1992.


2. M Simoni, G Cymbalyuk, M Sorensen,  R Calabrese. and S DeWeerth, A multi-conductance silicon neuron with biologically matched dynamics,  IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng, pp 342-354.IEEE Press, 2004


3. A Chandrasekaran and K Boahen, A 1-change-in-4 Delay-Insensitive Interchip Link, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, IEEE Press, 2010.


4. J V Arthur and K Boahen, Silicon Neurons that Inhibit to Synchronize, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp 4807-10, IEEE Press, 2006.


5. K M Hynna and K Boahen, Neuronal Ion-Channel Dynamics in Silicon, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp 3614-17, IEEE Press, 2006.


6. J Lin, P Merolla, J Arthur and K Boahen, Programmable Connections in Neuromorphic Grids, 49th IEEE Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Symtems, pp 80-84, IEEE Press, 2006.


KEYWORDS: neuromorphic, bio-inspired, processor, parallel processing, programmable, situational awareness




A11-082                             TITLE: Novel Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) High Flux Heat Exchanger






OBJECTIVE: Investigate novel materials/structures to achieve high flux method of waste heat removal from densely packed solid state devices.


DESCRIPTION: The modest efficiency of currently available and next generation solid state devices results in generation of large quantity of heat. In densely packed circuits, the heat generated is particularly difficult to remove. Recently developed materials, e.g. graphite foam have demonstrated very high thermal conductivity and coupled with demonstrated porosity, may enable adequate waste heat removal without using liquid thermal transfer fluid. Graphite foam is, however relatively fragile and novel structures must be developed to address flexibility and rigidity in military environment. The used of this novel heat exchanger will, additionally, reduce weight and increase the reliability of the system compared to the use of traditionally thermal management system.


PHASE I: Design and develop materials or structures capable of removing excess heat from a closed solid state system. Provide predictions of heat removal capability under various load and environmental situations. 


PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate a prototype system capable of removing heat from a solid state system. Exact amount of removal to be demonstrated will depend on the technology selected for award. Phase II deliverables will also include an analysis of trade-offs between system capability and complexity, cost and robustness. 


PHASE III:    D.LE.2008.02 Scalable Tech for Adaptive Res


This technology is applicable to any number of solid state transmitter technologies, ranging from personal electronics, to communications systems, TV transmitters, Radar arrays, and so on. 



1. Practical MMIC Design published by Artech House, ISBN 1-59693-036-5, Author S. P. Marsh RFIC and MMIC Design and Technology published by the IEE (London), ISBN 0-85296-786-1, Editors I. D. Robertson and S. Lucyszyn.




KEYWORDS: Heat exchanger, MMIC, monolithic, Solid state




A11-083                             TITLE: Advanced High Power, High frequency RF Source


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics, Weapons




OBJECTIVE: To identify and demonstrate newly emerging innovative technologies that can produce AT LEAST 500 watts of diffraction limited, continuous wave, beamed radiation over electronically tunable multiple frequencies across the C band with either sequential monochromatic or polychromatic waveforms. 


DESCRIPTION: The Army is currently developing weapon systems which rely on the emission of radiated power for effectiveness. The generation of high levels (10’s of kilowatts) of radiated power, in the frequency range of 1-10 Ghz is traditionally dominated by special vacuum tube technologies such as magnetrons, klystrons, traveling wave tubes and similar variants. Tube technology was originally developed in the 1940’s time frame, but continues as the unchallenged method to acquire high power over wide bandwidths in the GHz bands. These tubes are large, bulky, expensive, and inefficient resulting in large size, heavy weight, and excess power consumption with heat dissipation issues from batteries/generators on vehicle platforms. In general, solid state devices have gradually replaced vacuum tubes in electronics, but vacuum tubes still dominate the upper end of power-frequency domain. The replacement of tubes with alternatives will result in much smaller, compact, reliable, and low cost devices able to perform the same unique Army applications.  Constraints to attaining the performance requirements of the Objective (500 Watts, continuous wave, C band, etc.) will mandate demonstrating the benefits of significantly lower cost, size, weight, reliability and efficiency improvements over current tube technology.  Ultimate size, volume, cost projections will be variable parameters, but the proposed concept MUST operate from a 28 Volt DC source and MUST draw less than 60 continuous amps.


PHASE I: Identify specific innovative technologies which can eventually match or exceed current tube performance. The field of innovation will most likely come from research in solid state physics, but IS NOT limited to that area of technology. After identifying and proposing certain specific and well defined concepts, perform tradeoff analysis to project capabilities and limitations expected in the next decade.  Complete an analytical based feasibility study, defining the expected advances as limited by physics, estimate probability of meeting the goals and set a development plan in place for continued pursuit.  Employ theoretical models as needed, existent research data as available, and/or newly emerging hardware and devices from commercial industry or academia laboratories.


PHASE II: Based on the outcome of Phase I feasibility tradeoffs, conduct laboratory based demonstration testing and evaluation, of selected test devices and components for generating the desired power/frequency outputs. From test results, forecast the performance of system design architectures.  Finalize, design and fabricate a custom prototype according to supplied Army specification. The prototype will demonstrate actual performance in “near real world” configurations.


PHASE III: The power sources in evaluation will be coupled to appropriate antenna systems and mounted to a baseline vehicle with standard power generating and battery configuration to prove that the tubes can be replaced in a practical system capable of performing equivalent functions as a weapon system. Final savings in weight, volume, efficiency, and projected production costs will be validated with the prototype.


Commercial spin off is applicable to any product currently using microwave tube sources by replacing them with much lower cost, higher reliability, more energy efficient solid state components, as has been accomplished in all other electronic fields in the last 5 decades of evolution.



1. MPD Jan 2009 Article "Next Generation GaN based Power Amplifiers."


2. MPD Jun 2008 Article: GaN, GaAs Process Research Leads to Advances for Military Applications."


3. Fujitsu Press Release June 2009:  Fujitsu Develops Worlds First GaN HEMT for Power Supply."


4. Fujitsu Press Release July 2009: Fujitsu Develops First 100 W class X band with High Efficiency Exceeding 50%.


KEYWORDS: Solid State GHz amplifiers, high power Ghz source, Solid State RF power sources






TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes


OBJECTIVE: Research, develop and demonstrate integrated novel manufacturing methods to recover and recycle metallic material removed using precision electrochemical machining (ECM) resulting in an environmentally and economically advantageous recycling ECM (RECM) process.


DESCRIPTION: Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a manufacturing technology that allows metallic work piece material to be precisely dissolved into an electrolyte solution as opposed to removal by mechanical cutting and shearing. While ECM has many advantages, it suffers a significant impediment to wider adoption: the metallic material removed by ECM forms new solid compounds which must be filtered or otherwise removed from the electrolyte. Once dried to the extent practical, the materials are typically shipped out to third party providers that reprocess and recycle the metallic material. To reduce expensive off-site processing, filtration and dewatering infrastructure, and the need for specialized waste-management expertise, this project will advance the state of the art to facilitate direct metallic recovery and recycling of ECM materials.


ECM is domestically employed in the production of complex and often irregularly shaped parts including advanced jet and Army helicopter engines [1] and gun barrels through 40mm caliber [2,3]. This technology also has application to artillery projectiles [4] and large caliber cannon [5]. Of particular current interest is the potential to apply turbine cooling channel technology [6] to cannon cooling and the machining of new high strength and tough cannon materials including high strength steel and nickel super alloys. It may also be employed in the fabrication of warhead liners for shaped charges and explosively formed penetrators. Two critical attributes of ECM versus alternative processes such as electric discharge machining (EDM) include 1) the ability to achieve a high surface finish devoid of residual stresses and heat-affected zones and 2) longevity of tooling.


ECM waste generally consists of a sludge material entrained within the electrolyte. The sludge typically consists of insoluble hydroxides or hydrated oxides of the workpiece metal. Because the metallic removed from the work piece is formed into complex molecules, the mass and volume of the sludge, after dewatering, is typically several times that of the metal removed from the work piece. As the sludge requires more processing to reconstitute a metallic state, the scrap value is relatively low.


Sludge management, from filtering through dewatering and transport to facilities that may reprocess the sludge, detracts from the economic and environmental attractiveness of ECM. It also requires a substantial capital investment and expertise threshold be surmounted before a first operating capability can be attained—inhibiting wider adoption. Sludge elimination may prove an enabling technology for wider adoption.


It would be highly advantageous to develop a recycling ECM (RECM) process that converts the compounds entrained within the electrolyte directly back into a compact metallic form without the need for post ECM sludge treatment. For example, a new RECM process might first dissolve metal from an anodic work piece and then electroplate out the removed metal onto a downstream cathodic recycling electrode. (This is not intended to reflect a preferred RECM solution.) Integrated consideration of electrolyte selection, control, and processing, in addition to waste product management address three of the five research challenge areas raised for ECM in Rajurkar’s keynote paper to the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP) [4]. The two key attributes of ECM, surface finish and tool longevity, should be retained in proposed RECM solutions.


Methods that achieve significant progress in reducing sludge generation, but do not eliminate it altogether, may prove acceptable if current technology limitations impose diminishing economic return. In such partial solution cases, it is preferable that a case be made that the near term technologies may be anticipated to evolve towards the objective (total elimination of third party sludge processing) with further advance in technology maturity. This may best be communicated using a technology roadmap [7].


PERFORMANCE METRICS: The objectives are best conveyed in a few clear metrics of integrated system performance for a base line steel and copper alloy RECM applications. These are intended to provide traceability to armament applications including cannon and warhead liner manufacture respectively. Ancillary objectives, to include alternative work piece materials will not require the same level of rigor.


1) Waste Mass Ratio: Minimize the ratio of mass of recyclable waste product (as shipped out) to work piece material machined.

2) Scrap Value Ratio: Maximize the ratio of scrap value of recyclable waste product (as shipped out) to typical work piece machining chips.

3) Cost Ratio: Minimize the ratio of cost of electrochemical to mechanical machining to include electrical use, consumable use, market value of workspace, labor, and maintenance for armament applications.


In addition, a less quantifiable, yet important metric of performance is:


4) Hazards: Manage the environmental and safety concerns of any hazardous compounds or processes generated or employed.


PHASE I: Conduct research and development to achieve the program objectives. Develop an engineering basis for a RECM process to reduce or eliminate sludge. Provide estimates for anticipated full rate production performance metrics using baseline hardened steel and annealed copper alloys to provide traceability to armament applications. (One cubic meter per year of work piece material dissolution may be assumed for each alloy as a very simple full rate production rate. Alternative full rate production scenarios are welcomed.)


Four other materials are of current interest for armament and energy applications. It is desirable that the following four additional materials be considered, at least with respect to the chemical engineering alternatives. Successful solutions are not required for these other materials—in particular, it is understood that Tantalum alloys are not amenable to ECM using aqueous solutions. The intent is to increase the potential breadth of utility for the research fostered in phase I and to carry this into phase II without undue encumbrance beyond the focus on steel cannon and copper alloy warhead liner applications.


1) Inconel, e.g., 718.

2) Chrome copper alloy, e.g., C18200.

3) Cobalt copper alloy, e.g., Stellite 25.

4) Tantalum tungsten alloy, e.g., Ta10W.


ADDITIONAL PERFORMANCE MEASURES:  Successful research will consider cost feasibility for full rate production implementation to ensure infeasible solutions are not pursued. It is anticipate that novel and disruptive technology solutions may encounter applied engineering challenges manifest as near term high initial operating capability start-up costs. Risk management of such concerns to reduce such costs as technology matures may best be communicated using a technology roadmap [7].


It is highly desirable that phase I proposals include provision for conducting ECM by principle investigators on any commercially available ferrous and copper alloys to ensure traceability of the research to applied chemical engineering. Proposals should clarify if any hazardous materials are anticipated to be used or generated by this exercise and discuss risk management if relevant. Bench top scale ECM, removing cubic centimeters of material from work pieces, is sufficient.


PHASE II: Develop and engineer RECM processes to extend Phase I results to achieve the program objectives. Demonstrate chemical engineering implementation for an RECM process to reduce or eliminate sludge. Provide estimates for performance metrics using baseline hardened steel and annealed copper alloys to provide traceability to armament applications. It is anticipated that at least one of the four other materials of current interest investigated in phase I may also be advanced; but may not be implemented beyond bench top scale RECM. The intent is to increase the potential breadth of utility for the research fostered in phase II without undue encumbrance beyond the focus applications.


Scale and quality of the engineering implementation should provide credible traceability to armament applications. To this end, cubic liters of metallic material should be RECM’d in experimental demonstrations of metallic recovery. Representative low-cost and readily available surrogate commercial materials may be employed for this purpose in lieu of higher cost armament materials.


Quality of product machined in phase II will need to be demonstrated to ensure that progress in metal recovery does not compromise effectiveness of the machining process. To this end, surrogate commercially available equivalents procured by the contractor; e.g., steel and copper alloy plate heat treated to mimic gun steel and warhead liner representative components respectively, will be RECM’d and inspected. The government, may, at its option, provide demilled (rendered inoperable) or partially manufactured armament components. A general reference on gun tube design and manufacture is available [8]. References on shaped charge and explosively formed penetrator warhead liners are also available within [9] and [10].


PHASE III: It should be clearly understood, that RECM may often be incorporated into existing systems by means of engineering change proposals for existing components and introduction through spares. While an exciting potential exists for new capabilities from new designs and systems, improvements to existing type classified and fielded systems is viable.


DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS:  Rajurkar lists several applications for electrochemical machining and specifically calls for technology fostered by this call for proposals [4] many of which are included below. Potential military applications include:

1) advanced high performance turbine, hub, and bearing applications including jet aircraft, helicopters, and main battle tanks,

2) advanced warheads including explosively formed penetrators and shape charges, and

3) cannon manufacture of all calibers including boring, rifling, improved integral mid-wall cooling channels, internal propellant gas flow passages, and ancillary slide block breech components.


Commercial applications of the technology include:

4) steam and gas turbine blade manufacture,

5) engine castings,

6) bearing cages, and

7) surgical implants.



1. Lee et al, “Curved Turbulator Configuration for Airfoils and Method and Electrode for Machining the Configuration,” United States Patent 6,554,571 B1, April 2003.


2. “Electrolytic Rifling Solutions,” Extrudehone, Irwin, PA, Internet accessed October 2010.


3. Maiorano et al, “Electrochemical Machining of Cartridge Chamber and Rifling Contours for Small Arms,” Anocut Engineering Co., Elk Grove Village, IL, September 1976.


4. Rajurkar et al, “ New developments in electrochemical machining,” Keynote Paper, Annals of the CIRP, v48, n2, 1999, pp 569–579.


5. Wessel, “Electrochemical Machining of Gun Barrel Bores and Rifling,” Naval Ordnance Station, Louisville KY, September 1978.


6. Bunker et al, “Cooling Passages and Methods of Fabrication,” United States Patent 6,644,921 B2, November 2003.


7. Kostoff, et al, “Science and Technology Roadmaps,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, v48, i2, pp 132-143, May 2001.


8. “Engineering Design Handbook: Guns Series: Gun Tubes,” Army Materiel Command, Alexandria, VA, February 1964.


9. “Engineering Design Handbook, Ammunition Series. Section 2, Design for Terminal Effects, Army Materiel Command, Alexandria, VA, July 1964.


10.  Fong et al, “Multiple Explosively Formed Penetrator (MEFP) Warhead Technology Development,” Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, Dec 2004.


KEYWORDS: process improvement, manufacturing productivity, manufacturing quality, manufacturing materials, manufacturing cost, manufacturing efficiency, manufacturing systems, manufacturing workforce, manufacturing skills, manufacturing technology, electrochemical machining, metal recovery, tool wear, cooling channels, thermal management, gun barrels, turbine components, jet engine, and hard alloy machining.




A11-085                             TITLE: Novel North Orienting Device






OBJECTIVE: To develop a device suitable for unattended ground sensor applications, that is capable of finding true north in the presence of magnetic abnormalities.


DESCRIPTION: The US military has been using unattended ground sensors (UGS) for over 40 years.   UGS are typically used to detect and track people and vehicles moving through the battle space, with the purpose of providing situational awareness. The first generation of sensors were simple air dropped microphones intended to detect people talking, and were monitored by personnel. Modern UGS usually contain several types of sensors, and are able to identify and track targets locally at each node. When this is done, bearings to targets are developed that are referenced to the orientation of the sensor.   For this bearing to make sense, one needs to know how the UGS are oriented. One would normally desire the UGS to be oriented to true north when they are emplaced, making any bearing report equivalent to the compass direction to the target. This only works well if the device is hand emplaced by an experienced user. User error, air deployment, and other scenarios must be accounted for. For this reason, many UGS are equipped with a magnetic compass so they may self-orient after deployment. While this idea is good in theory, it usually fails in practice. Local mineralogy is a common issue. Deposits of magnetite or iron ore will make a magnetic compass placed near the ground deviate. The equipment itself may also create a magnetic bias through its construction material or power draw through wires placed close to the compass.  


The need exists for a compass that can either automatically compensate for these interferer, or detect north through a different means. The system should be small, lightweight and battery powered. Given that the systems it will be used in will already have GPS, it can be assumed that an asynchronous serial connection to a NEMA compatible GPS will be available. The system may choose to use a magnetic compass with an automatic compensator, gyroscopes capable of measuring precession as the earth turns, or any other means deemed necessary and practical.


PHASE I: Design and build a system that is capable of developing a bearing to true north with an accuracy of +/- 2 degrees when placed stationary and flat on the ground. The system should be at most 125 cubic inches, draw at most 10 watts, accept between 4.5 and 14 volts input, and acquire a bearing in under 2 hours. The device should be capable of functioning in both hemispheres, and in widely varying magnetic dip angles. The design should be capable of being ruggedized. The design shall be capable of operating in the presence of a geological or constant interferer as well as varying interferer such as a current carrying wire with varying current placed near the sensor. The device shall independently calibrate with no user manipulation or input.


PHASE II: Phase 2 will focus on concept refinement, meeting all the previous requirements and reducing the overall size of the device to no more than 27 cubic inches, with an accuracy of no more than +/- 1 degree. Power consumption should be reduced to 5 watts maximum. 10 prototypes should be developed for testing. The equipment should be ruggedized to pass a 3 foot drop test when securely mounted inside a metal enclosure.  


PHASE III: The device should be capable of detecting motion and automatically reacquiring a bearing to true north. A second acquisition of bearing should take less time than the initial bearing development. The device should meet all specifications regardless of angle when placed on the ground. Power consumption should be optimized.


The system described would have several commercial applications and could benefit systems that rely on a nonmoving georeferenced system. Private sector implementations of this technology might include RF radio antenna rotators for long range directional or satellite antennas and sun trackers for solar panels. In portable applications, the device could be used to calibrate compasses of vehicles while they are parked, assist the aiming of telescopes, or assist in surveying by finding an accurate measurement of local magnetic declination.


Besides unattended ground sensors, this technology has a multitude of defense and homeland security applications in like area denial systems (e.g., Intelligent Munitions System), border security sensors, gunfire detections systems, and mortar/artilllery fire localization systems.



1.  Concerning Gyrocompasses:  R.B. Dyott, "Method for finding true North using a fibre-optic gyroscope", Electronics Letters, 23rd June 1994, vol 30, No 13,

2.  G. Eduardo Sandoval-Romero and Victor Argueta-Diaz, "A simple Theoretical Comparison Between Two Basic Schemes in Function of the Earth's North Pole Detection: The Static Method," Journal of Sensors, Vol 2010, Article ID 253642,

3.  Concerning celestial compasses:  Pappalardi, F.; Dunham, S.J.; LeBlang, M.E.; Jones, T.E.; Bangert, J.; Kaplan, G.; "Alternatives to GPS," OCEANS, 2001. MTS/IEEE Conference and Exhibition , vol.3, no., pp.1452-1459 vol.3, 2001.


KEYWORDS: magnetic sensor, magnetic, compass, orientation, gyroscope, MEMS, direction, bearing, degrees, localizing, position, heading, sensor, GPS, North, True North, degrees, mils, UGS




A11-086                             TITLE: Engineered Ignition of Novel Structural Reactive Materials


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes




OBJECTIVE: To develop predictive and empirical approaches to facilitate the design and to reduce the stochastic nature of ignition in structural energetic material systems, thereby improving and optimizing predictability, performance, and insensitive munitions performance.  


DESCRIPTION: Structural reactive materials have long been investigated by the DoD as a promising technology for enhanced IED and chemical/biological agent defeat due to tremendous energy release and extreme reaction temperatures generated to neutralize targets. A major problem that has prevented the integration of these materials into weapons systems is the inability to consistently predict the activation energy (energy required for ignition). Tunable and predictable ignition of these materials is imperative in urban fighting environments, as well as for improved insensitive munitions (IM) performance. 


Many structural reactive materials’ formulations use a blend of two or more reactant powders, which are then consolidated into a high density, structurally-capable composite. Unlike conventional steel warhead casings that provide only kinetic energy, the structural reactive materials are designed to provide the same structural support, but with the added advantage of activating highly exothermic thermo-chemical reactions upon impact with the target. As the high temperature reactions proceed to completion they release an extreme amount of chemical and thermal energy that is not provided by conventional munitions. This leads to higher energy output per volume, and thus, enhanced lethality in the neutralization of a variety of targets.


Effective optimization of structural reactive material design will necessitate the consideration of a broad range of material compositions, microstructures, and processing options. Ignition of the reactive composite will occur when a critical amount of energy is imparted to the system by mechanical methods, shock, thermal impulse, etc. The ignition event relies on the mutual interaction of all component reactants, which in turn is primarily governed by a statistical probability function related to the relative volume fractions, sizes, mutual solubility, and homologous temperature of the system. Thus, if the blend contains more than two reactant types, randomized blends of multi-component reactant powders may result in a local environment varying among the reactants, and isolated concentrations of one or more reactants may exist. As a result, there is considerable uncertainty in the conditions and energy levels that may trigger the reaction and the reaction may not go to completion. Such uncertainty not only poses a significant risk to the Warfighter, but it also reduces the potential ability to independently control the ignition environment, ensure the full energy release, and affect the time scale over which the reaction takes place. Demonstrated improvements in reaction efficiency attributable to microstructural refinement illustrate the strong role that microstructural architecture has on the performance of these material systems. 


