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ACTIVE STRATEGIC TREATIES


Outer Space Treaty

Outer Space Treaty: Treaty Text

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Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies


Signed at Washington, London, Moscow, January 27, 1967
Ratification advised by U.S. Senate April 25, 1967
Ratified by U.S. President May 24, 1967
U.S. ratification deposited at Washington, London, and Moscow October 10, 1967
Proclaimed by U.S. President October 10, 1967
Entered into force October 10, 1967

The States Parties to this Treaty,

Inspired by the great prospects opening up before mankind as a result of mans entry into outer space,

Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,

Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should be carried on for the benefit of all peoples irrespective of the degree of their economic or scientific development,

Desiring to contribute to broad international co-operation in the scientific as well as the legal aspects of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,

Believing that such co-operation will contribute to the development of mutual understanding and to the strengthening of friendly relations between States and peoples,

Recalling resolution 1962 (XVIII), entitled "Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space," which was adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 1963,

Recalling resolution 1884 (XVIII), calling upon States to refrain from placing in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction or from installing such weapons on celestial bodies, which was adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly on 17 October 1963,

Taking account of United Nations General Assembly resolution 110 (II) of 3 November 1947, which condemned propaganda designed or likely to provoke or encourage any threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression, and considering that the aforementioned resolution is applicable to outer space,

Convinced that a Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, will further the Purposes and Principles of the Charter of the United Nations,

Have agreed on the following:


Article I

The exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and shall be the province of all mankind.

Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall be free for exploration and use by all States without discrimination of any kind, on a basis of equality and in accordance with international law, and there shall be free access to all areas of celestial bodies.

There shall be freedom of scientific investigation in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, and States shall facilitate and encourage international co-operation in such investigation.


Article II

Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.


Article III

States Parties to the Treaty shall carry on activities in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations, in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and promoting international co-operation and understanding.


Article IV

States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner.

The Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used by all States Parties to the Treaty exclusively for peaceful purposes. The establishment of military bases, installations and fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct of military maneuvers on celestial bodies shall be forbidden. The use of military personnel for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes shall not be prohibited. The use of any equipment or facility necessary for peaceful exploration of the Moon and other celestial bodies shall also not be prohibited.


Article V

States Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space and shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident, distress, or emergency landing on the territory of another State Party or on the high seas. When astronauts make such a landing, they shall be safely and promptly returned to the State of registry of their space vehicle.

In carrying on activities in outer space and on celestial bodies, the astronauts of one State Party shall render all possible assistance to the astronauts of other States Parties.

States Parties to the Treaty shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the Treaty or the Secretary-General of the United Nations of any phenomena they discover in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, which could constitute a danger to the life or health of astronauts.


Article VI

States Parties to the Treaty shall bear international responsibility for national activities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in the present Treaty. The activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty. When activities are carried on in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, by an international organization, responsibility for compliance with this Treaty shall be borne both by the international organization and by the States Parties to the Treaty participating in such organization.


Article VII

Each State Party to the Treaty that launches or procures the launching of an object into outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and each State Party from whose territory or facility an object is launched, is internationally liable for damage to another State Party to the Treaty or to its natural or juridical persons by such object or its component parts on the Earth, in air space or in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies.


Article VIII

A State Party to the Treaty on whose registry an object launched into outer space is carried shall retain jurisdiction and control over such object, and over any personnel thereof, while in outer space or on a celestial body. Ownership of objects launched into outer space, including objects landed or constructed on a celestial body, and of their component parts, is not affected by their presence in outer space or on a celestial body or by their return to the Earth. Such objects or component parts found beyond the limits of the State Party to the Treaty on whose registry they are carried shall be returned to that State Party, which shall, upon request, furnish identifying data prior to their return.


Article IX

In the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, States Parties to the Treaty shall be guided by the principle of co-operation and mutual assistance and shall conduct all their activities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, with due regard to the corresponding interests of all other States Parties to the Treaty. States Parties to the Treaty shall pursue studies of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contamination and also adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extraterrestrial matter and, where necessary, shall adopt appropriate measures for this purpose. If a State Party to the Treaty has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by it or its nationals in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities of other States Parties in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, it shall undertake appropriate international consultations before proceeding with any such activity or experiment. A State Party to the Treaty which has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment.


Article X

In order to promote international co-operation in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, in conformity with the purposes of this Treaty, the States Parties to the Treaty shall consider on a basis of equality any requests by other States Parties to the Treaty to be afforded an opportunity to observe the flight of space objects launched by those States.

The nature of such an opportunity for observation and the conditions under which it could be afforded shall be determined by agreement between the States concerned.


Article XI

In order to promote international co-operation in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, States Parties to the Treaty conducting activities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, agree to inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations as well as the public and the international scientific community, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable, of the nature, conduct, locations and results of such activities. On receiving the said information, the Secretary-General of the United Nations should be prepared to disseminate it immediately and effectively.


Article XII

All stations, installations, equipment and space vehicles on the Moon and other celestial bodies shall be open to representatives of other States Parties to the Treaty on a basis of reciprocity. Such representatives shall give reasonable advance notice of a projected visit, in order that appropriate consultations may be held and that maximum precautions may be taken to assure safety and to avoid interference with normal operations in the facility to be visited.


Article XIII

The provisions of this Treaty shall apply to the activities of States Parties to the Treaty in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried on by a single State Party to the Treaty or jointly with other States, including cases where they are carried on within the framework of international intergovernmental organizations.

Any practical questions arising in connection with activities carried on by international inter-governmental organizations in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be resolved by the States Parties to the Treaty either with the appropriate international organization or with one or more States members of that international organization, which are Parties to this Treaty.


Article XIV  

1. This Treaty shall be open to all States for signature. Any State which does not sign this Treaty before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time.

2. This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are hereby designated the Depositary Governments.

3. This Treaty shall enter into force upon the deposit of instruments of ratification by five Governments including the Governments designated as Depositary Governments under this Treaty.

4. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this Treaty, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession.

5. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification of and accession to this Treaty, the date of its entry into force and other notices.

6. This Treaty shall be registered by the Depositary Governments pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.


Article XV

Any State Party to the Treaty may propose amendments to this Treaty. Amendments shall enter into force for each State Party to the Treaty accepting the amendments upon their acceptance by a majority of the States Parties to the Treaty and thereafter for each remaining State Party to the Treaty on the date of acceptance by it.


Article XVI

Any State Party to the Treaty may give notice of its withdrawal from the Treaty one year after its entry into force by written notification to the Depositary Governments. Such withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of receipt of this notification.


Article XVII

This Treaty, of which the English, Russian, French, Spanish and Chinese texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments. Duly certified copies of this Treaty shall be transmitted by the Depositary Governments to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Treaty.

DONE in triplicate, at the cities of Washington, London and Moscow, this twenty-seventh day of January one thousand nine hundred sixty-seven.

OUTER SPACE TREATY

Country

Date 1 of 
Signature

Date of 
Deposit 1 of
Ratification