Further advancements are believed possible if more complex microstructural biases are introduced in a way that improves the predictability of, and introduces the ability to engineer, the ignition event.  Any such microstructural biases would not only create additional degrees of freedom with respect to the chemical aspects of the structural reactive material, but will also significantly affect the mechanical capability of the pre-reacted blend or assemblage. A unifying design approach that ties processing and microstructural opportunities to mechanical and chemical performance will serve to delineate and identify opportunities for successful structural reactive material development. The technology will be judged successful if a physically-faithful model is developed that successfully identifies fully dense composites that have chemical energy releases and tensile strengths higher than the composite of a blend of the same constituents.  In addition, the following criteria must be met: density > 7g/cc, energy release > 2000 cal/g, tensile and compressive strength > 300 MPa, and reaction temperature > 2000 K. 


PHASE I: Demonstrate the ability to design and prepare a range of microstructurally-biased reactive powder blends that will concurrently serve to facilitate predictability of ignition and structural performance.  Develop the basis of a model to predict mechanical behavior of the biased blends identified and prepared. Produce 5 kg of a selected microstructurally-biased reactive powder.  Demonstrate the ability to consolidate the reactive powder into a fully dense composite with a homogeneous microstructure. 


PHASE II: Optimize processing technique(s) and structural modeling. Demonstrate a microstructural control to an extent that exploits modeling results. Expand or complement the modeling to include chemical (ignition) predictions. Scale up the processing technique and demonstrate prototype capability for powder production on the order of kg per hour. Consolidate the powder into a fully dense composite and conduct prototype tests to characterize the initiation and energy release processes, and measure the reaction initiation thresholds and energy release rates. 


PHASE III: The material developed under this effort will have dual use applications in military as well as in commercial industries. The material can be inserted/transitioned into several Army hardware programs for weapon development efforts, and improved lethality. Dual use applications ensure that commercial potential is possible in petroleum exploration and oil well stimulation, mining, commercial blasting, high temperature synthesis of new materials and law enforcement applications. 



1. Fedoroff, B. T. and Sheffield, O. E., Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items, Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, NJ, Report No. PATR-2700, Vol. III, p. C611-C621, 1966, CPIA Abstract No. 68-0238, AD 653 029. 


2. Waggener, S.S., "Energy Release of Impacting Reactive Spheres", Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division, Technical Report TR-04/9, September, 2004. 


3. Brindley, J., Griffiths, J. F., and McIntosh, A.C. “Ignition phenomenology and criteria associated with hotspots embedded in a reactive material.” Chemical Engineering Science 56 (2001) 2037-2046.


4. Gotzmer, C., Amato, B., Kim, S. “Applications Overview of IHDIVNSWC Reactive Materials.” Indean Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center.  Presented at 2009 National Capital Region Energetics Symposium (NCRES), April 2009.


5. Modern Electroplating, M.  Schlesinger, Wiley, New York, October 2010.


KEYWORDS: Reactive materials, structural materials, microstructure, ignition, thermite reactions, insensitive munitions, IED defeat, powder processing, lethality




A11-087                             TITLE: Low-Power Consumption Control Surface Actuation Devices for Munitions


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics, Weapons


OBJECTIVE: Develop novel low-power consumption and low-volume control surface actuation devices for small and large airframes for high to low spin rate gun-fired munitions and mortars.


DESCRIPTION: Numerous methods and devices have been developed in recent years for actuation of control surfaces used in gun-fired munitions and mortars for guidance and control purposes. Most of these devices have been developed based on technologies used in missile and aircraft, and are difficult or impractical to implement on gun-fired projectiles and mortars with their very different guidance, control and stability characteristics and operational requirements. For example, all gun-fired munitions and mortars are provided with flight stability through spinning and/or fins. In addition, the projectile is provided with its initial kinetic energy through the pressurized gasses inside the barrel and without any in-flight control action would follow a ballistic trajectory. This is still true if other means such as electromagnetic forces are used to accelerate the projectile during the launch. As a result, unlike missiles, control inputs for guidance and control is required only later during the flight as the projectile approaches the target. In recent years, alternative methods for actuating control surfaces have been explored, such as fins and canards, utilizing active materials including piezoelectric materials, shape memory alloys, or micro-electro- mechanical (MEMS) technology. Most existing approaches generally suffer from one or more of the following shortcomings: 1) requiring a large munitions volume; 2) having limited dynamic response; 3) cannot be implemented in munitions with very high setback accelerations of over 50KGs; and/or 4) are expensive to implement. A need, therefore, exists for the development of innovative and low-cost technologies that can address the above shortcomings of existing control surface actuation devices for gun-fired munitions and mortars. The focus of this SBIR project is the development of novel, low-cost, low power consumption, and small volume actuation devices that can apply maximum torque while consuming about 10% of the electrical energy used by current actuation devices. The focus should be on the development of actuation device designs that can produce forces of 100-2000 N (1-10 N-m) or higher reaching peak acceleration torques within 1-10 msec.


The various designs must be scalable to 155mm artillery rounds as well as gun fired projectiles as small as 60mm and 25mm. The designs must include shape and best location of the fin or canard in order to maximize the guidance force. The guidance force should consider the shape and design of the fin or canard and its effect on the aerodynamic forces. Phase I needs to include computational studies of the various designs scalable to the different airframes and characterize the control/aero surfaces and the drag coefficients for each of the designs (155mm, 60mm, 25mm). Drag coefficients in the range of 0.2 to 0.7 should be considered and proposals must consider stability issues at subsonic and supersonic ranges up to Mach 2 and propose designed supported by computational means that can be validated in wind tunnel tests should a phase II be awarded.


Of great importance is the minimum size of the actuation mechanism that can produce the torque with minimal power consumption in order to reduce the volume occupied by current actuation mechanisms and the power sources, making it possible to increase lethality by providing more volume for explosive payloads. As an example, actuation devices currently being used in Excalibur rounds require electrical energy with an operating life of 240 seconds. It has been demonstrated in flight tests that the operating mission life for the actuation systems may be as high as 270 seconds for some flights due to load variations where the canard actuation motors may require in excess of 10,000 joules of energy with a potential difference in the range of 28 volts and 50 volts with peak power cycles of about 500 watts. The proposal must consider the cost, manufacturing, shelf life, and particularly the harsh launch environment.


PHASE I: Develop novel control surface actuation devices based on the proposed concepts for use in the next generation of guided munitions. Develop analytical and/or numerical models to study the feasibility of each concept and calculate their performance.


PHASE II: Develop a prototype device for a selected munitions application based upon the optimum design from the modeling and simulation efforts.  Perform laboratory tests to validate the performance of the control surface actuation device and its various components. Perform wind tunnel tests on the device and munitions model to validate the performance in near to actual flight conditions. Design and fabricate a final prototype based on the results of the laboratory and wind tunnel tests.


PHASE III: The end vision of this SBIR effort is the insertion of the new novel actuation device for PM MAS (Program Manager Maneuver Ammunition Systems) and PM CAS (Program Manager Combat Ammunition Systems (Mortar). Other military applications include UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), UGVs, (Unmanned Ground Vehicles), guided flares and other air dropped sensor platforms. In the area of homeland security, the device can be used on low and high-flying UAVs, air dropped guided reconnaissance or sensory platforms as well as in commercial applications such as those used by the entertainment industry or by hobbyists.



1. Austin Hughes, 2006, “Electric Motors and Drives: Fundamentals, Types and Applications - 3rd Edition,” Elsevier Ltd., Burlington, MA.


2. Chopara, I., 1995, "Review of Current Status of Smart Structures and Integrated Systems," Proceedings of Smart Structures and Materials Conference, SPIE 2721-01, San Diego, California.


3. Kennedy, D. K., Straub, F. K., Schetky, L. M., Chaudhry, Z. A., and Roznoy, R., 2000, "Development of an SMA Actuator for In-Flight Rotor Blade Tracking", SPIE's Smart Structures and Materials Symposium, Newport Beach, California.


4. Liang, C., Schroeder, S., and Davidson, F. M., 1996, "Application of Torsion Shape Memory Alloy Actuators for Active Rotor Blade Control: Opportunities and Limitations", SPIE's Smart Structures and Materials Symposium, San Diego, California.


5. Military Handbook MIL-HDBK-762(MI), "Design of aerodynamically stabilized free rockets", 1990.


KEYWORDS: micro actuation, impulse, high control authority, real-time maneuver, high-G survivability, guided munitions




A11-088                             TITLE: Novel Compaction Technologies for Nanopowders


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes




OBJECTIVE: The objective of this SBIR topic is the development of an innovative compaction technology  for achieving high density green compacts from nanoscale (primary particle size < 100 nm) starting powders.


DESCRIPTION: The US Army has a need for innovative processing technologies for manufacturing nanostructured bulk materials at an affordable cost. One of the biggest challenges in consolidating nanopowders is the inherent low green density in these high surface area materials, which in turn leads to high linear shrinkage. Current powder compaction techniques produce parts of 40-60% theoretical density which require sintering at high temperature and long times in order to achieve full density.  Significant grain growth during sintering occurs and the benefit of nano-size powders is lost. In order to preserve the desired nanostructures in the final sintered parts, a high density compaction method is required that enables sintering at lower temperature for shorter times to keep grain growth to a minimum. Such nano-grained materials will have the potential to exhibit increased strength, hardness and transparency relative to corresponding larger grained materials. It is anticipated that green densities greater than 70% theoretical density would afford the opportunity to manufacture such fine-grained materials. The resulting nanostructured bulk materials have potential uses in a range of applications including high strength materials for munitions, lightweight armor, transparent armor and laser materials.


PHASE I: Demonstrate a method of producing highly dense ( > 70% theoretical density) green compacts using nanoscale starting powders. Green compacts should then be consolidated using suitable sintering technology, maintaining nano-grain size ( < 100 nm) in the fully dense parts. Sample size should be at least 4" x 4" x 0.5". Phase I should also incorporate some introductory process modeling which will be refined if invited for Phase II.


PHASE II: Phase II will involve further development of this technology into a semi-continuous process for making green compacts. Initial production rate of at least 4 compacts per hour. Scale-up of the compaction/densification process developed in Phase I to produce nano-grain size, fully dense, prototype parts with sizes at least 8" x 8" x 1". Refinement of process modeling with evidence of good correlation between modeling and experimentation.


PHASE III: Successful development of an innovative compaction technology for nanopowders will enable production of nanocrystalline materials with military applications in high strength materials for munition packages, lightweight armor and transparent window materials. Likely commercial applications include high strength structural materials, wear resistant parts, and polycrystalline laser materials.



1.  H. Ferkel et al, "Effect of nanopowder deagglomeration on the densities of nanocrystalline ceramic green bodies and their sintering behaviour", Nanostructured Materials 11, p. 617-622 (1999).


2. V. Ivanov et al, "Synthesis and dynamic compaction of ceramic nano powders by techniques based on electric pulsed power", Nanostructured Materials 6, p. 287-290 (1995).


3. B. Chelluri et al, "Full Density Net Shape Powder Consolidation Using Dynamic Magnetic Pulse Pressures", Journal of Metals 51, p. 35-37 (1999).


4. M.J.G. Jak et al, “Dynamic Compaction of Nano-structured Ceramics”, in Electronic Materials: Science and Technology vol. 8 - Nanostructured Materials- Selected Synthesis Methods, Properties, and Applications, series ed. H. Tuller, p. 55-71 (2004).


KEYWORDS: nanotechnology, nanopowder, nanostructured, compaction, manufacturing




A11-089                             TITLE: Innovative Passivation Technologies for Aluminum Nanoparticles


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes




OBJECTIVE: Develop an innovative process for passivating aluminum nanoparticles, eliminating the need to use the nascent oxide.


DESCRIPTION: Aluminum nanoparticles, because of their extremely high surface area ( > 20 m2/g) and combustion enthalpy (-7.4 kcal/g), have been the material of choice for metalization of energetics. The heat of formation of the oxide (Hf°(Al2O3) = -400.5 kcal/mol) provides a very high energy density, the reason it is the material of choice for the fuel in the solid rocket boosters for the space shuttle. It has long been postulated that metalized energetics can experience increased burn rates and enhanced detonation velocity. While there have been reports of enhanced performance in energetics due to metalization, it is unlikely that the true benefits have been realized. Current techniques for passivation include use of the nascent oxide (Al2O3 shell) through controlled oxidation or use of advanced organic chemistry which both retard the reaction kinetics.


The US Army has an immediate need for a highly innovative technology for passifying aluminum nanoparticles for potential incorporation into propellants and energetics. The passivation coating should protect the aluminum from oxidation and moisture, thereby preserving the % of unreacted aluminum. It is also critical that the passivation material not hinder the combustion properties of the aluminum as these types of materials are already available. It is anticipated that the passivation material may actually contribute to the reaction, thereby minimizing the amount of "dead weight" in the material.


PHASE I: Phase I will focus on developing a passivation technique for coating aluminum nanoparticles (primary particle size < 100 nm). Passivated powders should be non-pyrophoric and have minimal oxygen content ( < 10%). The entrance criteria to be invited for a Phase II will be producing at least 50 grams of fully passivated aluminum NPs with at least 90% unreacted aluminum which will be shipped to US Army for testing & evaluation.


PHASE II: Phase II will be centered on optimization and scale-up of passivation technology. It is expected that the scale-up will result in a working prototype passivation system to be provided to US Army and at least 500 grams of optimally passivated aluminum NPs that will be shipped to US Army for testing & evaluation.


PHASE III: The technology developed under this effort will scaled-up and integrated into current aluminum nanopowder production facilities in DoD as well as industry. The actual passivated materials produced with this technology will be tested & evaluated in legacy propellant and energetic formulations to assess performance. Further technology development will be funded through PEO and PM customers. Potential commercial technology lies in advanced coatings for all metallic nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, environmental remediation, chemical and biological sensors, nanoelectronics and drug delivery.



1. Lide, D. R., Ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 1991.


2. A. Rai, D. Lee, K. Park and M.R. Zachariah, “Importance of Phase Change of Aluminum in Oxidation of Aluminum Nanoparticles”, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 14793-14795 (2004).


3. R.J. Jouet, A.D. Warren, D.M. Rosenberg, V.J. Bellitto, K. Park and M.R. Zachariah, “Surface Passivation of Bare Aluminum Nanoparticles Using Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylic Acids”, Chem. Mater. 17, 2987-2996 (2005).


4. T.J. Foley, C.E. Johnson and K.T. Higa, “Inhibition of Oxide Formation on Aluminum Nanoparticles by Transition Metal Coating”, Chem. Mater. 17, 4086-4091 (2005).


5. C.A. Crouse, E. Shin, P.T. Murray and J.E. Spowart, "Solution assisted laser ablation synthesis of discrete aluminum nanoparticles", Mater. Lett. 64, 271-274 (2010).


KEYWORDS: aluminum, nanoparticles, nanopowders, passivation, propellants, energetics, manufacturing process




A11-090                             TITLE: Innovative Azimuth and Elevation Orientation System for Gun Tubes


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Electronics, Weapons




OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative technology for rapid and precision setting and adjustment of azimuth and elevation of gun tubes. The system should provide remote, rapid, real-time measurement of the azimuth and elevation angles. These measurements need to be provided to a fire control system. The system should operate in rugged terrain and harsh battlefield environment with low visibility, rain and smoke, and withstand repeated firing shock and weapon vibration


DESCRIPTION: For many gun systems, for example mortars, the firing shock causes the gun barrel to move to a new location after each round is fired, thus the current azimuth and elevation positioning and subsequent accumulation of errors can lead to significant targeting errors. This is particularly the case for the azimuth positioning of the mortar barrel relative to the established referencing system. It is therefore highly desirable to develop novel technology that could very rapidly provide accurate azimuth and elevation orientation after each firing. Further this orientation data should be provided to the  fire control system for corrective action. Such technology would also provide the fire control system with the means to rapidly and accurately calculate the required azimuth and elevation adjustments for each new targeting and also provide the gunner with an added means of rapidly determining if the gun barrel is set at the required azimuth and elevation angles. Such novel azimuth and elevation angle measurement systems must add minimal weight to the barrel and the overall system; minimally protrude out from the barrel (less than 1.5 inch for 60 mm mortar barrel, less than 2.0 inch for 81mm barrel and less than 3” for 120mm mortar systems); not require manual reading or adjustment; be capable of operating in rugged terrain and the harsh battlefield environment such as dust, smoke, salt, rain, etc. (MIL-STD-810G); should withstand firing shock (lateral shock of 3-15,000 Gs depending on weapon system); be applicable to 60 mm, 81 mm and 120 mm mortars; be relatively low cost and low power. The angular resolution of the system in azimuth and elevation should be 1 to 3 mils (depending on weapon system) or better. The system must be capable of automatically providing the azimuth and elevation angle information to the fire control system in less than 1 second of each firing. The technology should not be influenced negatively frommagnetic fields or ferrous materials and must not provide any signature that could be used by the enemy to determine the location of the weapon. The proposal should consider methods for reducing the effects of systematic measurement noise, misalignments caused by the firing shock, and other sources of possible measurement errors.  The developed system is not limited to only rest on the gun tube, a gun tube to stationary device on the ground could be developed. The proposed system will be man carried by the user, so weight and size of system shall be minimized.The proposal must also address the cost and manufacturing issues.


PHASE I: Develop a novel method of rapidly and accurately measuring the azimuth and elevation angles of a gun tubes following firing and directly providing the information to the fire control system. Through analytical and/or numerical models and computer simulation demonstrate the feasibility of such a system and its potential performance.


PHASE II: Develop an optimal detail design of a prototype azimuth and elevation angle measurement system based on the modeling and simulation efforts for a selected mortar system. Perform laboratory and field test measurements. Design and fabricate final prototype based on the results of the laboratory and field tests.


PHASE III: The end vision of this SBIR effort is the insertion of the new novel azimuth and elevation measurement system into 60 mm, 81 mm as well as 120 mm mortar systems fire control system to significantly increase the weapon precision and thereby effectiveness. Such a system for remotely measuring angular orientation of an object has applications to other weapon systems such as artillery. The system will also have extensive commercial applications for determining relative angular orientation of objects, e.g., during assembly operations and in robotic and manufacturing systems.  



1. Army Research Office. Elements of Armament Engineering (Part One). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Materiel Command, 1964.






4. Mortars Moderinization Plan, PM Mortars ARDEC


KEYWORDS: Fire Control, Elivation, Azmith, Mortars, Orentaion Sensor, Gun Tube Pointing




A11-091                             TITLE: Ammonium Dinitramide Desensitization


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes




OBJECTIVE: Design, develop, and demonstrate a process to desensitize Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) to be used as the main oxidizer in cast-cure rocket propellants and gun propellants.


DESCRIPTION: Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) is an environmentally benign high nitrogen oxidizer with high energy and performance values but has many sensitivity and compatibility issues that currently have limited its use in propellants and explosives. If these sensitivity and compatibility issues can be overcome, ADN can readily be implemented as an Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) replacement for solid rocket propellants, since it produces a higher impulse than AP and has been demonstrated to be compatible with HTPB, a common solid rocket propellant binder[1]. The Army has determined that AP is an environmental and human health hazard when used in fielded systems and thus needs to be replaced. So far attempts to replace AP have been unsuccessful considering its high energy and good compatibility with standard propellant ingredients. The incorporation of a desensitized ADN into composite rocket motors would alleviate the environmental concerns  as well as boost performance, which as of late has also become an issue for rocket motors. Furthermore, since ADN contains no chlorines, its incorporation into rocket fuels would significantly reduce the smoke signature of these systems.  ADN could also be used in gun propellants as a high energy oxidizer to increase muzzle velocities and extend effective range, as well as in high energy explosives to increase warhead lethality [3]. It can be synthesized from readily available raw materials which should make its production cost significantly lower than alternative high energy oxidizers such as CL-20.


The purpose of this SBIR would be to develop a process for desensitizing ADN or synthesis of an insensitive version of ADN containing comparable energy and efficiency as an oxidizer without the current stability and sensitivity issues. Some of these issues with ADN are due to its crystal shape, thermal stability, acid sensitivity, hygroscopicity and compatibility issues with isocyanates. An increase in energy density is also desirable with the desensitization [2].


For both Phase I and Phase II, sensitivity will be evaluated by NATO standard test methods and procedures listed in AOP (Allied Ordnance Publication)-7 [6] including but not limited to impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and thermal stability. Desensitized ADN will be evaluated against commercially available ADN (prilled and raw) for improvements in sensitivity values; successful candidates should be at least comparable in sensitivity to RDX with increased energy. 


PHASE I: Investigate a process, procedure or other means in which to produce desensitized ADN. Develop and document the processes, methods researched, and demonstrate decrease in sensitivity over commercially available ADN.  


PHASE II: Scale-up process and material to conduct testing to demonstrate desensitized nature of developed ADN solution. Produce and test ADN based formulations as ammonium perchlorate formulation replacements in-house, or with industry or government partner to show improved or comparable performance to current fielded formulations. Performance will be evaluated by methods such as but not limited to strand burner analysis, and 2 x 4 inch motor testing.


PHASE III: For military applications, transition the formulations to base bleed or rocket assist programs such as Excalibur 1b and XM1128 for replacement of ammonium perchlorate base bleed propellants with environmentally friendly ammonium dinitramide formulations. Test formulations in gun launched configurations.  In the Commercial sector a desensitized form of ADN could be utilized by the automotive industry for a replacement of highly toxic air bag propellants containing azides and may also provide increased effectiveness in inflation of the air bags. When air bags deflate the combustion products of the azide containing propellants are released through pores in the bag material, replacing toxic air bag propellants with environmentally benign oxidizers can decrease the hazards to the driver and passengers [5]. Additionally a desensitized ADN oxidizer would be an attractive alternative to the AP formulations used by NASA for the booster and launch motors. A formulation with ADN could be utilized for the new X-33 space shuttle. In the same way that ADN can outperform AP in the base bleed type motors it can also be utilized in a NASA motor to outperform the current AP based systems.  Ammonium Dinitramide could be used in the commercial mining industry to replace lower energy oxidizers such as ammonium nitrate which has stability issues of its own. A more stabalized ADN with increased energy over ammonium nitrate would provide a much more effective blasting explosive.



1. Santhosh, Gopalakrishnan and Ang, How G., “Compatibility of Ammonium Dinitramide with Polymeric Binders Studied by Thermoanalytical Methods”, International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, 2010, 9, 27-41.


2. Jones, David E.G., Queeni S. M. Kwok, Marie Vachon, Christopher Badeen and William Ridley, “Characterization of ADN and ADN-based Propellants”, Propellants, Explosives, and Pyrotechnics, 2005 (2).


3. Heintz, Thomas, Heike Pontius, Jasmin Aniol, Christoph Birke, Karlfred Leisinger, Werner Reinhard, “Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN)-Prilling, Coating, and Characterization”, Propellants, Explosives, and Pyrotechnics, Vol 34, 2009 pg 231-238.


4. Lang, Anthony J. and Sergey Vyazovkin, Ammonium Nitrate-Polymer Glasses: A New Concept for Phase and Thermal Stabilization of Ammonium Nitrate, Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama. Birmingham, Alabama 2008.


5. Francis, D, Warren SA, Warner KJ, Harris W, Copass MK, and Bulger EM, “Sodium azide-associated laryngospasm after air bag deployment”, Journal of Emergency Medicine, 39(3) e113-5, September 2010.




KEYWORDS: Base bleed, Rocket assist, Gun propellant, Impulse, Ammonium Dinitramide.




A11-092                             TITLE: Fabrication of High-Strength, Nanostructured Aluminum Alloys


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes


OBJECTIVE: Develop processing methodologies for fabrication of and characterization of high-strength nanostructured aluminum alloys.


DESCRIPTION: Recent  nanocrystalline aluminum alloys with average grain sizes less than 20 nm have indicated order-of-magnitude increases in mechanical properties (when compared to their coarse-grained counterparts) including a  high strength and elongation to failure. These remarkable properties forecast potential application in a wide range of potential applications in military and commercial sectors.  Materials with such high strength-to-weight ratio and ductility are envisioned for lightweighting existing structural elements (e.g. replacing heavier steel components in military vehicles, aviation platforms, containers, etc.) and developing novel lightweight flexible armor. But a significant caveat of such materials, is that to date, these alloys have primarily been synthesized and characterized at laboratory quantities (e.g. 30 µm thick films), and challenges in scale up have hampered manufacturing of samples at the dimensions and geometries suitable for conventional bulk mechanical testing. Tension and/or compression testing, wherein strength and ductility are concurrently measured, is needed to validate the remarkable strength and elongation characteristics of such alloys. The focus of this SBIR is to design and demonstrate an innovative processing technique to fabricate a thermally stable nanostructured Al-alloy with average grain size less than 20 nm, and to demonstrate accurate and repeatable mechanical properties using testing methodologies which concurrently measures strength and ductility. This will serve as a basis to evaluate the feasibility for further scale up to larger specimens in geometries suitable for potential armor/structural applications. This SBIR also aims to investigate the feasibility of large scale manufacturing of nanostructured aluminum alloys and prospective commercialization of the manufacturing methodology.


PHASE I: The goal of Phase I is the design of a process to manufacture thermally stable aluminum alloy with nanoscale grain sizes and microstructural uniformity. The deliverables for this phase of work are a robust methodology for synthesizing the alloys in bulk (cm-scale in two dimensions and a minimum of mm-scale in the third) and concurrent mechanical property data (namely strength and elongation to failure) of the aluminum alloy specimens via testing practices that simultaneously interrogate stress and elongation. The proposed Al-alloy must meet the following criteria: (1) average grain size at or below 20 nm, (2) thermal stability such that the Vickers microhardness is at least 70% of its initial value after annealing at 330°C for one hour (3) the alloy must be metallic in nature, and composed of a minimum of 85 vol% Al  (4) demonstrate uniform hardness greater than 10-times the hardness of an equivalent coarse-grained alloy (5) demonstrate greater than 10% elongation. In addition, a production cost analyses should be done to compare the developed alloy cost to commercial high strength Al-alloy production costs.


PHASE II: Phase II will provide additional research and development of processing methodologies and will culminate in a refined manufacturing process to reliably fabricate alloys which successfully meet the criteria given in Phase I in quantities large enough for large scale components. This will be paralleled by continued metallurgical and mechanical testing. Technical aspects of production and a production rate of 100 kg/day should be demonstrated by the end of Phase II. A commercialization analysis and report should also be generated to forecast transition potential at the end of Phase II.


PHASE III: This phase will result in an assessment of the feasibility of further scalability for full-scale manufacturing of alloy specimens meeting the same standards described in Phases I and II, as well as prospective commercialization of the manufacturing methodology. The production of high strength and ductility sheet and plate products could meet an abundance of applications in both military and civilian realms. The probable military applications span from lightweight personnel protection to larger armor packages to replacement of numerous structural components. A resulting high-strength, lightweight sheet product may enter the civilian market as preform for sheet-formed items or perhaps vehicle body panels. The transitions to operational capability to achieve these prospective applications will be based on a transition between the Phase I research and development to achieve property goals, to the refined manufacturing process developed in Phase II, and scale-up feasibility in Phase III. At the end of Phase III, program managers responsible for manufacturing and armor materials specification in military vehicles and other potential applications will evaluate the potential for transition.



1. 1 R. Birringer, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., Vol. 33, 1989, p. 117.


2. H.Gleiter, Progress in Mater. Sci., Vol. 33, 1989, p. 223.


3. C.C. Koch, R.O. Scattergood, K.A. Darling, and J.E. Semones, J. Mat. Sci.,Vol.  43, 2008,  p. 7264.


4. K.A. Darling, B.K. VanLeeuwen, C.C. Koch, and R.O. Scattergood.  Mat. Sci. & Eng. A. Vol 527, 2010, p. 3572.


5. K.A. Darling, R.N. Chan, P.Z. Wong, J.E. Semones, R.O. Scattergood, and C.C. Koch.  Script. Mat., Vol 59, 2008, p. 530.


6. T.R. Trelewicz and C.A. Schuh, Phy. Rev. B, Vol 79, 2009, p. 094112.


7. C.E. Krill, H. Ehrhardt, and R. Birringer, Z. Metallkd, Vol. 96, 2005, p. 1134.


KEYWORDS: Aluminum, Strength, Lightweight, Manufacturing Processes, Thermal Stability




A11-093                             TITLE: Non-Intrusive Measurement of Network Effectiveness


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: Identify, develop and demonstrate an approach suitable for measuring the effectiveness of complex, dynamic networks. The desired approach will have no impact on the network being measured. The desired approach will have no on impact on the network being measured and should include networking algorithms, network hardware and a methodology for deployment.


DESCRIPTION: One of the Army’s top priorities has been to digitize the battle space and provide command and control capabilities throughout the Army force structure. As a result, complex and dynamic battle command networks have been, and are continuing to be, developed to exchange information rapidly between commanders and battlefield units.  With recent advances in communications technologies, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET) and Mesh Networking concepts are being employed. Wireless data communications backbones are being deployed to allow high speed, mobile networking throughout the theatre of operation. Military networks can also achieve global coverage through the use of aerial relays and satellite communications. 

Some important characteristics of military digital networks include:


-Dynamic Topology. Mobile units on the battlefield are free to move about unpredictably and the network must be capable of rapidly changing to accommodate the new topology. 


-Secure Data Links. Mobile wireless networks are more susceptible to security threats than wired networks.  Wireless networks must include features to minimize the threats such as Denial-of-Service, Spoofing and Eavesdropping.


-High Reliability. Self-Healing networks are decentralized and robust enough to guard against failure of the mobile nodes. As network nodes drop out or become available on the battlefield, the networks will reconfigure themselves.


The problem facing an Army tester is how to monitor, collect, transfer and analyze network data without impacting the network being measured. The current instrumentation strategy is to tap into source points, or “sniff,” as data is being transferred across the network. The goal of this topic is to develop an innovative approach for measuring these complex dynamic networks that is non-intrusive and able to transfer and analyze the terra bytes of data collected during the test. The desired outcome of this topic will instrumentation that allows testers to monitor a networks efficiency in real-time or near real-time and a capability to collect network data for later analysis. In addition algorithms should be developed to allow the instrumentation hardware to adjust to the networks changing topology. This topic should also the measurements and parameters required to characterize a networks effectiveness.


PHASE I: Conceptionalize and design an innovative approach for measuring network effectiveness of complex, dynamic networks. Phase I deliverables should include a feasibility report detailing the technical merit of the selected approach and notional hardware/software architecture to implement this approach.


PHASE II: Based on the approach identified in phase I of this topic, develop a prototype system and demonstrate it in a realistic environment using a complex network.


PHASE III: The system would have application in the testing and monitoring of a wide array of current and future military networks. The system would also be useful in evaluating complex comercial networks that are designed to be fault tollerant such as financial networks and communications networks



1. William S. Wallace, Network-enabled battle command, Military Review, May-June 2005, http://findarticles/p/articles/mi_m0PBZ/ia_n14695876


2. COL Charles Dun III, MAJ Gregg Powell, MAJ Christopher J. Martin (AS), Michael J. Hamilton, Charles C. Pangle II, Information Superiority/Battle Command (Network Centric Warfare Environment),


KEYWORDS: Battle Command Network, Network effectiveness, Network Testing, Complex network, Command and control network, MANET, Mesh Network, Distributed Network




A11-094                             TITLE: Ballistic Impact Assessment System


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes


OBJECTIVE: Develop new instrumentation and methodologies which support quantitative evaluation of the whole-field dynamic response of ballistic impacted specimens. Existing camera and software based systems offer limited measurement of post-impact effects such as the formation, spatial dynamics, and time decay of impact shock waves- and of penetration events for various armor materials- including those events exhibiting substantial spallation. Such measurements are required for modeling and future improvements in the response of armor to ballistic impacts.


DESCRIPTION: Modern body armors serve to prevent penetrating injuries from a high-velocity impact by a projectile. Such impact introduces large deformation of the protecting armor and often results in behind armor blunt trauma (BABT). For instance- the National Institute of Justice 0101.04 standard permits static deformation in the clay backing of up to 44 mm. This does not consider the distribution of the energy transfer and resulting pressure waves transmitted into the human body where the corresponding peak pressures can increase by 200 to 350%.


This solicitation seeks innovative methods and systems to evaluate the spatial and temporal dissipation/relaxation of the impact energy. The ability to further characterize energy transfer to the body is also sought. Preference will be given to solutions that enable measurements of the spatial deformation of the armor throughout the duration of the ballistic impact, leading to identification of possible transient effects and the resulting damage distribution.


The technology to be developed under this effort should substantially exceed operational capabilities of existing state-of-the-art high-speed full-field deformation measurement systems, such as the shadow Moire, structured illumination and high-speed stereo photogrammetry. To date, the latter provide for data acquisition at up to 27,000 frames per second, with displacement accuracy of about 25-50 microns, and strain accuracy of 250-500 microstrain. Measurements of whole-field surface deformation at high speeds (up to 300 m/s)is sought, with maximum deformations up to 50 mm throughout the duration of the impact (~10 ms). System capabilities should include frame capture rates in excess of 1 million frames per second, several micron displacement resolution, and impact velocities up to 300 m/s.  


The optical diagnostic techniques to be developed under this SBIR program should directly address significant drawbacks in existing camera based metrology systems which can include: complex analysis for surface deformation with processing times approaching 5 to 6 hours for the simplest analysis; requirements for calibration patterns and need to acquire calibration references, providing a limitation for large areas and complex surface structures. Finally - the new capability to be developed should provide greater standoff distances, low cost replaceable probes, simple calibration, and real time processing on the test range.


While fiber sensor arrays represent a possible solution; offerers are not limited to this technology.  A 8 X 8 matrix of sensor nodes, acquisition points, or transducers, should provide the "Image" of the event needed to properly characterize the kinetics and energy transfer characteristics of the armor- whether applied to body armor, hard or soft, vehicle plates, or other protective armor equipment.


The environment in which the system must operate includes high luminosity fireballs, containing significant debris.  Current techniques do not provide the measurements described above in these environments.


PHASE I: Proof of Concept - Develop a design concept to demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to measure the ballistic impact and a subsequent whole-field deformation of the test-article. The threshold area of inspection is 10 X 10 cm2, at expected indentation of up to 50 mm, and the impact velocity up to 200 m/s. Provide a comprehensive analysis of the proposed system, risk estimation and perspective Phase II system design.


The Phase I deliverables will be a Final Report, including the initial system design and performance assessment.


PHASE II: Development of Prototype – The goal of the Phase II effort is to finalize the designs and build the prototype instrument for a whole-field measurement demonstration of the armor deformation under a high-speed ballistic impact. Transient dynamic effects of particular interest include shock wave propagation and elastic deformations, which could elucidate additional mechanisms involved in BABT. The surface velocity range of interest may be in excess of 200 m/s with the area of measurement 25 X 25 cm2;  the expected event (impact and relaxation) time can be 300 ms with the armor indentation up to 50 mm.   


Required Phase II deliverables will include a prototype system, test at designated Army facilities, and the Final Report.   


PHASE III: The transition of the technology developed under this effort into a robust, turnkey "commercially-available" system will provide significant data in greater detail and more importantly to understand the internal failure behavior of materials and structures deformation. Below is a list of potential applications:


The Military Applications are with the tactical and law enforcement sector by enabling characterization of the ballistic impact on military personal protective tools, including helmets, body armor and vests. This should result in improved body armor, increasing the survivability of the military, the law enforcement and border patrol personnel. This technology will provide real-time ballistic impact detection on various army lightweight vehicles including JLTV, MMWV, and MRAP.


Commercial use of this technology includes:

1. The aviation and airspace industry, where it can be used for NDI and the structural integrity analysis, in particular, to measure the deformation dynamic of key structural elements of airframe at ground vehicle tests, design load and other  qualification testing.  

2. Automotive industry, where the evaluation of the collision impact is essential to ensure safety requirements.

3. Study and analysis of the shock-wave formation and propagation in various applications



1. D. Kokido et al., Method for measuring transient out-of-plane deformation during impact, Int. J. Impact Engng Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 127-133, 1997.


2. J.H. Yu, A.J.Hsieh, P.G.Dehmer, and J.M. Sands, Real-Time Full-field Deformation Analysis on the Ballistic Impact of Polymeric Materials Using High-speed Photogrammetry, American Society for Composites 2009 – 24th Technical Conference, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, Sept. 2009.


3. Testing of Body Armor Materials for Use by the U.S. Army--Phase II: Letter Report. The National Academy Press, 2010.


4. Following is a reference describing potential solution technology using Doppler vibrometry or velocimetry. Strand, O.T., Goosman, D.R., Martinez, C., Whitworth, T.L., and Kuhlow, W.W. (2006). Compact system for high-speed velocimetry using heterodyne techniques. Review of Scientific Instruments, 77, 083108.


5. For an overview of the various potential technology solutions see Mentzer, Mark. Applied Optics Fundamentals and Device Applications: Nano, MOEMS, and Biotechnology.  Boca Raton:  CRC Press.  Cat# K11430.  March 2011.


KEYWORDS: backface deformation testing, body armor testing, surface deformation measurement, full field surface deformation




A11-095                             TITLE: Edge Enabled Systems for ISR Applications




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO Intelligence, Electronic Warfare and Sensors


OBJECTIVE: The contractor shall design and develop edge enabled systems specific to ISR applications that improve the situational awareness of the dismounted warfighter. The edge enabled systems will provide dismounted warfighters with access to ISR sensors, data products, and common operational pictures via mobile applications designed for use on hand held devices. In keeping with the edge enabled design principles, the systems must be customizable, support non-centralized resources, and provide for continuous evolution. The candidate design must address issues related to security and information assurance while emphasizing the use of commercially available software and mobile devices.


DESCRIPTION: An “Edge Enabled System” (EES) provides dismounted warfighters, who do not have access to thick client terminals, the capability to operate thin client (web based) applications and/or mobile applications on hand held devices. The applications and related data reside in “the cloud” and offer the user the ability to customize the applications. The focus of this research topic is the adaptation of edge enabled systems to ISR applications. Innovative solutions are sought for the design and development of an EES that promotes the concept of mobile access to ISR sensor feeds, analytical results derived from the sensors, and common operational pictures using hand held devices. 


PHASE I: Perform a design study to formulate innovative technical approaches to develop an EES that offers a set of ISR related applications. The design study should define the paradigm for customizable and evolving applications. Complete an EES design concept and demonstrate through modeling or analysis that it meets the requirements of improved situational awareness in the ISR domain for the dismounted warfighter.


PHASE II: Use the results of the design concept generated in Phase I to develop a detailed software model of the EES for use with ISR applications. The model should include ISR applications and constructs for “mashing” applications and sharing data peer-to-peer. Use the software model of the EES to perform a demonstration that validates that the approach improves situational awareness of the dismounted warfighter.


PHASE III: Implement the EES as part of the DCGS-A/JUMPS sensor suite and deploy the system for test and evaluation using commercially available hand held devices. The implementation should include an “app store” of various ISR mobile applications for use by the end user. Potential applications include special operations forces missions, maritime domain awareness for personnel embarked on small patrol craft, and border security missions for personnel deployed along the southern border.


PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Technologies developed are directly applicable to law enforcement and homeland security missions including border patrol and counter narcotics missions. Additionally, the technology can be adapted to the energy industry where large scale mining or drilling operations require access to environmental and/or safety sensors by personnel in the field without the support of data or processing centers.



1.  Edge Enabled Systems; Zacharie Hall, Rick Kazman, Daniel Plakosh, Joseph Giampapa, Kurt Wallnau; 2010.


2.  Army’s Edgy Concept: Customizable Mobile Solutions for the Warfighter; John Ohab; 2010.


3.  D. S. Alberts and R. E. Hays, Power to the Edge: Command Control in the Information Age (CCRP: April 2005) ISBN 1-893723-13-5.

4. JUMPS Brief Parts I and II provides information on the JUMPS System.


KEYWORDS: Edge Enabled System, Mobile Applications, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance




A11-096                             TITLE: 3 kW High Performance Permanent Magnet Alternator


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes


OBHECTIVE: Develop an advanced permanent magnet alternator with state of the art materials, controls and electronics for alternator applications, using alternative permanent magnetic materials to replace conventional materials whose availability may be severely limited in the future.


DESCRIPTION: Rare earth based materials such as Neodymium Iron Boron and Samarium Cobalt used as permanent magnets have revolutionized the use and application of permanent magnets.  They have made the permanent magnet motor and alternator common components in many systems, not the least of which are military systems. However, the largest known deposits of neodymium and samarium are found in China [1] and recently China has drastically scaled back its exports of these materials, in order to provide more of these materials to its domestic industries [2]. Further, given the potential volatility of U.S.-Chinese relations, having the U.S. being dependent on China for these vital materials is quite perilous. Alternative materials need to be identified and developed to serve as substitutes for neodymium and samarium based magnetic materials, These alternative materials should, ideally, be readily and abundantly available from domestic sources, or alternatively from countries with which the U.S. enjoys good relations.


Such materials must offer magnetic performance roughly equivalent to and preferably better than current rare earth based permanent magnetic materials, particularly with regard to application in the military environment. This would include resistance to thermal stress and mechanical shock. More fundamentally, the magnets made from such materials must be of sufficient magnetization density as to be capable of producing the magnetic field necessary for the operation of such a device as a motor or an alternator, preferably without exceeding, or at minimum not exceeding substantially, the size and weight of current rare earth magnets for the same application.


The Army is interested in developing power components that are smaller, lighter, quieter and more efficient than those based on induction machines currently in the inventory. The reduction in component size and weight will greatly reduce size/weight and increase system efficiency and reliability of tactical power systems and vehicles used to support the 21st Century Battlefield. The new high performance alternator design will incorporate composite magnets with superior magnetic properties such as high coercive force, high electrical resistivity to reduce eddy current losses, and low hysteresis losses.  Ideally, the properties should also be strongly anisotropic to support the design intent for the magnetic circuit.  The high performance alternator must be capable of providing rated, continuous 3 kW at 0.8 power factor, 120 VAC, 120/240VAC, 50/60 Hz. The resulting design must be capable of operating within a temperature range from -45oC (-50oF) to +60oC (+140oF) at any possible relative humidity for military applications. The design shall maintain/enhance voltage control and achieve improved thermal management - that is reduced heat produced in the rotor. The advanced alternators would require no lubrication, enhance mechanical properties at higher temperatures, and would be smaller, lighter, quieter and more efficient than current induction designs.  Resulting proof of concept machines shall maintain/enhance voltage regulation, reduce component size and weight by 30% and increase component efficiency by 20% as compared to conventional induction alternator designs currently in the Army inventory.


This topic seeks material solutions (adaptations and advancements) that lead will to significant evolutionary improvements in the operational and performance capabilities of traditional and alternative alternator designs.  Solutions shall include material replacement at the component level or magnet replacement at the system level.  The resulting new materials must address processing, structure, properties, performance, and application (down to the micro and nano scales) and enable the Army to develop new, innovative power systems while improving the operational capability and reliability of existing power systems.   For example, materials of interest include non-rare earth content magnets which exhibit high coercivity and high temperature tolerance (i.e. Mg-based, AlNiCo, Iron-Chromium-Magnesium) and new magnets that exhibit high coercivity and high temperature tolerance with low rare-earth content.


PHASE I: Contractor shall identify and investigate alternative materials to substitute for currently available rare earth permanent magnets used in military alternators. Contractor shall submit a plan to fabricate and test sample material solutions for inclusion in military alternator designs. Newly developed /adapted materials shall ensure compliance to all applicable military standards and specifications, particularly with regard to thermal stress and mechanical vibration. Materials so identified should include data regarding availability, ease of producibility, cost projections and statements of current and projected reserves from both domestic and readily available foreign sources. The contractor shall provide the Government with a detailed Scientific Report describing the alternator design/concept selected; advanced/adapted materials to include newer and alternative approaches to reduce rare-earth content permanent magnets; hybrid excitation techniques as needed, and conceptual drawings. During the option period, the contractor shall select and identify material or preferably, materials for testing in Phase II, and prepare them for integration into the selected alternator design for the Phase II effort.


PHASE II: From the materials developed under the phase I effort, two (2) alternators for the specified power output shall be fabricated. One alternator shall be integrated with a Yanmar L70AE-DEGFR, single cylinder, 6.7 Hp @ 3600 rpm, 24 VDC starter, air cooled engine with the appropriate commercial electronics. Prior to delivery, a complete set of electrical tests of the mule (alternator, engine and controls) shall be performed. The contractor shall also provide technical assistance during government evaluation as needed.


PHASE III: Commercial migration of Phase II proof of concept(s) into target markets, military and civilian, either independently or in conjunction with an alternator manufacturer. The reduction in size and weight will pay immediate dividends for commercial and tactical environments. In military applications, numerous alternators currently used in tactical vehicles and these advanced alternators would replace generator sets.


KEYWORDS: high coercivity, Mg-Based, AlNiCo, Iron-Chromium-Magnesium, high temperature tolerance




A11-097                             TITLE: Distributed Navigation Solutions






OBJECTIVE: Design a local area network based architecture and develop the associated algorithms to computationally solve for the Position Location Information (PLI) of several wireless ad hoc network nodes using a collaborative computing technique. The position of each node should be determined to within 1m (1 sigma) even in the absence of a Global Position System (GPS) solution.


DESCRIPTION: Dismounted and mounted Soldiers are forced to operate in environments where it is difficult to receive the very weak RF signals from GPS, such as in mountains, valleys, or cities/towns.  The need to operate under conditions where GPS is unavailable is growing, especially so for the case of urban canyons and indoor environments. Without GPS, dismounted Soldiers must rely on alternate navigation systems such as inertial navigation systems (INS) or have no available information at all. The navigation solutions from an INS that is small enough to be carried by a Soldier, degenerate in under a minute to the point where the data is no longer useful. These navigation solutions are needed to support the warfighter by providing a navigation capability but also provide the fundamental information necessary for situational awareness on the battlefield. Situational awareness allows for many capability advantages to the warfighter including: better maneuverability, precision strikes with little/no friendly casualties, improved coordination for joint strikes.


PEO Soldier is incorporating navigation systems and communications systems into the suite of systems to be worn by every Future Force Soldier.  Current navigation systems fall far short of the performance requirement of 1m position accuracy in the absence of GPS. However, Soldiers will be connected to a wireless network to support communications. This topic seeks to leverage the communications network to support the navigation function, specifically to help the Soldier achieve a position accuracy of 1m in GPS denied environments. 


Dismounted Soldiers operate in small groups to carry out their mission. These teams remain in close proximity even when entering buildings, and thus, will generally maintain good network connectivity with each other even when the connection to HQ/command is lost. Future Force Soldiers will also be wearing a navigation system comprised of a variety of sensors such as inertial measurement units (IMUs), vision based sensors, RF ranging sensors, magnetic compasses, and a computer processor to determine a navigation solution. At different times some Soldiers will have access to better navigation related data (for example some may have access to GPS satellites while others may not). Access to this information could benefit each member of the team if used properly. However, each soldier is also limited by the processing capabilities (about a 200MHz processor for given power and size constraints) for standard navigation solution techniques, and due to the unique environments in which Soldiers operate, a centralized computation is not practical. 


Using cloud or grid computing techniques or other similar collaborative distributed computing techniques a group of Soldiers together could provide improved performance over several individuals operating independently. Navigation computation would change from a node centric solution to a common solution shared by all units and potentially to a command for situational awareness. The configuration must be a distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of navigation resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server networking model). The ad-hoc network solution must also be robust enough to withstand temporary loss of communications and the addition and subtraction of nodes as Soldiers move into and out of range. Grid computing is a form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby a virtual super computer is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. The concept is currently employed in stable environments where connectivity is good and available networking nodes are numerous. This concept could also be applied to the wireless ad hoc situation of small Soldier teams to permit much more intensive processing within the group and thereby determine more complex navigation solutions and provide more accuracy for each member. The navigation computation becomes very complicated and requires a new Kalman filter approach which incorporates additional state estimates (of the conditions of the ad hoc network) while also allowing for scalable traditional navigation state estimates based on the number of nodes.  This is further complicated by dynamically distributing the processing across the nodes.


Similar applications could be of interest for robotic systems (both ground and air) that operate in groups. It also has potential for supporting hybrid navigation solutions involving multiple users, some of which may have different navigation sensors and/or include robotic units into the solutions.


PHASE I: Design a concept architecture to utilize an ad hoc wireless network to share navigation resources among each node within a small group of Soldiers. Develop navigation algorithms to compute navigation solutions with data from distributed sources. Model the network including distributed processing, temporary loss of connectivity, and the addition and loss of Soldiers coming into and out of range. Simulate performance with as much fidelity as possible to determine the effectiveness of the distributed approach versus a centralized approach, the expected performance enhancement due to a minimum number of nodes, and the sensitivity of the navigation filter to the dynamic nature of available nodes. 


PHASE II: Based on the results of phase I, identify the optimal set of information to include in navigation data that is shared among the team members, balancing each data item for its usefulness against the impacts on the performance of the network. Develop a prototype model and demonstrate its capabilities for using a network to enhance the navigation performance of a personal navigation system in the absence of GPS and in real time. Also demonstrate the robustness and survivability of the design during the loss and recovery of Soldiers within the network.


PHASE III: The primary focus of this topic is to provide support for the dismounted Soldier in a disadvantaged environment.  However, the same techniques could be applied to other platforms experiencing GPS denial while operating in groups. Modify the design as necessary to allow the same kind of enhancements to be applied to firefighter and other emergency responder navigation systems, UAV navigation systems, UGV navigation systems, as well as to operate in ground vehicles for use in a convoy or other vehicle configurations. All of these systems could benefit from the algorithms developed under this effort. Further applications that could benefit from these techniques include robotic toys, automated robotic systems (both ground and air based), clusters of guided munitions, etc.



1. A Gentle Introduction to Grid Computing and Technologies, Rajkumar Buyya and Srikumar Venugopal, Computer Society of India Communications, July 2005.


2. Cloud Computing: The Evolution of Software-as-a-Service Published: June 04, 2008 in Knowledge@W.P. Carey.


3. Rüdiger Schollmeier, A Definition of Peer-to-Peer Networking for the Classification of Peer-to-Peer Architectures and Applications, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, IEEE (2002).


KEYWORDS: Global Positioning System, navigation, Inertial Measurement Unit, Position Location Information, parallel processing, distributive processing, cloud computing, grid computing, peer-to-peer networks




A11-098                             TITLE: Regenerable Air Filter Media for Adsorption of Toxic Industrial Chemicals


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense, Materials/Processes


OBJECTIVE: Develop high performance regenerable adsorbent air filter media to capture toxic industrial chemicals (TIC)such as NH3, NO2, Cl, DMMP, benzene, and HCN and extend service life and energy savings of media.


DESCRIPTION: Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) pose a constant threat to DoD infrastructure, the warfighter, and the public. As defined by the Army FY11 Tier 1 Warfighter Outcomes, BIG Five Warfighter Outcomes, area 63, “The future force must have the ability to detect, diagnose, render safe, or neutralize […] CBRN hazards and their components (emphasis added). Current carbon based chemical adsorbent filters such as the M98 have lifespans directly limited by their exposure to chemical threats.  These filters cannot be regenerated and must be replaced after their service life. Additionally, because there is no accurate method to test the viability of the filter in situ, there is the possibility that it may be left in service after reaching the adsorbent capacity. There is a need for a filter medium which can adsorb TICs and is able to be quickly regenerated for continued protection and reduced O&M costs. Air filter media must be able to contain the adsorbent within the filter medium and be able to pleat and withstand the stresses of force during the manufacturing process. Upon regeneration of the media, it is desirable to collect a sample of the adsorbate for analysis and identification of potential threats.


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and TICs create hazardous situations for military personnel in large buildings. Large buildings containing hundreds of feet of duct work handling very large air flow can transport small levels of organics very rapidly causing sickness or fatalities within the buildings. Additionally, these organics/TICs could damage duct work and other building materials, adding cost and time to cleanup. Air filter media used in current air conditioning filters are limited in ability to capture organic vapors and TICs.  


New technology is desired to mitigate this risk and filter these contaminants from air, whereby the technology is robust, efficient, regenerable, and economical. The new media will be capable of capturing multiple TICs and VOCs (such as NH3, NO2, Cl, DMMP, benzene, and HCN) from large air flows with low levels of contamination and be able to regenerate so replacement frequency of air filters is reduced. The practical deployment of regenerable filters has not occurred because concepts have not yet been realized that are capable of storing and controllably regenerating at room temperatures and humidity. This solicitation aims to identify or develop air filter media which can capture low levels of TICs and be quickly regenerated for rapid reuse in the battlefield and DoD buildings.


PHASE I: TIC adsorption-desorption platforms will be identified and characterized, and a prototype technology meeting the minimum essential characteristics will be developed. The contractor will show that the prototype will capture and release up to 70% of TICs with tunable adsorption and regeneration kinetics. The proposed platform should allow for tunability of desorption rate, temperature, and overall adsorbate recovery. This can be incorporated in the platform design process or be developed as an “on the fly" tuning method. Proposed materials (e.g. powder, composites, nanomaterials, etc) will be characterized for their thermal stability, room temperature shelf life, adsorption/desorption, and triggered release kinetics.


Minimum essential characteristics: The prototype technology will be a condensed-state platform, demonstrating thermal stability and maintaining greater than 90% adsorption activity following exposures to TICs at temperatures >20 C and relative humidity of 65% for a minimum of 1 month at 100 ppm. Contractor will also demonstrate regeneration of air filter medium to at least 70% and cycling at least 5 times under above mentioned operating conditions. In addition to the high storage of TICs, quantifiable TIC release during regeneration must be demonstrated. TIC storage and release will be quantified via standard analytical tests routinely used in characterizing air filter materials. By the end of Phase I, the contractor will design proof of concept filter media and demonstrate capture of at least one TIC and regeneration of medium.


PHASE II: The contractor will demonstrate the efficacy of lead candidate air filter media for the appropriate TICs. The prototype will be refined to provide highest degree of filtration benefit and most robust stability and deployability. The contractor will generate quantitative evidence of broad spectrum TICs activity in lab. The contractor will produce a product commercialization plan and demonstrate the potential for industrial-scale production. Additionally, a demonstration and evaluation of the filter system will be performed in a controlled laboratory environment.


PHASE III: The contractor will complete field studies and develop a plan for transition into commercial product. This might include partnering with a larger filter manufacturing company for further development, or additional in-house development. At the culmination of Phase III studies, lead candidate air filter medium product(s) will have the potential to serve the collective protection needs of the Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security as well as the civilian sector.  Additionally, the products developed may have use for the Department of Justice in similar building protection applications.



1. A. Ginestet et al., “Development of a new photocatalytic oxidation air filter for aircraft cabin” Indoor Air, 15, 326-334 (2005).


2. H.Q. Yang et al., “Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas” J. Hazard. Mater. 146, 1-11 (2009).


3. M.T. Leubbers et al., “Trends in the adsorption of volatile organic compounds in a large-pore metal-organic framework, IRMOF-1” Langmuir, 13, 11319-11329 (2010).


4. D. J. Adamson, “Experimental investigation of in situ cleanable HEPA filters” Air & Waste Mgmt Conf., Mar 1999.


KEYWORDS: Air filter, Toxic Industrial Chemical (TIC), Filtration, Adsorption, Energy, Regenerable




A11-099                             TITLE: Rapidly Deployable Lightweight Shelters for Austere Environments


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes


OBJECTIVE: To develop a new shelter, or expand the use and function of an existing shelter, that is lightweight and rapidly deployable for the future Modular Force. This technology will be highly versatile and applicable to austere environments in extreme weather and be commercially accessible to all joint forces.


DESCRIPTION: Creating and maintaining assured access to an area is a complex endeavor involving all components of the joint forces with the aim of projecting and sustaining power from early entry through conflict resolution. A critical component of this is the rapid deployment of ground forces directly into theater that allows key facilities to have a strategic base of operations for action. Operations in remote regions require rapid construction for personnel protection through the set-up of semi-permanent buildings and infrastructure. This technology will enable theater access and improve distribution systems by creating standardized, pre-configured, modular deployment packages; provide minimized reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (RSOI) on arrival; and, integrate sustainment to enable initial self-sufficiency in short-term operations. Enabling theater access provides proactive means to ensure forces can deploy, and freely enter the theater of operations, by enhancing infrastructure and mitigating adverse environmental effects such as terrain and weather.


These lightweight shelters require insulation for cooling or retaining heat, the ability to withstand high winds, simple construction methods for deployment by Warfighters with limited experience in harsh environments, and packaging that allows for a variety of transport and deployment methods. The thermal performance of the insulation system deployed with such a shelter should exceed the standard single ply liner performance and leverage on low weight, high technology materials. Current operational needs require sufficient material robustness for all weather and variable terrain use. Ultimately, the shelters must reduce material handling equipment (MHE) requirements and contain flexible packaging.  Reducing material handling supports the rapid delivery of small, high value, reduced cube commodities to bridge the gap between traditional ground-based solutions and material-intensive technologies. Flexible packaging and faster on/off loading techniques allows for rapid deployment of forces and equipment, Warfighter and basecamp sustainment and ultimately increases the rate of distribution.


PHASE I: Development of a design concept for a shelter to house various small unit functions ranging from human operating centers to vehicle maintenance facilities (minimum 400 square feet, modular capabilities preferred). The primary goals for the shelter are to: be deployable by two persons within 20 minutes, withstand 100 mph winds and able to endure temperatures of -50 to 60C (-58 to 140 F) as energy efficiently as possible (target R-value = 15). This temperature range will require some type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system for interior environmental control. Secondary goals include surviving under 20 lbs/ft2 roof snow loads, being low cost, having minimal snow or sand ingestion and low packaged weight/dimensions. Ballistic and blast protection is not required at this stage. Additionally, the shelter design should support interfacing with existing environmental control units (ECU), MHE, and transport vessels. This phase includes an analytical modeling capability allowing for optimizing shelter dimensions/applications. The final product should include three different designs with one optimized for deployment time, one optimized for environmental extremes and one optimized for cost, though all should still attempt to meet the other project goals.


PHASE II: If proven in Phase I, 3 full size models should be constructed and field tested. Any necessary material tests should precede testing of a full-scale model. Deployment instructions and training material should be developed in this phase. Additionally, packaging concepts for air drop should be developed. Upon completion of testing, a final report is to be submitted detailing the final designs, analyzing the performance and estimating the cost to manufacture the shelters.


PHASE III: Military Application: The utility of the shelter would be relevant to current DoD requirements and looks forward to future needs by providing a quickly deployable shelter in extreme conditions. Also, with proper insulating features, this system will reduce energy costs typically incurred by excessive heating or cooling.


Commercial Application: Temporary shelters capable of withstanding extreme weather are critical infrastructure for many large commercial operations (or even small seasonal outfits) in the Arctic and could be used by researchers and support staff in the Antarctic. Additionally, due to its rapid deployment feature, this product could be used in homeland defense operations and natural disaster and humanitarian efforts in any environment.



1. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. American Society of Civil Engineers Standard ASCE/SEI 7-10. 2010.


2. Rojdev, K., T. Hong, S. Hafermalz, R. Hunkins, G. Valle and L. Toups. Inflatable Habitat Health Monitoring: Implementation, Lessons Learned, and Application to Lunar or Martian Habitat Health Monitoring. Proceedings of the 2009 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Pasadena, California, September 2009.  


3. Shelters, Technology, Engineering and Fabrication Directorate, US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center. 


4. Hopping, Jacob A. Development of Rapidly Deployable Structures for Military Applications: A System Based Approach to Command Post Facilities. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. June 2006. 


KEYWORDS: lightweight shelters, insulation, flexible packaging, all-weather materials, logistics support, snow




A11-100                             TITLE: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Instruments for Geotechnical and Geophysical





OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) geophysical instruments for measuring near-surface moisture content as a function of depth in the top 2 meters of the subsurface.


DESCRIPTION: The US Army requires field survey instruments to determine moisture content in the top 2 meters of the subsurface. Such moisture measurements are required for:

a) Modeling and detecting various targets in the top 2 meters of the subsurface.

b) Military construction, including assessment of building sites, airfields and roads.

c) Mobility assessments, including battlefield assessment of the ability of terrain to support various mechanized operations.


The US Army presently relies heavily on neutron scattering devices to obtain accurate subsurface moisture content in the aforementioned applications. Neutron scattering devices have been developed for both invasive (i.e. in the ground) and non-invasive measurement of moisture content, with total moisture content accuracies on the order of +/- 3%.


Neutron scattering devices present significant regulatory drawbacks, and provide no information on the subsurface environment other than total water content. Neutron scattering devices use a radioactive source, which requires a special license to operate and maintain. This limits the availability and deployment of these devices. Non-invasive neutron scattering devices provide average moisture content over a fixed sensitivity volume, hence they are not useful for profiling water content as a function of depth. Neutron scattering devices are also unable to distinguish small pore moisture from large pore moisture, or to estimate the pore size distribution, which can impact engineering properties such as drainage and load bearing capacity.


Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a technique used widely in chemistry and medicine, and in the physical basis for medical MRI. NMR measurements provide direct detection and measurement of liquid water. NMR has been previously used to measure total water content, as well as the water filled pore size distribution which is useful in determining bound and mobile water fractions and potentially structural properties. In geophysical applications, NMR tools have been previously developed for both non-invasive and invasive measurements, with the majority of applications involving oil and gas exploration and characterization of groundwater aquifers. NMR does not utilize any radioactive components or controlled substances, and hence presents no regulatory barriers to widespread field use.


This solicitation seeks to develop alternative moisture content sensors based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Non-invasive approaches are preferred, but minimally invasive approaches will also be considered. The NMR sensors developed under this R&D effort should be optimized for detection and profiling of moisture content in the top 2m of the subsurface, should be capable of detecting and characterizing all forms of water that exist in the top 2m of the subsurface, and should be capable of being operated efficiently in combat support operations.


PHASE I: Develop an NMR sensor design capable of measuring and profiling moisture content in the top 2 meters of the subsurface. Perform computer modeling to establish theoretical performance of the proposed NMR sensor, including spatial resolution, expected signal to noise ratio, and scan time. Perform laboratory experiments to confirm the theoretical performance of the proposed NMR sensor.


PHASE II: Develop and field-test a prototype NMR instrument for profiling water content in the top 2 meters of the subsurface. Refine the Phase I sensor design. Engineer and assemble a working prototype capable of performing NMR moisture content measurements in the field. Perform field tests of the prototype in a variety of outdoor settings, using ancillary moisture measurements to ground truth the field tests. Develop final performance specifications.


PHASE III: The SBIR will result in a technology with broad applications in both military and civil communities. The NMR instrument developed under this program will be used by the US Army for modeling and detection of subsurface targets, for assessing sites for military construction including buildings, roads and airfields, and for mobility assessment on the battlefield. The NMR instrument will have widespread direct use in commercial civil engineering applications as well, including site assessment for commercial construction. The NMR instrument will also find wide commercial application in agriculture including drainage assessment and precision irrigation.



1. Coates GR, Xiao L, and Prammer MG, 1999. “NMR Logging: Principles and Applications,” Halliburton Energy Services, Houston TX, 1999.


2. Hert Hertzog RC, White TA, Straley C, 2007. “Using NMR decay-time measurements to monitor and characterize DNAPL and moisture in sub surface porous media,” JEEG, Vol. 12, No. 4, December 2007, pp. 293-306.


3. Anferova, S., Anferov, V., Rata, D., Blümich, B., Arnold, J., Clauser, C., Blümler, P. and Raich, H. (2004), A mobile NMR device for measurements of porosity and pore size distributions of drilled core samples. Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B: Magnetic Resonance Engineering, 23B: 26–32. doi: 10.1002/cmr.b.20020


4. Ugur Yaramanci and Mike Mueller-Petke, Surface nuclear magnetic resonance; a unique tool for hydrogeophysics (in Hydrogeophysics, Miller,) Leading Edge (Tulsa, OK) (October 2009), 28(10):1240-1247.


KEYWORDS: Surface nuclear magnetic resonance, nmr, snmr, soil moisture, water content




A11-101                             TITLE: Wide area standoff hyperspectral-imaging sensor for chemical and biological early



TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense, Electronics


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: JPEO Chemical and Biological Defense


The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: Develop a wide area standoff hyperspectral-imaging sensor for chemical and biological early warning.


DESCRIPTION: Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensors currently in use for wide-area standoff detection of chemical and biological agents are required to utilize large focal-plane-arrays to achieve necessary spatial coverage and spatial resolution for wide area chemical/biological detection. They are also required to interrogate a large number of spectral bands in order to differentiate between target compounds and the background. In addition to these very stringent hyperspectral-imaging requirements, a chemical/biological standoff sensor needs to be small, lightweight, and inexpensive. Thus one is required to balance conflicting requirements of high performance in a small, inexpensive package. The outcome of this development effort is to reduce the size, weight, power, cost, and bandwidth of HSI systems while maintaining the capability of wide area early warning of a chemical or biological attack.


One key to developing improved HSI chemical detection systems is better focal-plane-array (FPA) technology. The infrared focal plane array technology required for passive standoff detection of chemical and biological signatures is significantly different from the technology optimized for thermal imaging. The subdivision of far field spectral radiance into discrete spectral bands requires array technology with higher sensitivity, shorter integration times, and low noise. Similarly, the need for spectral response cutoff ranges in the 10 to 12 micrometer wavelength range to access important Chem-Bio and toxic industrial material signatures is necessary.


Current HSI systems rely on large cryocooler assemblies in order to cool the FPA to achieve required sensitivity. The ability of focal-plane-arrays to operate at higher temperatures could result in an HSI system that is smaller and more lightweight. It is possible that a cryocooler assembly could be replaced with a smaller, less expensive thermoelectric cooling device. Operating the FPA at higher temperatures could also reduce power consumption. Developing a high performance FPA that operates at elevated temperatures will involve innovative research in low noise semiconductor fabrication.


Another approach may be the use of smart focal-plane-arrays where some imaging/spectral processing is done directly on the FPA chip. This approach could potentially reduce bandwidth and allow for HSI capabilities in a smaller package. Other methods to reduce the size of HSI systems could involve the use of miniaturized optics. For example a small HSI system may utilize microlenses. Microlenses are small lenses with diameters less than one millimeter. A properly designed lenslet or microlens arrays can also be used to extract simultaneous spectral and spatial information from a hyperspectral scene. Thus microlenses can be utilized in the fabrication of extremely small imaging spectrometers.


Another possible method of achieving good spectral/spatial/temporal resolution in a small, lightweight HSI sensor is to mimic the function of the human eye. A foveating sensor may provide high spectral, spatial, and temporal sensing capabilities in a smaller package. The high-fidelity (spatial and spectral) of HSI sensors would be maintained in the center of the image. The edges of the overall field-of-view of the sensor would function as anomaly detectors. If an anomaly is detected at the edge of the sensor’s field-of-view, the sensor can be rotated to image the area of interest in the region with high spectral/spatial fidelity using the center of the sensor’s field-of-view.


PHASE I: Design a lightweight, low-power, inexpensive hyperspectral imaging sensor for wide area standoff detection of chemical and biological agents. Innovative approaches are sought. The spectral region of the sensor should be chosen to interrogate spectral signatures of chemical plumes. Traditionally the 8 to 12 micrometer region of the electromagnetic spectrum has been used for standoff chemical detection. The system should have sufficient spectral and spatial resolution to detect and discriminate chemical agent plumes. The detection and discrimination capabilities of the sensor in this region should be comparable to existing HSI chemical/biological sensors. The goal is to passively detect small chemical plumes (25 meters or smaller) of a chemical agent such as sarin at relevant concentrations (less than 10 ppmv) at a distance of 5 kilometers or more under ambient conditions. The system should be designed to reduce size, weight, and power compared to traditional HSI systems. The system should also be designed to reduce communication bandwidth and computational processing requirements. Modeling performed during the Phase I effort should demonstrate reduction in size, weight, power, communications bandwidth, and computational processing. The goal of this effort is to develop an imaging standoff chemical detectors system that weighs less than 25 pounds in an overall package of less than one cubic foot. The system should operate on less than 100 watts of power. The system should also demonstrate significant cost reduction as compared to traditional wide area standoff chemical detection systems that utilize hyperspectral imaging.


PHASE II: Construct a standoff hyperspectral imaging sensor designed for the detection of chemical plumes. Utilize the best methods and technologies for reducing the size of HSI systems while maintaining required sensitivities. Test and characterized the performance of the new HSI sensor. Based on the test results, refine the design of the new standoff chemical imaging sensor.


PHASE III: Further research and development during Phase III efforts will be directed towards a final deployable design, incorporating design modifications based on results from tests conducted during Phase II, and improving engineering/form-factors, equipment hardening, and manufacturability designs to meet U.S. Army CONOPS and end-user requirements. Further, demonstrate the technology’s applicability to stand-off detection of biological threat materials.


PHASE II DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: There are many environmental applications for a small chemical standoff sensor. A rugged, sensitive and flexible chemical detector will benefit the manufacturing community by providing finely tuned monitoring of chemical processes. Also first responders such as Civil Support Teams (CST) and Fire Departments have a critical need for a rugged, relatively inexpensive but versatile and rugged sensor that can be transported to the field to test for possible contamination by CW agents and other toxic chemicals.



1. Bogdan R. Cosofret, Shin Chang, Michael L. Finson, Christopher M. Gittins, Tracy E. Janov, Daisei Konno, William J. Marinelli, Mark J. Levreault, and Rex K. Miyashiro, “AIRIS standoff multispectral sensor”, Proceedings of the SPIE, volume 7304, pages 73040Y (2009).


2. Vincent Farley, Charles Belzile, Martin Chamberland, Jean-Francois Legault, and Karl R Schwantes, “Development and testing of a hyperspectral imaging instrument for field spectroscopy”, Proceedings of SPIE, volume 5546, pages 29-36 (2004).


3. Paul L. McCarley, Mark A. Massie, and Jon P. Curzan, “Large-format variable spatial acuity superpixel imaging: visible and infrared systems applications”, Proceedings of the SPIE, volume 5406, pages 361-369 (2004).


4. Mark A. Massie, J. P. Curzan, and R. A. Coussa, “Operational and performance comparisons between conventional and foveating large format infrared focal plane arrays”, Proceedings of the SPIE, volume 5783, pages 260-271 (2005).


5. J. T. Caulfield, P. L. McCarley, J. P. Curzan, M. A. Massie and C. Baxter, “Techniques for image processing in variable acuity focal plane arrays”, Proceedings of the SPIE, volume 6542, pages 654213 (2007).


6. Michele Hinnrichs and Mark A. Massie, “New approach to imaging spectroscopy using diffractive optics”, Proceedings of the SPIE, volume 3118, pages 194-205 (1997).


7. Ju-Seog Jang and Bahram Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics”, Optics Letters, volume 27, issue 5, pages 324-326 (2002).


8. R. Dominguez-Castro, S. Espejo , A. Rodriguez-Vazquez, R.A. Carmona, P. Foldesy, A. Zarandy, P. Szolgay, T. Sziranyi, and T. Roska, “A 0.8-µm CMOS two-dimensional programmable mixed-signal focal-plane array processor with on-chip binary imaging and instructions storage”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, volume 32, issue 7, pages 1013-1026 (1997).


9. J. Nakamura, B. Pain, T. Nomoto, T. Nakamura, and E. R. Fossum, “On-focal-plane signal processing for current-mode active pixel sensors” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, volume 44, issue10, pages 1747-1758 (1997).


10. V. Gruev and R. Etienne-Cummings, “Implementation of steerable spatiotemporal image filters on the focal plane”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Volume 49, Issue 4, pages 233-244 (2002).


11. D. Scribner, P. Warren, J. Schuler, M. Satyshur, and M. Kruer, “Infrared Color Vision: An Approach to Sensor Fusion”, Optics and Photonics News, volume 9, number 8, pages 27-32 (1998).


KEYWORDS: hyperspectral imaging, chemical detection, standoff detection, focal plane array, lenslet, foveating.




A11-102                             TITLE: Wide Area Collective Protection


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Chemical/Bio Defense


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: JPEO Chemical and Biological Defense


The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE:  Develop advanced, innovative technologies for rapid sensing and filtration/neutralization of threat agents for wide area chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) collective protection (COLPRO).   Topic objectives include methods to provide a rapid-reaction wide-area COLPRO capability throughout city-block sized fixed infrastructure. Innovative technologies are sought to rapidly detect and warn of the presence of biological threat agents in buildings, while simultaneously filtering/neutralizing them,   in order to achieve an effective COLPRO capability sufficient to provide safe areas that prevent infiltration and the spread of contamination.   


DESCRIPTION:  For wide-area fixed infrastructure collective protection, this topic seeks innovative approaches for deployment of rapid sensing and filtration/neutralization of  biological agents, including air purification, for wide area collective protection in indigenous urban landscapes. Current COLPRO fixed infrastructure technologies are limited, and must be designed and built into the structure from the start or as part of a major renovation. Future warfighting challenges will likely entail working within large urban indigenous population centers under threat of biological attack. To sustain operations, U.S. Forces may be required to rapidly convert city block size areas into continuously operated biological collective protection environments. 


Protection of wide areas against biological attack requires timely knowledge of the threat distribution as it arrives on and disperses throughout the scene. This is a historically difficult, and unsolved, problem. Optical standoff detection systems have evolved to the point of being able to discriminate between biological and non-biological particulates in the air. Significant biological background contamination in urban environments leads to unacceptably high false alarm rates. 


Wide area detection with point detection sensors requires distributed sensors that provide a rapid networked response. The placement of robust inexpensive detectors throughout the protected area will insure that some detectors are near the point of release of the biological agent. This approach will provide real time detection and precise localization of biothreats to enable an enhanced response to a biological attack. However, current point detection technologies are limited by high costs. A detailed tradeoff analysis of specificity, time of detection, and cost (as well as size weight and power) will likely be required to design a fieldable sensor network.


Rapid conversion to a collective protection environment needs to occur within 12 hours to 2 days.  Sustainment of continuous operation of wide-area COLPRO environments should be designed for at least 6 months. Innovations are sought to reduce both the timeline to rapidly deploy the capability to sense, neutralize, and reduce infiltration of biological contaminants in office and residential buildings. Additional  technologies to reduce the long-term costs of operating the wide-area COLPRO capability over 6 months or longer should also be included. Application of “smart-building” technology through integration of networked sensing with reactive neutralization using self-decontaminating materials and on-demand air purification is a reasonable Science &Technology option for this topic.   


The proposed approach would develop technologies with the following properties:

1) A basic design architecture for rapid deployment of innovative safe havens that have built-in technologies for sensing and neutralization of biological threats. Key performance metrics include initial setup time of less than 48 hours and subsequent operational stability for at least 6 months.

2) A description of the key technical materials and component necessary to provide and ensure that continuous operations are maintained for a city-block sized collective protection capability.  

3) A proposed prototype testbed approach that would demonstrate the capability.  Identification of any specific opportunities to demonstrate the technologies at Government test sites.


PHASE I:  Determine the feasibility of rapidly deployed wide area COLPRO environments in indigenous urban locations using innovative networked sensing, neutralization, and protection from biological threat agents. Develop the initial design architecture for a wide-area COLOPRO solution. Key components should include sensors with a sensitivity of 1,000 particles per liter of air that provide rapid warning to military personnel of the presence of biological threat agents, within 10 minutes, A simple wireless network architecture should be designed to link sensors to neutralization and protection equipment.   Innovative neutralization technologies should focus on reduction of the presence of contaminants by a factor of at least 5,000, and may include a mix of emerging technologies, such as catalytic surfaces, filtration, and electromagnetic irradiation. Determine the efficacy of COLPRO materials and structures in laboratory tests and down-select to the most promising technology suite for further testing in a realistic environment in Phase II.


PHASE II:  Develop integrated COLPRO technology options, based on Phase I, to provide a demonstration of key components of the COLPRO structures in a realistic environment using simulated data.  Evaluate the performance of each of the COLPRO components separately, with respect to level of protection and reliability. Develop safe haven prototypes and methodology for rapid deployment with the consideration of maintaining a protection factor of at least 5,000, low energy operation, rapid deployment, minimization of logistics burden and reasonable costs to include procurement, installation, operation and maintenance. The following parameters should be addressed to guide this phase of the research beyond the state-of-the art to provide an efficacious  COLPRO capability: (1) rapid deployability- within 12 hours to 2 days; (2) sustainment of operations for at least 6 months; and (3) costs less than $30 per square foot  (compared to the current cost of $100 per square foot) for collective protection in individual buildings.


PHASE III:  Develop and perform a field-demonstration of a prototype COLPRO system with a city-block sized event. Partnership with traditional Department of Defense (DoD) prime contractors is encouraged to facilitate successful transition and integration into operational environments. Analyze the efficacy of the prototype Wide Area COLPRO system and determine how to integrate the system into multiple and diverse operational environments, based on lessons learned from the field demonstration. Analyze cost-performance trade-offs for low-cost survivability enhancement. 


PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS: The Wide Area COLPRO technology to be developed should be applicable across DoD, as well as in non-DoD environments to include DHS, EPA, and international markets, including  protective self decontaminating coatings for vehicles in CBN environments. This technology is also expected to spawn spin-off application to use in hospitals.



1. Ramadurai, D., E. Norton, J. Hale, J. W. Garland, L. D. Stephenson, M. A. Stroscio, S. Sivananthan, and Ashok Kumar, “FRET Based Detection of Biological Contaminants through Hybrid Quantum Dot-Quencher Interactions”  IET Na-nobiotechnology, Volume 2 (2008), Issue 2, pp 47-53.


2. United States Patent No. US 7,452,951 B2: “ Multifunctional Self-Decontaminating Surface Coating"

Inventors: James H. Wynne, Joanne M. Jones-Meehan, Arthur W. Snow, Leonard J. Buckley (2008).


3. R. F. Huang, et. al., "Development and Evaluation of an Air-Curtain Fume Cabinet with Considerations of its Aerodynamics." in Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Vol. 51, No. 2, (2007) pp. 189-206.


4. Steven J. Slayzak, et. al. “Using Liquid Desiccant as a Regenerable Filter for Indoor Environmental Quality and Security," Journal of Aerosol Science, (2003) pp. 1088-1110.


5. Harrison K. Horning, "Performance Assessment of the DDG-51 Collective Protection System,"

Naval Engineers Journal, Vol.  106, No. 2 (1994) pp. 118-125.


KEYWORDS: Collective Protection (COLPRO), Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) protection, Smart Building, barrier materials, self-decontaminating materials/coatings, networked sensors, curtain entry portals, advanced filtration




A11-103                             TITLE: Use rHSPs as Bio-modulator to Promote Healing of Soft Tissue Injuries




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: Determine efficacy of topical treatments that increase extracellular or intracellular recombinant heat shock proteins (rHSPs) to promote healing of soft tissue injuries. Provide, formulate and commercialize recombinant products that can be topically applied on the surface of complex wounds to promote wound healing. The safety and efficacy of the products should be validated in a wound model.


DESCRIPTION: Open wounds account for a high proportion of wounded in action casualties, including a rate of 40.2% in Operation Iraqi Freedom (1). Wound healing is a complex process in which products of tissue damage result in homeostasis, recruitment of inflammatory cells to remove dead cells and debris, kill colonizing microorganisms and initiate tissue repair (2). Battlefield wound management focuses on irrigation, debridement of devitalized tissue and drainage of accumulating inflammatory fluid. Administration of short-course, narrow-spectrum antimicrobial therapy may supplement these measures and further reduce bacterial contamination (3). Development of additional readily forward-deployable therapeutic measures to enhance wound healing could reduce morbidity and promote earlier restoration to health and return to duty. Successful wound healing requires appropriate bio-modulation of all phases of the process, including counter regulatory mechanisms that reduce excessive inflammation and allow repair to proceed. Numerous endogenous events, including impaired tissue oxygenation due to systemic effects or local vascular compromise, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and poor drainage of inflammatory debris can disrupt tissue repair. HSPs, a group of stress-induced proteins that are present in all eukaryotic cells, play important roles including enhanced signaling at the time of wounding, counter regulation of inflammatory response at the end of the cleanup phase and mitigation of lethality induced by microbial products, including endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from Gram-negative bacteria and other cell-wall components from Gram-positive bacteria. Current results indicate that direct application of recombinant HSP-90alpha to mouse skin wounds improves the rapidity of wound healing (4). Systemic treatment of wounded mice with HSP-70 also enhanced healing (5). Our unpublished data also indicate that increased expression of local HSP-70 after soft tissue injury accelerates wound healing. It is necessary to validate the therapeutic effect of HSPs in healing of soft tissue injuries and formulate final products for clinical application.


Desired Capability: The mission of this SBIR is to validate the effect of topical wound treatment with recombinant HSP constructs to increase intracellular or/and extracellular HSPs on wound healing in vivo. The products used for the topical treatment may be recombinant heat shock proteins or gene therapy to induce wound over-expression of HSPs. The products are required to be commercialized. Successful demonstration of a beneficial therapeutic effect, safety and the availability of pertinent reagents, methods and wound models used for evaluate the products will support the feasibility of product development and may lead to rapid transition to advanced development.


PHASE I: The selected contractor determines the feasibility of the concept by 1) developing pertinent reagents (including active compounds and delivery vehicle) that will be used for topical treatments to increase extracellular or/and intracellular rHSPs; 2) establishing an experimental complex wound model by which the pertinent reagents can be investigated for efficacy and safety; and 3) defining the standard procedures and success criteria for validation of the pertinent reagents and demonstrating safety and efficacy in an animal model. By the conclusion of Phase I, the selected contractor must provide the Contracting Officer Representative (COR) with a report describing the pertinent reagents and the animal wound model used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the pertinent reagents. The information from the report will be evaluated and used in the determination of the Phase II awardee.


PHASE II: The work in Phase II will focus on confirmation of the therapeutic efficacy of topical treatment of the pertinent reagents on soft tissue injury. Specific goals for phase II include: 1) Compare the healing rate in a proper complex wound model after post-inury local treatment with the pertinent reagents to increase the levels of extracellular or/and intracellular rHSPs, to assess whether the treatments will accelerate wound healing. 2) Provide sequential histopathologic evidence of wound healing after treatment with the pertinent reagents to confirm reduced inflammation and more rapid tissue repair compared to treatment with proper controls. 3) Provide biochemical evidence that the rHSPs used in the studies function as biomodulators to regulate the wound healing related factors that promote healing of soft tissue injuries. The selected contractor will also conduct stability testing of the prototype products in Phase II in accordance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. Contractor should coordinate in advance with the COR for any support required from the WRAIR.


PHASE III: The therapeutic rHSPs as biomodulators to promote healing of soft tissue injuries developed under this SBIR topic will be suitable for use in a variety of military medical centers or forward deployed. The therapeutic products will also be available for non-military medical purposes worldwide for treatment of traumatic injury. We envision that the contractor that develops the therapeutic will be able to sell and/or market this product to a variety of commercial medical organizations, and that this market will be adequate to sustain continued production of the product.



1. Zouris JM, Wade AL, Magno CP. Injury and illness casualty distributions among U.S. Army and Marine Corps personnel during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Mil Med. 2008; 173:247-52.


2. Tsan MF, Gao B. Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. J Leukoc Biol. 2004; 76:514-9.


3. Murray CK. Infectious disease complications of combat-related injuries. Crit Care Med. 2008; 36:S358-64.


4. Li W, et al. Extracellular heat shock protein-90alpha: linking hypoxia to skin cell motility and wound healing. EMBO J. 2007; 26:1221-33.


5. Kovalchin JT, Wang R, Wagh MS, Azoulay J, Sanders M, Chandawarkar RY. In vivo delivery of heat shock protein 70 accelerates wound healing by up-regulating macrophage-mediated phagocytosis. Wound Repair Regen. 2006; 14:129-37.


KEYWORDS: Heat shock proteins, Wound healing, Soft tissue injuries, Animal model




A11-104                             TITLE: Development of Novel Antimicrobial Drug Targeted to Essential Bacterial Genes Against

Wound Infection Pathogens




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate therapeutic efficacy of a novel class of antimicrobial compounds that target essential bacterial genes against wound infection pathogens Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and commercialize the antimicrobial compounds.


DESCRIPTION: Battlefield wound management focuses on irrigation, debridement of devitalized tissue and drainage of accumulating inflammatory fluid. Administration of short-course, narrow-spectrum antimicrobial therapy may supplement these measures and further reduce bacterial contamination [1]. In complicated wounds, however, nosocomial infections with both drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria can increase morbidity, hospital length of stay and cost. Among these, Acinetobacter baumannii and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers including K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa have become important causes of concern in military personnel wounded during battlefield [1]. These multi-drug resistant pathogens continue to acquire new resistance mechanisms, requiring use of ever more toxic drugs for treatment [2]. New classes of antimicrobial agents are needed to combat this threat; few are in the drug development pipeline. Novel broad-spectrum and species-specific compounds are both needed, as presumptive therapy and for focused treatment of specific resistant organisms. Currently licensed antimicrobial agents block the functional activity of proteins, RNA, or cell wall components. Some of these targets, such as penicillin binding proteins (targeted by cephalosporins and penicillins) are directly involved in synthesis of cell wall or other structural components. Others, such as DNA gyrase (targeted by quinolones), 30S ribosomal subunit (targeted by aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, and macrolides), and 50S ribosomal subunit (targeted by linezolid) are mediators of broader transcriptional or translational processes. The success of ribosome-binding drugs emphasizes the power of nucleic acid targeting to inhibit cell growth, while inhibition of specific enzymes demonstrates the  utility of targeting specific gene products.


We propose a novel combination of these two successful antimicrobial drug strategies: gene silencing by antisense RNA (asRNA) to block intracellular synthesis of housekeeping proteins via inhibition of mRNA (RNAi). Silencing of housekeeping genes (HKGs) would target pathways required to maintain cell integrity. RNAi is effective in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and is the focus of intense efforts to develop drugs for therapy of human diseases. Although bacteria do not have the RISC-mediated RNAi pathway, they use several asRNA strategies to regulate mRNA [3], including steric hindrance, which can inhibit mRNA transcription and ribosomal binding, and nuclease-mediated degradation of double-stranded RNA. RNAi-based antimicrobial drugs targeted at enzymes mediating antibiotic resistance have been recently proposed as an attractive approach for new antimicrobial drug development [4]. Antisense strategies directed against genes encoding microbial enzymes should be feasible alternatives to current therapies, but development must surmount at least four critical challenges. These include selection of optimal gene targets, construction of non-host-toxic, potent and cell-permeable asRNA constructs and developments of methods to stabilize asRNA constructs against destruction by nucleases. Moreover, for intracellular bacteria, drugs must be capable of safe delivery through host cells. Despite these challenges, recent advances in RNAi have provided important tools for stabilization and in vivo delivery of asRNA drugs. These tools include new molecules that resist nucleases, a variety of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), and drug encapsulation strategies.


Desired Capability: The mission of this SBIR is to confirm the essential bacterial genes and validate the therapeutic efficacy of the novel antimicrobial compounds in the topical treatment of wound infection pathogens. Successful demonstration of intrabacterial delivery, stability and safety will support the feasibility of further product development and may lead to rapid transition to advanced development.


PHASE I: The selected contractor determines the feasibility of the concept by 1) defining essential bacterial genes that will be targeted by the antimicrobial compounds; 2) designing rational molecular structure that includes the targets the selected genes and the intrabacterial delivery approach; 3) preparing sufficient quantity of the compounds for Phase II functional evaluation. By the conclusion of Phase I, the selected contractor must provide the Contracting Officer Representative (COR) with a report to explain how they meet the above mentioned requirements and proved they are ready for the Phase II functional evaluation of the antimicrobial compounds. The information from the report will be evaluated and used in the determination of the Phase II awardee.


PHASE II: The selected contractor will focus on successful development of the antimicrobial compounds. Specific goals for phase II include: 1) confirm the penetration activity of the antimicrobial molecules into the bacteria; 2) confirm the intrabacterial stability of the antimicrobial compounds; 3) demonstrate antimicrobial activity of the compounds targeted to selected crucial genes of K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa in vitro. 3) demonstrate therapeutic efficacy and safety of the antimicrobial compounds in a proper animal wound model (pilot, proof of principle) infected with either K. pneumoniae or P. aeruginosa. The selected contractor will also conduct stability testing of the prototype products in Phase II in accordance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. Contractor should coordinate in advance with the COR for any support required from the WRAIR.


PHASE III: The antimicrobial drug against wound infection pathogens developed under this SBIR topic will be suitable for use in a variety of military medical centers worldwide. The therapeutic products will also be available for non-military medical purposes worldwide for treatment of wound infections. We envision that the contractor that develops the therapeutic will be able to sell and/or market this product to a variety of commercial medical organizations, and that this market will be adequate to sustain the continued production of the product.



1. Murray, C. K., Infectious disease complications of combat-related injuries. Crit Care Med 2008. 36: S358-364.


2. Pitout, J. D., Multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae: new threat of an old problem. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2008. 6: 657-669.


3. Rasmussen, L. C., Sperling-Petersen, H. U. and Mortensen, K. K., Hitting bacteria at the heart of the central dogma: sequence-specific inhibition. Microb Cell Fact 2007. 6: 24.


4. Woodford, N. and Wareham, D. W., Tackling antibiotic resistance: a dose of common antisense? J Antimicrob Chemother 2009. 63: 225-229.


KEYWORDS: Novel antimicrobial drug, Essential bacterial genes, Wound infection pathogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Safety, Therapeutic efficacy




A11-105                             TITLE: Blood Purification for Organ Failure




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: To develop and/or evaluate a convenient, efficient, extracorporeal blood purification therapy to address cytokine storm and rhabdomyolysis in trauma and crush injuries that can lead to multi-organ dysfunction or failure.


DESCRIPTION: Polytrauma caused by blasts, crush injuries, burns, and penetrating wound injuries is a leading cause of combat related casualties.  If victims survive the initial insult, they are at high risk of complications such as infection and multi-organ failure in the days to weeks following the injury, with particular risk for respiratory, cardiovascular and renal failure. When all three systems are affected, 67% die, compared to 32% with 2 organs compromised, or less than 5% with only 1 organ impacted.1 Thus, the prevention, reduction or treatment of organ failure could result in substantial improvements in patient survival. However, in this post-stabilization and resuscitation period, current standard of care treatment is limited and predominantly supportive care, and not specifically targeted at the underlying causes of organ failure. Two major causes of organ failure, in particular, are cytokine storm and rhabdomyolysis.2,3 Trauma and its associated conditions, particularly direct tissue damage, hemorrhagic and hypovolemic shock, infection, massive blood transfusion, ischemia and reperfusion injury, are well-documented triggers of excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, HMGB-1, and others) that results in severe inflammatory response syndrome and/or sepsis, leading to organ failure and often death.2,4-9 Anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10, produced in response to this inflammatory surge, then lead to profound immune suppression and a high risk of nosocomial infections such as pneumonia (as high as a 38% incidence in the first week), catheter related infections and others.10-16 In addition, rhabdomyolysis, a result of skeletal muscle crush injury, burn injury and ischemia in trauma, causes massive myoglobinemia that can result in acute renal failure in 10-50% of cases, despite aggressive hydration and urine alkalinization.3,17,18  Extracorporeal blood purification represents a promising approach to eliminating excessive cytokines, myoglobin or other harmful substances from blood. Hemodialysis using high molecular weight cutoff membranes and to a lesser degree, high volume hemofiltration (HVHF), have had some success in cytokine removal in sepsis,19,20 but require either large volumes of either dialysate or replacement fluid, respectively, dedicated hemodialysis machines, and more trained technician oversight. This is logistically challenging, particularly for high patient volume centers, as expected in combat zones or in mass casualty situations. Newer cytokine adsorbent bead-based filters are simpler to use, and could be used with small hemoperfusion pumps with limited monitoring, but have limited available clinical data.22-24 For trauma applications in the military, an ideal technology would be a small, lightweight, rugged hemocompatible device that can remove a broad array of cytokines and myoglobin from blood, only require a simple extracorporeal blood circuit without the need for systemic anticoagulation, not require replacement fluid or dialysate, be easy to implement, require little supervision, and have a long shelf life that is amenable to stockpiling.          


PHASE I: Using an appropriate hemopurification technology that meets the idealized criteria above, the contractor will develop a detailed extracorporeal treatment protocol in a large animal sepsis model in order to demonstrate technology proof-of-concept with the initial treatment, safety evaluation, and baseline cytokine and myoglobin profiles. As the feasibility criteria for Phase I, the contractor is required to demonstrate a robust, safe treatment protocol that complies with IACUC standards. The research plan should contain the concept for the device and supporting preliminary benchtop data with device characteristics to support the hypothesis. 


PHASE II: The contractor will conduct a feasibility study using a large animal model of septic shock or hemorrhagic shock. The primary endpoints of this study will be to demonstrate treatment efficacy with both broad cytokine and myoglobin reduction from the blood of treatment animals compared to control animals. Clinical outcome measures such as mortality benefit, mean arterial blood pressure, and pulse oxygenation are also desired.


PHASE III: The contractor will provide an extracorporeal blood therapy device that can remove cytokines and myoglobin for use in human trauma patients in a pilot trial. The device should meet ISO 10993 biocompatibility and hemocompatibility standards and be compatible with standard hospital dialysis equipment. The contractor will be required to apply for IDE approval from the FDA to run such a trial.  Such a therapeutic device could save lives of trauma victims of combat casualties and be easily adopted in definitive care, combat casualty care and trauma centers around the world.



1. Durham, R.M., et al., Multiple Organ Failure in trauma patients.  J Trauma 2003, 55:608-616.


2. Stensballe, J. et al., The early IL-6 and IL-10 response in trauma is correlated with injury severity and mortality.  Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 2009. 53:515-521.


3. Huerta-Alardin, A. L. et al, Bench-to-bedside review: Rhabdomyolysis – an overview for clinicians.  Critical Care, 2005. 9:158-169.


4. Zhang, Q. et al., Circulating mitochondrial DAMPS cause inflammatory responses to injury.  Nature, 2010. 464: 104-108.


5. Criddle, L. M.  Rhabdomyolysis: Pathophysiology, Recognition, and Management.  Critical Care Nurse, 2003.  23(6):14-30.


6. Haeney, M.R., The role of the complement cascade in sepsis. J Antimicrob Chemother, 1998. 41 Suppl A:41-6.


7. Nguyen, H.B., et al., Severe sepsis and septic shock: review of the literature and emergency department management guidelines. Ann Emerg Med, 2006. 48(1):28-54.


8. Van der Poll, T. and S.F. Lowry, Tumor necrosis factor in sepsis: mediator of multiple organ failure or essential part of host defense? Shock, 1995. 3(1):1-12.


9. Wang, H., et al., HMG-1 as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality in mice. Science, 1999. 285(5425): p. 248-51.


10. Kimura, F., et al., Immunosuppression following surgical and traumatic injury.  Surg Today 2010,   40(9):793-808.


11. Muehlstedt, S.G., et al., Increased IL-10 production and HLA-DR suppression in the lungs of injured patients preced the development of nosocomial pneumonia.  Shock 2002,   17(6):443-450.


12. Muehlstedt, S.G., et al., Cytokines and the pathogenesis of nosocomial pneumonia. Surgery 2001, 130(4):602-609.


13.  Fumeaux, T. and J. Pugin, Role of interleukin-10 in the intracellular sequestration of human leukocyte antigen-DR in monocytes during septic shock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2002. 166(11):1475-82.


14.  Sfeir, T., et al., Role of interleukin-10 in monocyte hyporesponsiveness associated with septic shock. Crit Care Med, 2001. 29(1): p. 129-33.


15. Moore, K.W., et al., Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor. Annu Rev Immunol, 2001. 19:683-765.


16. Munford, R.S. and J. Pugin, Normal responses to injury prevent systemic inflammation and can be immunosuppressive. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2001. 163(2):316-21.


17. Kasaoka, S., et al., Peak value of blood myoglobin predicts acute renal failure induced by rhabdomyolysis.  J Crit Care 2010 May 26, Epub ahead of print


18. Ronco, C., Extracorporeal therapies in acute rhabdomyolysis and myoglobin clearance., Critical Care, 2005. 9:141-142.


19. Haase, M., et al., Hemodialysis membrane with a high-molecular-weight cutoff and cytokine levels in sepsis complicated by acute renal failure: a phase I randomized trial. Am J Kid Dis 2007. 50(2):296-304.


20. Honore, P.M., et al., Prospective evaluation of short-term, high-volume isovolemic hemofiltration on the hemodynamic course and outcome in patients with intractable circulatory failure resulting from septic shock. Crit Care Med, 2000. 28(11): 3581-7.


21. Cole, L., et al., High-volume haemofiltration in human septic shock. Intensive Care Med, 2001. 27(6):978-86.


22. Peng, Z.Y., et al, Effects of hemoadsorption on cytokine removal and short-term survival in septic rats. Crit Care Med, 2008. 36(5):1573-7.


23. Kellum, J.A., et al., Hemoadsorption removes tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10, reduces nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding, and improves short-term survival in lethal endotoxemia. Crit Care Med, 2004. 32(3):801-5.


24. Kobe, Y., et al., Direct hemoperfusion with a cytokine-adsorbing device for the treatment of persistent or severe hypercytokinemia: a pilot study. Blood Purif, 2007. 25(5-6):446-53.


KEYWORDS: organ failure, treatment, blood, purification, hemoperfusion, sepsis, shock




A11-106                             TITLE: Small Molecule Antiviral Agents Against Flaviviruses




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: Identify and develop broad spectrum, small-molecule, antiviral drugs that are safe and effective at protecting against medically important flaviviruses, especially dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses. The eventual drug(s) should be suitable for use as a stand-alone prophylatic/therapeutic or in combination with existing vaccines.


DESCRIPTION: Arthropod-borne flaviviruses including dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE), West Nile (WN) and yellow fever (YF) and the non-arthropod-borne Hepatitis C virus cause extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries (reviewed by Weaver and Reisen, 2010). Therefore, these viruses pose a present and future threat to military operations. Vaccines and mosquito control measures may not be available, or may not be effectively implemented because of cost or practicability. In the case of the most promising candidate dengue vaccine, for example, the time from vaccination to protection is several months to a year, which will limit the product's usefulness in situations requiring a rapid deployment. Fortunately, recent advances in our understanding of flavivirus structure and replication, together with the existence of large databases of chemical compounds, many of which are in the public domain, make antiviral drugs attractive as an alternative countermeasure (e.g., see Noble et al. 2010). This effort can be designed to use existing technology to identify small molecule inhibitors with broad spectrum activity against conserved viral and cellular targets involved in flavivirus replication and pathogenesis (e.g., see Rodenhuis-Zybert et al. 2010; Paranjape and Harris, 2010; Pastorino et al., 2010). Potentially important viral targets for consideration include the flavivirus NS5 RNA methyltransferase (5'-capping enzyme) with its highly conserved hydrophobic pocket (Liu et al., 2010), The RNA-dependant RNA polymerase (Puig-Basagoiti et al., 2009), and the NS2A-NS3 protease complex responsible for post-translational cleavage of the viral polyprotein, key residues of which are involved in substrate recognition and activation (Erbel et al., 2006). Initial screening of large compound libraries can be quickly performed 'in silico' by quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis and pharmacophore modeling based on known antiviral compounds to identify new antivirals (e.g., Tomlinson et al., 2009; Luzhkov et al., 2007; Podvinec et al., 2010). This can be followed by rapid, high-throughput bioassays, like those already published for measuring activities of the dengue virus methyltransferase (Luzhkov et al., 2007) and protease (Mueller et al., 2008). Candidate antivirals identified by in vitro screening can then be tested for their effectivness at inhibiting viral replication in cell cultures using as targets minimally passaged, near wild-type virus isolates for dengue, live-attenuated vaccine viruses for JE and YF, or viral replicons for dengue and West Nile (Masse et al., 2010; Maeda et al., 2008) in assays that have as readouts virus plaques (e.g., Hayden et al., 1980), infectious foci, or, in the case of replicons, signals generated from intracellular bio-markers such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed from recombinant viruses (Masse et al.,2010). Drugs that demonstrate a sufficiently high antiviral activity:cytotoxicity index can be advanced to testing in mouse and non-human primate infection models that have been used successfully for pre-clinical testing of flavivirus vaccines (e.g., Putnak et al., 1996; 2005) in order to assess their efficacy, toxicology, bio-availability, and safety profiles, with the most promising candidates being advanced for testing under IND in a Phase 1 clinical trial. A safe and robust human challenge model developed at WRAIR for dengue serotypes 1 and 3 is a potentially useful tool for directly establishing drug efficacy in man following successful Phase 1 safety studies.


PHASE I: Develop an antiviral screening assay(s) and screening plan designed to test as many compounds as possible for inhibitory activity against flavivirus targets. The screening plan must be coupled with a sufficiently large compound library. The decision whether to proceed to Phase II will be made by the government based on successful development of a comprehensive screening plan, working assays, and a compound library.


PHASE II: Screen as many compounds as possible, prioritizing first on dengue and West Nile viruses and secondly on Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses. Government will decide the most promising compounds based on demonstrated broad spectrum antiviral activity in the screening assay.


PHASE III: Perform validation testing in an appropriate animal model of the best candidate(s) emerging from the screening performed in Phase II, for activity against the three most important flaviviruses, dengue, West Nile and JE, to demonstrate broad-spectrum efficacy. If safe and effective in the animal models, produce antiviral drug lots for a Phase 1 clinical trial under GMP. Establish lot-to-lot consistency with at least three different lots. Perform all necessary preclinical potency and safety testing of the lots. Submit the IND and human use protocol for approvals. Perform a clinical trial to determine safety and suitability for transitioning to advanced development. Start first with a therapeutic indication. The most likely path to achieving operational capability will be through partnership with industry. Commercial applications include a therapeutic drug to treat infected individuals, and in cases where no vaccine is available or feasible, a prophylactic drug for soldiers and travelers to endemic areas, and a drug that can be used to stop epidemics. A successful drug could be used by the military to treat disease or prevent disease during short to intermediate term deployments.



1. Erbel et al. 2006. Structural basis for the activation of flaviviral NS3 proteases from dengue and West Nile virus. Nature Struct and Molec Biol


2. Hayden et al. 1980. Plaque inhibition assay for drug susceptibility testing of influenza viruses. Antimicrb Agents and Chemother 17:865-870.


3. Liu et al. 2010. Structural and functional analyses of a conserved hydrophobic pocket of flavivirus methyltransferase. J Biol Chem 285:32586-32595.


4. Luzhkov et al. 2007. Virtual screening and bioassay study of novel inhibitors for dengue virus mRNA cap (nucleoside-2 O)-methyltransferase. Bioorganic Medicinal Chem 15:7795-7802.


5. Maeda et al. 2008. A PCR-based protocol for generating West Nile replicons. J Virol Methods 148:244-252.


6. Masse et al. 2010. Dengue virus replicons: production of an interserotypic chimera and cell lines from different species, and establishment of a cell-based fluorescent assay to screen inhibitors, validated by the evaluation of ribavirin's activity. Antiviral Res 86:296-305.


7. Mueller et al. 2008. Identification and biochemical characterization of small molecule inhibitors of West Nile virus serine protease by a high-throughput screen. Antimicrb Agents and Chemother 52:3385-3393.


8. Noble et al. 2010. Strategies for development of dengue virus inhibitors. Antiviral Res 85:450-462.


9. Paranjape and Harris. Control of dengue virus translation and replication. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 338:15-34.


10. Pastorino et al. 2010. Role of host factors in flavivirus infection: implications for pathogenesis and development of antiviral drugs. Antiviral Res 87:281-294.


11. Podvinec et al. 2010. Novel inhibitors of dengue virus methyltransferase: discovery by in vitro-driven virtual screening on a computer desktop grid. J Med Chem 53:1484-1495.


12. Puig-Basagoiti et al. 2009. Identification and characterization of inhibitors of West Nile virus. Antiviral Res 83:71-79.


13. Putnak et al. 2005. An evaluation of dengue type-2 inactivated, recombinant subunit, and live-attenuated vaccine candidates in the rhesus macaque model. Vaccine 23:4442-4452.


14. Putnak et al. 1996. A purified, inactivated dengue-2 virus vaccine prototype made in fetal rhesus lung (FRhL-2) cells is immunogenic in mice. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55:504-510.


15. Rodenhuis-Zybert et al. 2010. Dengue virus life cycle: viral and host factors modulating infectivity. Cell Mol Life Sci 67:2773-2786.


16. Tomlinson et al. 2009. Structure-based discovery of dengue virus protease inhibitors. Antiviral Res 82:110-114.


17. Weaver and Reisen. 2010. Present and future arboviral threats. Antiviral Res 85:328-345.


KEYWORDS: Antiviral drugs, broad-spectrum, flaviviruses, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile virus, Force Protection, Soldier Health




A11-107                             TITLE: Archive of Samples for Long-term Preservation of RNA and Other Nucleic Acids




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: The Army has archived sera (currently stored at -30°C) from soldiers pre/post deployment for more than 20 years, however, this sample type cannot be used for most molecular approaches and was initially designed as an HIV test (protein antibody detection). New approaches are sought for sample preservation of nucleic acids from blood products or other sample for storage at near-room temperature conditions.


Preservation of archived pre/post deployment samples for nucleic acid characterization has the potential to aid in determining if post deployed soldiers might be destined for full-blown Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) or other "hidden" insult. The pair of pre/post deployment samples have the capability to determine onset of PTSD related to multiple deployments. The number of medical applications is endless and could relate to exposures to "burn pits", CBRNE, toxins or other environmental irritants.


DESCRIPTION: The Military has a pre/post deployment sera bank and millions of samples are stored in -30C freezers at a considerable cost. However, archived sera is limited in usefulness since nucleic acids are essentially absent and obtained only from broken cells during the process of preparation and storage of the sera. Twenty years ago when the bank was established, high-throughput molecular techniques were only on the horizon. In this day and age, lack of nucleic acid from pre/post deployment, is a critical shortfall. However, conventional storage of RNA species would require -80 C freezers, an impractical and expensive proposition, since we expect housing millions of samples. New technologies are being explored for preservation of RNA under near-room temperature conditions using dehydrating conditions, and other approaches. Additionally, storage of sample from skin, rather than blood, may or may not be a desirable alternative (due to a possible decrease in nucleic acid lytic enzymes in skin samples).


The potential uses of the stored pre/post samples is endless. Claims for exposures from any source might be able to be assessed, "hidden" illnesses (TBI, PTSD) may be revealed at an earlier, more easily treatable, time frame, eventually illness markers could assist in identifying "false" claims for medical disability, and other applications.



1. Determine preferable tissue for nucleic acid archiving

2. Investigate sample collection protocol, processing, of the selected tissue

3. Initially define key potential aspects of storage conditions for preservation of nucleic acids



1-3. Utilize findings from Phase I as "decision-tree" choices for proceeding.

4. Characterize stability of various types of nucleic acids using conditions discovered.

5. Utilize expertise from materials scientists to optimize storage "containers" to avoid freeze/thaw cycles, improve "packability" to minimize space requirements, etc. (e.g. "straw-like" storage using tubing with optimal properties for preservation, searing at set intervals so that a sample can be removed without thawing the entire sample).

6. Estimate the cost for collecting, processing and storing 1 million samples.


PHASE III: Make a prototype system and replicate the procedure one would use in setting up storage for 1 million samples to preserve nucleic acid entities from pre/post deployment samples.


The capability that such an archive of viable nucleic acid material would provide is endless. Diagnostic and/or therapeutic approaches could be readily established from such samples. As is currently done with the HIV testing, specific biomarkers could be routinely assayed as the samples are prepared for storage. This could enable efforts to identify truly ill soldiers early and to be a means to suggest further testing for personnel who might be "overstating" a potential illness.


* General accelerated aging theory:  The rate of a chemical reaction increases with temperature. A conservative generalization based on the Arrhenius equation states that reaction rates double with every 10°C increase in temperature. For example, a sample left at ambient room temperature (15-25°C) for 5 years would have the same level of degradation as a sample placed at 50°C for 37.5 weeks. The application of the Arrhenius equation enables different scenarios for accurate accelerate product aging and establish the validity of shelf life claims.


Accelerated aging studies: A temperature increase of 10°C corresponds to a twofold increase in shelf life. For example, DNA stored at 40°C for 2 years corresponds to an equivalent storage time of 8 years at 20°C.



1. Hammond, J.A. and S.R. Head. 2006. Expression profiling of glycosyltransferases and related enzymes using gene microarrays. Methods Enzymol. 416:141-156.


2. Kasahara, T., T. Miyazaki, H. Nitta, A. Ono, T. Miyagishima, T. Nagao, and T. Urushidani. 2006. Evaluation of methods for duration of preservation of RNA quality in rat liver used for transcriptome analysis. J. Toxicol. Sci. 31:509-519.


3. Mutter, G.L., D. Zahrieh, C. Liu, D. Neuberg, D. Finkelstein, H.E. Baker, and J.A. Warrington. 2004. Comparison of frozen and RNALater solid tissue storage methods for use in RNA expression microarrays. BMC Genomics 5:88.


4. Crowe, J.H., J.F. Carpenter, and L.M. Crowe. 1998. The role of vitrification in anhydrobiosis. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 60:73-103.


5. Gilberto E. Hernandez, Tony S. Mondala, and Steven R. Head. DNA Array Core Facility, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA. Assessing a novel room-temperature RNA storage medium for compatibility in microarray gene expression analysis BioTechniques 47:667-670 (August 2009) doi 10.2144/000113209


6.  Bruce Budowle1,2 and Angela van Daal3. 1Department of Forensic and Investigative Genetics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Ft. Worth, TX, USA, 2Institute of Investigative Genetics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Ft. Worth, TX, USA, and 3Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Extracting evidence from forensic DNA analyses: future molecular biology directions. BioTechniques 46:339-350 (April 2009 Special Issue) doi 10.2144/000113136


7.  SBS: Society for Biomolecular Sciences; § Hemmerich, K.J. (1998) General Aging Theory and Simplified Protocol for Accelerated Aging of Medical Devices. Medical Device Link


KEYWORDS: Nucleic acid preservation, ambient, materials chemistry for sample storage, long-term storage of nucleic acids




A11-108                             TITLE: Development of Flowable Biomaterials that Promote Wound Healing with Infection

Control and Prevention




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: Develop a flowable biomaterial based wound treatment that promotes healing while providing antimicrobial infection control. 


DESCRIPTION:  The majority of combat wounded from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan survived injuries due in large part to better body armor, equipment, medic and corpsmen training and faster evacuation. Surprisingly though these advances have reduced mortality, they have not dramatically changed historical wound injury patterns. These data suggest that it is likely that future conflicts will require the aggressive management of wound treatment at the point of injury because delayed treatments result in more complex wounds and greater complications. One of the keys to decreasing morbidity is to control and prevent infections in common combat injuries. Though the total number of infections complications in wounded service personnel from OIF and OEF is not known, several studies have reported casualties with co-morbid infections of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.


The current standard of care to prevent co-morbid injury infection is the administration of antimicrobial agents, aggressive surgical debridement, and wound irrigation done either at the forward surgical units or later at a fixed medical facility. Additionally it is currently recommended that wound closure be delayed in combat environments due to high risk of infection. This delay in wound closure in combat environments has resulted in a need to develop a wound treatment that is self administered at the point of injury, functional immediately upon application, reduce blood loss, provide broad spectrum antimicrobial infection control and promote healing. 


PHASE I:  Design a biomaterial based concept for wound healing and demonstrate infection control using appropriate in vitro assays. Required Phase I deliverables include design and engineering of the candidate material and the determination of the feasibility for wound healing using standard methods.  Initial prototypes and proof of principle tests of the material’s ability to control gram-negative and/or gram-positive infections using standard in vitro microbiological tests must be demonstrated. No animal or human use testing is to be proposed or executed during this 6-month Phase I period.


PHASE II:  Injuries to US military personnel often result in large tissue avulsion and/or severe burn. The proposed treatment should demonstrate and validate the efficacy of the material from Phase I in an in vivo model that replicates significant tissue damage (e.g. skin, muscle, bone) or a burn injury. The safety of the material in combination with the infection control agent must be demonstrated with respect to biocompatibility, toxicity and immunogenicity. The ideal material would be flowable such that it could conform to any wound; this includes liquids, gels, bandages and other dry materials that upon wound contact would conform to the complex topography of the wound bed. The product should be self-administrable in the field, functional immediately upon application, potentially reduce blood loss and prevent or reduce infection. In addition, the product should be easily removed (i.e. dressing changed) without causing damage to the wound bed or left in place (i.e. biodegradable). The product also needs to be shelf stable for long periods of time at all likely temperatures experienced in austere combat environments. All these requirements must be demonstrated during Phase II period.


PHASE III: The overall goal of this program will be to finalize all pre-clinical testing and validation of a material that can receive regulatory approval. Phase III of this program will consist of clinical trials designed to produce a product with the appropriate indications for use such that it can be used as a wound healing agent in a combat environment while providing infection control. Phase III efforts should be focused towards technology transition, preferably commercialization of SBIR research and development. Efforts leading to FDA approval require execution of Phase II plans on commercialization and regulatory pathway, including identifying relevant patient population for clinical testing to evaluate safety and efficacy and GMP manufacturing of sufficient materials for evaluation. The small business should have in plans to secure funding from non-SBIR government sources and /or the private sector to develop or transition the prototype into a viable product for sale in the military and/or private sector markets. 



1) Murray CK, Wilkins K, Molter NC, Yun HC, Dubick MA, Spott MA, Jenkins D, Eastridge B, Holcomb JB, Blackbourne LH, Hospenthal DR. Infections in combat casualties during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom.  J Trauma 2009;66(4 Suppl):S138-44


2) Mazurek MT, Ficke JR. The scope of wounds encountered in casualties from the global war on terrorism: from the battlefield to the tertiary treatment facility. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2006;

14:S18 –S23.


3) Aronson NE, Sanders JW, Moran KA. In harm’s way: infections in deployed American military forces. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1045–1051.


4) Murray CK, Hospenthal DR, Holcomb JB. Antibiotics use and selection at the point of injury in tactical combat casualty care for casualties with penetrating abdominal injury, shock, or unable to tolerate an oral agent. J Special Op Med. 2005;5:56–61.


5) Dufour D, Jensen SK, Owen-Smith M, et al. Surgery for Victims of War. 2nd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: The International Committee of the Red Cross; 1998.


KEYWORDS: Biomaterials, infection control, hemorrhage control, conformable dressing, wound healing, extremity injury




A11-109                             TITLE: Advanced Composite Insoles for the Reduction of Stress Fractures




ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: To develop a composite boot orthotic that will decrease the risk of musculoskeletal overuse injuries and increase ambulatory performance by reducing loading rates, while increasing energy storage and energy return.


DESCRIPTION: Musculoskeletal injuries of the lower legs are a primary problem in military populations. Injury rates during military training range from 1-16%, and up to 30% in elite infantry units (1). Specific injuries include stress syndrome, muscle sprains, ankle sprains, knee pain, and metatarsal stress fractures (2). Some of the risk factors associated with high injury rates include high running mileage and high amounts of weekly exercise, both examples of movements where an individual is exposed to high repetitive impact forces.


Footwear selection plays a major role in the injury risk of the musculoskeletal system. Current military boot applications require stiff thick sole and midsole materials to protect from puncture wounds. Heavy rubber and rigid polyurethane foams are used in most military boots. Under impact testing, military footwear (jungle and leather combat boots) has been shown to have less shock-absorbing capabilities than traditional footwear (3). As a result, extra layers of soft foam have been needed in boots as insoles to reduce repetitive impact shock and stress fractures. Although these materials provide some protection against excessive impact, they also increase the weight and height of the footwear. An increase in boot height can have a negative effect on balance and increase peak pressures in sensitive areas of the foot, both which can increase the risk of injury. An increase in boot weight will speed up the onset of fatigue on an individual, again increasing the risk of injury through the increase of inadvertent falls as a result of a Warfighter’s failing to lift their feet to avoid obstacles on an uneven terrain. In summary, the current military boot contains a cushioning system which causes excessive stress on the metatarsal heads, ankle and knee joints. Efforts to mitigate this lack of cushioning increase the weight of the boot (4), which can be correlated to increased fatigue, which can lead to inadvertent falls and more injuries.


The challenge is to find an innovative solution that will decrease the risk of musculoskeletal overuse injuries and increase ambulatory performance by reducing loading rates, while increasing energy storage and energy return. Advanced lightweight composite materials, such as carbon fibre and Kevlar have proven to protect our vehicles and soldiers as shielding and personal body armour. The objective is to develop and test advanced composite orthotic designs that will reduce loading rates, while increasing energy storage and energy return, all while lowering the overall weight of the footwear.


PHASE I: Phase I will include multiple concept designs and development of a working orthotic and synergistic “boot housing.” The prototype will be supported with an analysis of the predicted biomechanical performance benefits, such as the reduction of internal load and the increased energy return of the orthotic. Performance considerations for the orthotic should include: 1) outperforming ASTM  F2412-05 puncture standards; 2) reducing outsole and midsole weight of combat boots by >10%; 3) reducing injury risk by >10%; 3) a significant decrease in oxygen consumption; 4) be fire retardant; and 5) increase subjective comfort ratings by 10% when compared to traditional combat boot. Phase I will also include a feasibility evaluation that will address practical factors, such as useful life expectancy of the orthotic, and manufacturing costs.


PHASE II: Finalize Phase I design and perform multiple biomechanical evaluations of the different prototypes, which may result in revisions to the prototype. Specific biomechanical testing will include: 1) muscle activation (EMG); 2) kinetics & kinematics (e.g., joint angles, angular displacements, and moments); 3) pressure distribution; 4) oxygen consumption (VO2); 5) impulse; 6) comfort; and 7) impact testing. Revised prototypes will be further assessed using biomechanical methods for validation and functional effectiveness. A prospective study will also be executed to add credibility to the reduction of injury risk claims. Sourcing solutions for mass production should also be validated in this Phase.


PHASE III: The end result of Phase-I/Phase-II research efforts will validate applications and further develop synergistic orthotic boot coverings (uppers and soles). The advanced orthotic system and accompanying boot and shoe systems will be integrated into the current service uniforms for the military and paramilitary government entities including all branches of the military, Homeland Security, fire and police departments, and NASA. The commercial applications will continue with incorporation of orthotic technology in prosthetics, braces, and crutch systems used for the treatment of neurologic and diabetic wounds by the Veterans Administration and general public.



1. Kenton R. Kaufman PhD, Stephanie Brodine MD, and Richard Shaffer PhD. Military training-related injuries: Surveillance, research, and prevention.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Volume 18, Issue 3, Supplement 1, April 2000, Pages 54-63.


2. Hinz P, Henningsen A, Matthes G, Jäger B, Ekkernkamp A, Rosenbaum D. Analysis of pressure distribution below the metatarsals with different insoles in combat boots of the German Army for prevention of march fractures. Gait Posture. 2008 Apr;27(3):535-8.


3. Williams, Karen M. ; Brodine, S. K. ; Shaffer, R. A. ; Hagy, J. ; Kaufman, K. NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA. Biomechanical Properties of Infantry Combat Boot Development. National technical Information Service, US department of Commerce, 1997.


4. 2000: Stefanyshyn D J; Nigg B M, Energy aspects associated with sport shoes.

Sportverletzung Sportschaden : Organ der Gesellschaft für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin 2000;14(3):82-9.


KEYWORDS: Combat Boots, Advanced Composite Materials, Injury Risk, Energy Return, Biomechanics, Stress Fractures




A11-110                             TITLE: Ultraviolet Communication for Medical Applications


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


OBJECTIVE: To meet a critical need for a secure, encrypted, HIPPA compliant wireless system that links medical devices, that is not easily detectable in a battlefield environment and has a high data rate communication link for tactical battlefield casualty management. This project will determine the efficacy of an ultraviolet based wireless system that provides a wireless connection; permitting medical devices to transmit medical data back and forth to a medic’s PDA type device that can be used in both inside and outside a ground or air vehicles, while not interfering with or consuming tactical radio frequency bandwidth. This research will also address safety concerns surrounding the use of ultraviolet technology for communications.


DESCRIPTION:  Existing wireless medical devices utilize communication solutions based on radio frequency signaling, such as Bluetooth or Zigbee. The other alternative technology, Ultra Wideband (UWB) has had some limited success in adoption, needing a specialized antenna. As medical equipment develop, more medical facilities are turning to a wireless solution, but unfortunately these wireless approaches using radio frequencies can be detected and intercepted beyond the intended range which leads to a security vulnerability. Current security approaches utilize encryption but this only addresses the information content of messages and not the detectability of signals. UWB radio technology does reduce the probability of signal detection and interception, but it is also susceptible to interference from other signals in the environment since the UWB receiver is wide open to cover a large spectrum of frequencies.  UWB system operations are impacted by the use of other proximate radio hardware.


With the recent push for wireless medical devices to eliminate the wires as an entanglement hazard while transporting the casualty via ground or air. Wireless medical device will greatly enhance a medic’s ability to monitor multiple patients from one screen, plus provide the medic the ability to move freely about the vehicle. The current medical devices using radio frequency signaling have this capability disabled for the operationally forward deployed battlefield use and transport. This approach leads medics to resort to wired medical device connections to monitor the casualties’ physiological vital signs which return to wire entanglement issues.


Medical devices that use Ultraviolet communication is well matched in providing a solution for short-range, high data, non-line-of-sight links between wireless nodes that will permit use, both inside and outside the ground or air vehicles, while not interfering with or consuming tactical radio frequency bandwidth.  Ultraviolet signal detection is different from conventional radio frequencies. The approaches is to address Ultraviolet wireless communications without using radio frequency signaling can utilize other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.


There is a need for secure wireless medical systems that work in the high multipath environments of military medical vehicle interiors and exteriors to support the army medical mission. Ultraviolet communication can be integrated with existing military wireless medical devices providing the medic better flexibility to monitor multiple casualties from any location without interfering with tactical frequencies and creating an electronic signature.


PHASE I: This research will examine the propagation characteristics and transmitted signal duration to determine the required Ultraviolet power transmitter levels and system data rates. This will include the development of a Breadboard and a Whitepaper report that describes in detail the lessons learned and lays the foundation for a system design. Phase I will also provide current summarization of known previous DoD work accomplished to exploit free space communications via ultraviolet radiation. In addition, safety factors peculiar to ultraviolet radiation in a closed cockpit environment.  More information on safety can be found at Standard: IEC 60825-12:2005, Safety of laser products - Part 12: Safety of free space optical communication systems used for transmission of information.


PHASE II: Phase II will examine the development of a prototype system design: to develop the protocols for medical data transmission at the physical layer, mount on medic personnel, divide the channel data to support multiple separate intercom networks and users per network in the medium access control and network layers, and finally demonstrate a proof of concept or basic prototype.


PHASE III: The Military depends on reliable, secure communications to connect with the warfighter.  Since there have been very few attempts to utilize the UV for communications applications, the basic prototype solution will first examine the propagation of UV with army medical vehicles and demonstrate this technology as part of an operation test. The outcome of this test will be used as a validation decision for future integration with military and or civilian systems.  Phase III will provide validation that safety regulations are enforced.



1) LEOS article – Ultraviolet Comm Links for distributed sensor systems.


2) IEEE Xplore article – high data rate ultraviolet communication systems for the tactical battlefield.


3) The Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System article – Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks.


4) SPIE Digital Library – Recent progress in short range ultraviolet communication.


5) ARO/ARL Workshop on Ultraviolet devices and communication systems held on 23 Apr 08 at UM, College Park, MD.


6) Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematic article – communication in the Ultraviolet.


7) Convert communication system using ultraviolet light – patent 5307194.


8) Ultraviolet Non-Line of Site Digital Communications by Aaron Stark, BSEE Cedarville University, 1995.


9) Approximate Performance Analysis of Wireless Ultraviolet Links.- Zhengyuan Xu.  University of California,


KEYWORDS: Ultraviolet, Ultra Wide Band, Wireless, Communication, Military, Intercom, Radio, Secure, Vehicle, Multipath, non-detectable




A11-111                             TITLE: Battlefield Medical Situational Awareness Goggles (Human Computer Interface)


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Office of the Principal Assistant for Acquisition


OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate and improve upon the integration of embedded optical see-through display technology to enhance situational awareness. This solution will investigate advanced techniques to provide situational awareness that incorporates a projected heads-up display technology to cue electronic medical records (EMR). The optical device will need to interact and interface with the tactical internet.


DESCRIPTION: Emergency, trauma care and disaster response teams are faced with the challenge of viewing electronic medical records (EMR) and documenting quality procedural notes while providing effective and accurate care to the injured. A standard mobile and hands-free telemedicine platform that provides real-time medical data and documentation tools does not exist. Once connected to the tactical internet via tactical communications available, the user can exchange text, imagery, and other data with others on the battlefield.


This solution will improve upon the human computer interface in the mobile environment and interface with auxiliary communication and data collection devices. This will specifically address the Human Computer Interface (HCI) to provide the capability required by combat medics as well as EMTs. This effort will focus on operational functionality. Future phases will deliver a fully functional and operational system that satisfies the headgear requirements of the Future Force Warrior and Land Warrior requirements within five years. This technology will interface with CHCS and AHLTA and deliver an EMR data response in multimedia formats including, but not limited to animation, text, video, and voice and facilitate real-time telementoring/tele-consultation from theater.


Although, different solutions have been explored in the past and the lesson learned is that no single solution meets all of the needs and provides the best solution from this multi-faceted environment.


The Army does not anticipate a medic looking through a set of heads-up display goggles and reading a medical record while trying to provide advanced medical care during time sensitive situations or while “under fire.” During these situations, the medic will rely on their training to save a casualties life; the Heads-up display goggles will allow the medic to document the care already performed and if a situation allows; the ability to review certain medical procedures before starting.


PHASE I: Develop a breadboard solution and a White Paper that will need to address these challenges and tactical concept of operations; this project will investigate the feasibility of a "fully integrated", operational prototype that demonstrates the integration of embedded optical see-through display technology to enhance situational awareness. This mobile hands-free solution will specifically address the Human Computer Interface (HCI) to provide the capability required by combat medics as well as EMTs. This effort will focus on operational functionality feasibility. One example of this “human factor” is the development or usage of night vision capabilities in a small form factor and with color night vision capabilities while, at the same time, reducing the power requirements of the optics system, overall


The head-worn telemedicine intervention, will equip medics with the ability to accurately retrieve clinical information and provide a “heads-up” type approach for real-time assistance. This information will be obtained from the Medic training school in San Antonio and made available to the system.  Additionally, this technology will interoperate with a system that has the ability to access and document medical care and patient notes to and from an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system. Any specific interventions that must be entered into the medical record will be obtained from DHIMS.


This integrated solution will have the capability to provide situational awareness as well as medical and environmental knowledge that can be used to effectively manage and respond to the crisis at hand.


This integration will be accomplished by a software information exchange layer. This will provide a software subsystem to assist combat medics quickly voice-retrieve critical medical procedures/cognitive aids for life-threatening critical conditions such as penetrating head trauma, traumatic brain injury, exsanguinations (bleeding) from extremity wounds, tension pneumothorax, subdural hematoma, among other procedures and other airway problems as an example of one scenario.


PHASE II: Transition the developed platform into a Prototype delivery ready for limited controlled field testing. This will include the capability to interoperate with heterogeneous databases of medical information to effectively retrieve medical information as well as enhance the documentation of medical encounters through a hands-free interface. Develop a commercialization transition plan.


PHASE III: Delivery of field tested prototype that meets the following advanced criteria:


- Further miniaturize the headset to decrease the size and weight of the goggles.

- A long lasting and more efficient rechargeable battery will be incorporated providing up to 8 hours of continuous use. A threshold of 4 hours will be used for the evaluation criteria.

- An intuitive hands-free interface and see-through augmented reality graphical user interface to improve the cognitive performance of the combat medic.

- Mini GPS and inertia sensors will be investigated and integrated if possible to provide location awareness information to navigate and locate injured persons.

- Incorporate ruggedized features while maintaining comfort and safety.


This technology has many different applications. Use by a combat medic has been discussed. This technology is also appropriate for training simulations as well as inpatient care and operating at a Military Treatment Facility. Through augmented reality integrated during procedures, doctors could increase their workload while maintaining quality.


Military priorities are linked to national strategies. Whenever we can develop a military solution that will also address a national requirement, that effort will help pave the way for the future. The institute of Medicine (IOM) recently published a report that identified the top national priorities for comparative effectiveness research. Among these included a need to Compare the effectiveness of alternative redesign strategies—using decision support capabilities, electronic health records, and personal health records—for increasing health professionals’ compliance with evidence-based guidelines and patients’ adherence to guideline-based regimens for chronic disease care. This proposal will allow a wider selection for alternative strategies. The IOM also identified a need to compare the effectiveness of care coordination with and without clinical decision supports (e.g., electronic health records) in producing good health outcomes in chronically ill patients, including children with special health care needs. This proposal provides capability for extended clinical decision support tools that will also aid in this IOM identified need. There exists many other such federal directives in which MHIC2 can make a contribution.



1. Military and Aerospace article – Rugged wearable computer with GPS and tactical radio interface for situational awareness introduced by GD Itronix.


2. Digital fusion Goggles – solicitation number H92222-10-dfg for USSOC.


3. Global article – Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System.


4. Doswell, J. “Augmented Learning: Context-Aware Mobile Augmented Reality Architecture for Learning. Workshop: Mobile Technology and Content Delivery in Education. 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. Theme: Advanced Technologies for Life-Long Learning.  Kerkrade, The Netherlands. 2006.


KEYWORDS: Goggles, Hands-Free, interface, communications, Electronic medical record, Mobile, Situational awareness, augmented reality.




A11-112                             TITLE: Water Conditioning System for Sinks and Sanitation Centers




OBJECTIVE: To reduce logistic demand of water by extending the life of wash and rinse waters in mobile sanitation centers.


DESCRIPTION: BACKGROUND/NEED:  The military has a need to reduce the amount of water used and the amount of wastewater generated in the field. Mobile field kitchens and their associated sanitation centers typically convert 240 gallons of potable water per day into waste water which must be processed for disposal on-site (seepage pit) or stored and back-hauled for treatment. Besides the cost of the water ($3.06-$10.84 per gallon) [1], the transportation of water and waste is a high priority problem because of roadside bombs. A health hazard and environmental problem can also arise with seepage pits or if local storage becomes full and overflows.


The mobile sanitation center includes three, 20-gallon sinks to wash, rinse and sanitize cookware held at temperatures of 120F, 140F and 170F respectively. Cookware and utensils are scraped and dunked first in the wash sink, then the rinse sink, then the sanitizing sink. The water is replaced 4 times per day; twice at breakfast and twice at dinner. The disposed water is currently drained through a flocculating oil-skimmer to remove grease and some suspended solids. The kitchen and sanitation center are powered by a 2kW generator, so there is little power available. The sanitation components are also man-portable, stored in a truck and set-up in a tent; therefore, the weight, power and cost are constrained.


Typical field greywater varies widely from meal-to-meal and can border on blackwater with 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5-day) levels between 300 – 3500 mg/L, total suspended solids (TSS) between 50 – 4000 mg/L, fats, oil and grease (FOG) between 20 – 6500 mg/L, total coliforms between 0 – 10500 CFU/100mL and turbidity between 33 – 3100 NTU. A standard greywater “recipe” [2] will be made available that simulates an average of all of these parameters.


DESCRIPTION:  The desired technology is a high flow-rate system that continuously cleans the wash and rinse sink so that the rate of accumulation of BOD and TSS are slowed significantly while dishes are being washed. The system should be able extend the life of the water in the sinks from just a few hours to several days. It is not necessary to make the water potable, although potable water is desired.  Acceptable water will consistently have a turbidity of 5 NTU or less, BOD of 5-day 30 mg/L or less, TSS of 30 mg/L or less, no FOG and no coliforms. A system that treats both the wash and rinse sinks is desired, but a system that treats only the wash sink is acceptable.


While technology exists to clean water, all known systems (e.g., ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, distillation) require too much power, are too large, too heavy, have low flux rates, or are too complex as determined by prior testing [2]. The new technology must be easy to use and assemble, appropriate for mobile field feeding operations and integrate seamlessly with the Food Sanitation Center (FSC). [6]


The item must be lightweight: <130 lbs (<74 lb desired), use no more than 1 kW of power (500 W desired) and be rugged enough to travel as loose cargo in the bed of a 2.5-ton Light Medium Tactical Vehicle (LMTV). The volume of the packed configuration shall be no larger than 1 cubic yard. The cost goal for 1000 systems is <$1000 each. The system must require minimal maintenance and consumable parts, operate in basic hot and cold and be operated by dishwashers who are not technically oriented.  If pre-filters are utilized, reusable filters are preferred. If disposable filters are used, their service life should be no less than three days, but several weeks are preferred. Any disposable items used must be economical, readily available in large quantities and compact, thin or collapsible so that many can be shipped in a small volume. It is preferred to use disposable filters that are already in the supply chain rather than adding an additional item. A requirement for greywater filtration is established in a PM Force Sustainment requirements document [7].


Potential solutions include (but not limited to) combinations of ultrafiltration, microfiltration, nanofiltration, vapor-compression distillation, multi-effect distillation, hydrocyclones, bag filters or multi-stage strainers.


PHASE I: Determine technical feasibility of planned technology. Design and build a proof-of-concept prototype (breadboard prototype) that successfully demonstrates the ability to keep the wash sink clean, weight and cost goals. Identify a specific plan to integrate components, reduce weight and meet all of the design goals. Deliver a final report that specifies how full-scale performance and control requirements will be met in Phase II. The report shall also detail the conceptual design, performance modeling, and safety, mitigation of risk, MANPRINT and estimated production costs.


PHASE II: The goal of Phase II is to deliver a fully functioning prototype that can be readily integrated with the sanitation center. The system must be ruggedized, weatherized, lightweight and easy to set-up and operate. Deliver a final report documenting the theory, design, safety, MANPRINT, component specifications, performance characteristics and any recommendations for future enhancement of the sanitation center.


PHASE III: Refine prototype and tooling for mass production and dual-use applications. Explore military use in mobile field kitchens, command outposts, garrisons, Force Provider camps and commercial applications including restaurants and cafeterias. Other applications could also include household, third-world country and disaster relief depending on the quality of the effluent water.



1. “Sustain the Mission Project: Resource Costing and Cost-Benefit Analysis”; Eady, D., Sielgel, S., Stroup K., Tomlinson, T., Kaltenhauser A., Rivera-Ramerez M.; Army Environmental Policy Institute (AEPI), July 2006.


2. “Portable System for Field-feeding Greywater Remediation and Recycling – Draft Report”; Haering, C.; Natick Soldier Research Development and Engineering Center 2007.




4. “FM 10-23 Basic Doctrine For Army Field Feeding And Class I Operations Management”; Headquarters, Department of the Army, 1996.


5. Code of Federal Regulations § 133.102, Secondary Treatment; Environmental Protection Agency.


6. “TM 10-7360-211-13&P Technical Manual, Operator’s, Unit and Direct Support Maintenance Manual... for Food Sanitation Center (FSC)”; Headquarters, Department of the Army, 1991.


7. Operational Requirements Document (ORD) for Food Sanitation Center (FSC), Paragraph 4.3.4, 2002.


8. Greywater recipe - 20 oz. per 20 gal.

9. Army Field Food Service Manual FM-10-23, 209 pages. (Uploaded in SITIS 6/10/11.)


KEYWORDS: Greywater, filtration, sanitation, mobile kitchens, water recycling, water reduction




A11-113                             TITLE: TIME LANCER


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Electronics


ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO Command, Control and Communications Tactical


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this project is to develop a prototype handheld radio that can provide interference tolerant communications for low rate voice and data to the forwardly deployed soldier by leveraging, recently available, highly accurate clocks such as those from the DARPA Chip Scale Atomic Clock program. A tenet of this SBIR is that highly accurate clocking mechanisms can provide a significant advantage to tactical communication capabilities while simultaneously limiting the ability of an adversary to disrupt the communication.


DESCRIPTION: The ability to have low power, small sized oscillators that can provide atomic clock frequency stability is new. Small size and low power radios are essential for a dismounted soldier.  Given current radio techniques, there are significant radio resources that are committed to maintaining radio synchronization. However, a highly accurate clock provides an opportunity to employ a mutual understanding of time to the benefit of the communicator while providing a deterrence to any interference (intentional or unintentional).


Basic TIME LANCER capabilities are to:


1. provide a bit rate of at least 1 kilobit per second over 10 kilometers in an R4 loss environment with a packet error rate of 1% or less.

2. provide a channel length estimation of 30 meters or less.

3. after getting a GPS clock synchronization, the radio can communicate in a GPS denied environment for 72 hours or more.

4. operate in a peer to peer mode with up to 8 members without any one radio acting as a hub

5. Operate in very low S/N environments

6. size and weight consistent with a soldier – 3lb weight and typical handheld radio form factor.

7. operational goal of 72 hour operation with a 5% transmit duty cycle.


This SBIR will address the development of a flexible and extensible communication capability suitable to low bandwidth and intermittent communication that will enable the Army, Homeland Defense, and other government organizations to operate more effectively as operational needs evolve.


PHASE I: Phase I will be a technical analysis and feasibility study to determine an analytical approach to establishing and defining the basic TIME LANCER system approach. The offeror will identify the challenges and technical barriers to a implementing the TIME LANCER capability. This study will provide a detailed technical description of the approach, expected value, and any assumptions.  It should also include a plan for measuring and demonstrating the value of the proposed approach.


PHASE II: The scope of the Phase II will be to develop a demonstration of the TIME LANCER proposed in Phase I. This demonstration shall show that the proposed TIME LANCER design can meet expected performance capabilities in conditions representative of Army tactical operations.  An appropriate test case will be defined and can be based on either current tactical network systems or a commercial based mobile system that represent the issues of scale, mobility, wireless propagation and lack of fixed infrastructure appropriately.


PHASE III: During this phase, three or more prototype TIME LANCER radios will be completed and delivered along with documentation. In addition documentation that describes the underlying methodologies, approaches, assumptions, capabilities and limitations will be provided. 


The end-state demonstrated prototypes being researched within this topic will have dual-use value in commercial and government application. Potential commercial market applications for this innovation include Homeland Defense, first-responders, and local and Federal government organizations. 


The vendor is responsible for marketing its demonstrated TIME LANCER capability for further development and maturation for potential Post-Phase II transition and integration opportunities including actual military Programs of Record and any dual-use applications to other government and industry business areas.



1. DARPA Chip Scale Atomic Clock (CSAC) program


KEYWORDS: Time, communication, chip scale atomic clock, interference, mitigation




A11-114                             TITLE: Increased 3D Virtual Image Opaqueness and Contrast Resolution in Optical See-Through

Head Mounted Displays




TITLE:  Increased 3D Virtual Image Opaqueness and Contrast Resolution in Optical See-Through Head Mounted Displays


OBJECTIVE: Improved opaqueness and contrast resolution in optical see-through Head Mounted Displays (HMD), used to produce realistic 3D imagery for augmented reality training applications.



Mixed-Augmented Reality (M-AR) provides the Warfighter with a unique and realistic training experience that blends virtual objects into the live training environment. This capability would allow soldiers operating in the live training environment to observe, interact and engage 3D virtual targets, as though real. The critical interface into this type of training environment is the head mounted display (HMD); specifically “Optical See-Through Head Mounted Displays”.


Images of virtual dynamic 3D objects projected within an optical see-through HMDs tend to be translucent, lack opaqueness and resolution; images appear “ghostly”, particularly under varying levels of luminance, both indoors and outdoors.


While several military services (e.g. DARPA, ONR, NRL, etc.) and universities and are pursuing various forms of augmented reality, most are using commercial-off-the-shelf HMDs which are generally geared toward use in aircraft and ground vehicle simulator applications. These HMDs are not suited for use in the dismounted soldier training environment, which requires an optical see-through approach. There has been no government sponsored or funded research projects found that specifically address this critical issue. 


Optical See-Through HMDs (vice Video See-Through HMDs or Virtual Reality HMDs) permit one to directly view the live environment through translucent lens (as opposed to directly viewing micro-displays) are better suited to support unrestricted movement throughout a live physical training environment. Although better than virtual reality HMDs or video see-through HMDs for future implementation of mixed/augmented reality applications in a live environment, the required physics (optics and electronics) and other issues associated with optical see-through HMDs present complicated technical challenges.


Research and develop novel and cutting-edge innovations for increasing HMD capabilities in the following technical parameters:


•  Full opaqueness at 1280×768 resolution while operating in an indoor environment.

•  No less than 50% wash out at 1280×768 resolution when moving to an outdoor environment.

•  automatic adjustment to less than 25% wash out at 1280×768 within 30 seconds after having moved to an outdoor environment.

•  Increasing Optical See-Through HMD system field of view of greater than 100deg


PHASE I: Provide a technical feasibility study, technology roadmap and system design concept addressing methods and approaches for improving and increasing levels of opaqueness and contrast resolution in optical see-through HMDs, used to produce realistic imagery of 3D virtual objects for augmented reality training applications; under varying levels of luminance. Identify and discuss potential trade-offs, limitations and cost factors involved with using and improving existing see-thru HMD designs; as well as, any new HMD designs that may provide the needed increases in fidelity.


PHASE II: Phase II (Year 1). Conduct research and development, build and demonstrate prototype(s), in a lab environment.


Phase II (Year 2). Conduct testing and implement upgrades, based on Year 1 efforts. Implement modifications and demonstrate prototype(s) in a relevant and realistic training environment.


PHASE III: There is a broad range of potential dual use applications for this type of technology, such as military training and operational applications, future training ranges, air traffic control; or commercial applications, such as medical, entertainment, transportation, security, etc. Provide a plan of action for technology transition or commercialization and identify potential sources of Phase III funding.



1. Kiyoshi Kiyokawa, Mark Billinghurst, Bruce Campbell, and Eric Woods, “An Occlusion- Capable Optical See-through Head Mount Display for Supporting Co-located Collaboration”, Proceedings. The Second IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, pp. 133–141, 7–10 October 2003


2. Christian J. Jerome and Bob G. Witmer, “The Perception and Estimation of Egocentric Distance in Real and Augmented Reality Environments”, United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Technical Report 1230, May 2008


KEYWORDS: augmented reality, mixed reality, dismounted soldier training, flexible display technology, optical see-through head/helmet mounted display, virtual immersion, virtual targets, 3D virtual imagery, live-virtual traning environments, image resolution and fidelity, virtual image display in varying luminance




A11-115                             TITLE: Heads-Up Display for Control of Unmanned Ground Vehicles


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Human Systems




OBJECTIVE: The objective is to develop a heads-up display system for use with controlling a mobile ground robot that minimizes interference with the operator’s personal situational awareness.


DESCRIPTION: Teleoperation is currently the most reliable method for operating an unmanned ground vehicle. However, there are a number of disadvantages to standard methods of teleoperation, such as losing situational awareness while immersed in a heads-down display and requiring operators to give up their weapon in exchange for a control device. This topic seeks a heads-up display that will allow operators to see video from cameras mounted on remote robots, while not unduly interfering with their personal situational awareness. The operator will likely be on foot and it is therefore necessary that the system be rugged, lightweight, and must operate effectively in dirty indoor and outdoor environments, while the operator is engaging in various physical activities. The system must not significantly impede the vision of the operator, either through the display material itself or the surrounding structure, while still providing sufficient quality video for controlling and/or monitoring an unmanned vehicle.  The system needs to operate reliably at distances up to 100 meters, in non-line-of-sight conditions, and with latency less than 100 ms.


The envisioned form factor design is an eyeglasses-like display that would provide at least 90% transmission of the incoming light. The video will most likely be displayed to only one eye, which should be user selectable. Video resolution should be at least 1.3 Megapixel, weight should be less than 200 g, and power consumption should be less than 1 W. 


Eye tracking is of equal interest for either helping direct the robot or for controlling aspects of the display. For example, it would be useful to have the video projected when the user is focusing on the display and dimmed or turned off when the user is focusing further away. The video from the robot should have variable brightness, with perhaps automatic adaptation to outside illumination. Investigation of human factors issues regarding the display of the video and the effective use of text and graphical information is also important. Approaches will be compared on the quality of the video, overall situational awareness, weight and ruggedness of the design, human factors analysis, head and eye tracking capability, text and graphics insertion, power consumption, and cost.


PHASE I: The first phase consists of the initial system design, investigation of system components, human factors analysis, recommendations of the command set for use with eyetracking, and the demonstration of feasibility. Documentation of design, such as video quality (color vs. grayscale, resolution, and frames per second), size, weight, and cost, as well as projected system performance, shall be required in the final report.   


PHASE II: The second phase consists of a final design and full implementation of the system, including a camera for a robot, communications software and hardware, and the heads-up display system. At the end of the contract, successful operation of the prototype system controlling a robot shall be demonstrated in a realistic outdoor environment. Deliverables shall include the prototype system and a final report, which shall contain documentation of all activities in the project and a user's guide and technical specifications for the prototype system.   


PHASE III: Military applications include all those that entail control of an unmanned system where heads-up capabilities are desired, such as combat engineer and infantryman.  Civilian applications include augmented reality, as well as toys and video games.



















9. Display Concepts and Technologies Session, Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays XIV: Design and Applications, SPIE Proc. 7326, Defense Security and Sensing 2009, Orlando, FL (2009).


10. A. Toet et al., "Effects of field of view on human locomotion", Head- and Helmet-Mounted Displays XIII: Design and Applications, SPIE Proc. 6955, Defense Security and Sensing 2008, Orlando, FL (2008).


11. H. Latif et al., "TeleGaze: Teleoperation through Eye Gaze", IEEE (2009).


KEYWORDS: robotics, heads-up display, head mounted display, eye tracking, optical see-through




A11-116                             TITLE: High energy/capacity cathode materials


TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles




OBJECTIVE: Develop an advanced lithium ion battery cathode with high voltage and capacity


DESCRIPTION: Lithium ion batteries have moderate energy density and moderate cycle life. The Army has interest to support lithium ion battery research to meet the present and future requirements of the warfighter. State-of-the art lithium ion batteries have limited energy density, primarily due to poor cathode performance. Since lithium ion anodes have higher capacity density as compared to cathodes, this mismatch limits the full utilization of the capability of the anode capacity. Many of the cathodes in today’s commercial lithium ion batteries have less than 600Wh/kg energy density. Battery energy density could be improved by developing a cathode with higher voltage and capacity. Some approaches have been taken to develop high voltage cathodes, but their capacity and/or cyclability are limited.  There is a need to develop new cathode materials that have high energy density and moderate service life. 


The goal of this technology development is to design, develop, and test a lithium ion battery cathode that has more than 850 Wh/kg energy density which will help to increase technical vehicle silent watch time by 15%.


PHASE I: The contractor will perform research to develop and demonstrate the proposed concept through materials preparation, analysis and testing. Phase I will address the energy density demonstration and characteristics of the cathode material. Technical reports are expected as phase I deliverables. 


PHASE II: The contractor shall demonstrate proof of the concept with the fabrication and testing of multiple lithium-ion battery cells produced with the new cathode materials. The cells can be cylindrical or prismatic cells. The cycle life of the cells shall be more than 1000 cycles, while the new cathode should demonstrate energy density be more than 850Wh/kg. Delivery shall include cathode materials and at least 4 full prototype cells (>2Ah/cell) with the new cathode for lab verification and evaluation.


PHASE III: Technology developed in this topic could be scale up for the process of making new cathode active materials, which have yet to be mass-produced for commercial and military applications. The results of the improved energy density of lithium ion batteries  should enable their incorporation into new types of military systems, as well as to provide high energy storage system for commercial applications. Potential applications of the high energy density batteries will include military vehicle silent watch, hybrid vehicles, and pulse power.


The goal in this phase will be to initiate the manufacturing processes to produce this material for lithium ion batteries and to evaluate the products for military and commercial applications.     



1. G.T. K. Fey, W. Li, J. R. Dahn, J. Electrochem. Soc., 1994, 141, 2279


2. P. G. Bruce, Chem. Comm., 1997, 1817.


3. K. Amine, H. Deng, W. Wu, I. Belharouak, and Y. K. Sun, Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Large Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Application, June 9-10, 2009.


KEYWORDS: cathode, lithium ion battery, energy density, capacity, silent watch




A11-117                             TITLE: Highly Immersive Virtual Environment (HIVE)


This topic has been removed from the solicitation.







TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics, Space Platforms


The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 3.5.b.(7) of the solicitation.


OBJECTIVE: Develop concepts and a prototype to demonstrate a passive radar payload on a nano/micro-satellite with the capability to detect, acquire, and track cruise missiles (CM) and tactical ballistic missiles (TBM).


DESCRIPTION: The US Army Strategic Missiles and Space Command and the Program Executive Office, Missile and Space proposes to develop passive radar payloads to be deployed on nano/micro-satellites for real-time surveillance, detection, acquisition and tracking of aircraft, cruise missiles (CM) and tactical ballistic missiles (TBM). Such a system would capitalize on the use of multiple, time-synchronized radar receivers to capture reflected UHF signals reflected from a target. Cell towers and Iridium satellites emitting L-band and UHF, satellites transmitting GPS information on UHF, and in the theater there will be a number of radios to include TacSat transmitting UHF reflecting off air vehicles. The time-lapse between received signals, together with three-dimensional doppler-shift analysis, can permit calculation of a target’s location, velocity, acceleration, predicted flight path, and other target parameters, and possibly include automatic target recognition. Other frequencies are also useable and encouraged as use of mulitple frequencies can provide added benefit. Faced with the significant increases in the proliferation of cruise missiles, air and missile defense systems are looking for CM defense (CMD) options. A passive radar payload on a nano/micro-satellite appears to be a cost-effective method for surveillance, detection, acquisition and tracking of manned and unmanned aircraft, CM and TBM targets. This topic supports the DoD's key technology areas of sensors (primary) and space platforms (secondary).


PHASE I: Investigate, research, analyze, and define the feasibility and the requirements and develop a Concept Of Operations (CONOPS) for deploying passive radar payloads on nano/micro-satellites for real-time surveillance, detection, acquisition and tracking of aircraft, cruise missiles (CM) and tactical ballistic missiles (TBM). During this Phase, estimate the amount of processing and power required, identify the radio frequencies and illuminators best suited to provide the optimum capabilities, identify the receivers along with the receive antennas, and determine the footprint and the number of satellites in a constellation would be required to optimum surveillance coverage.


PHASE II: Develop a prototype passive radar payload (hardware/software) and demonstrate the technologies capabilities to capture target reflected UHF signals in the space environment that can be used to detect acquire, and track conventional and stealth aircraft, CM and TBM, and provide cueing for air and missile defense sensor systems. In addition, document the passive radar interfaces with ground and space components and the interoperability required with the Joint Integrated Air and Missile Defense (JIAMD) systems, and perform a quantitative analysis and ground and launch operations and logistics cost.


PHASE III: Demonstrate a passive radar payload on a satellite for, surveillance, detection, acquisition and tracking of aircraft, cruise missiles and tactical ballistic missile detection and the potential of automatic target recognition.


PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Tracking and location for first responders to air craft accidents. Federal Aviation Agency for surveillance and tracking aircraft and for air safety if transponders fail or are turned off. Drug Enforcement Agency for surveillance and tracking aircraft and ships.  Provide accurate location sensing of mariners’ distress signals for search and rescue teams. Worldwide RF signal emissions studies for scientific applications. Range safety support for missile test ranges and for commercial satellite launches. 



1. Ringer, MA, Frazer, GJ, and Anderson, SJ, “Waveform Analysis of Transmitters of Opportunity for Passive Radar” Electronics and Surveillance Research Laboratory Salisbury, South Australia, June 99.


2. Cetin, Mujdat and Lanterman, Aaron D. “Region-Enhanced Passive Radar Imaging” U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under Grant F49620-00-0362, and the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under Grant F49620-98-1-0498 4 June 2004.


3. D. Poullin, “Passive detection using digital broadcasters (DAB, DVB) with COFDM modulation,” IEE Proc. Radar, Sonar & Navig., vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 143–152, Jun. 2005.0498.2. Curtis, R. “DoD strategy on open systems and interoperability,” StandardView, 4 (2): 104 -106, June 1996.


4. H. Kuschel, “VHF/UHF radar part 1: Characteristics,” Elect. & Comm. Eng’g. Journal, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 61–72, Apr. 2002.


5. C. R. Berger, S. Zhou, and P. Willett, “Signal extraction using compressed sensing for passive radar with OFDM signals,” in Proc. of Intl.Conf. on Information Fusion, Jun. 2008.


6. Berger, Christian R., Zhou, Willett, Peter, Demissie, Bruno, and Heckenbach, Jorg “Compressed Sensing for OFDM/MIMO Radar” University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut and Research Establishment for Applied Science (FGAN), 53343 Wachtberg, Germany.


7. Wu, Yong and Munson, David C. “Multistatic Passive Radar Imaging Using The Smoother Pseudo Wigner-Ville Distribution” University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL.


8. Lanterman, Aaron D. “Passive Radar Imaging and Target Recognition using Illuminators of Opportunity” Georgia Institute of Technology School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Atlanta, GA 30332 4 October 2004.


KEYWORDS: Radar, satellite, surveillance, detection and acquisition, and automatic target recognition.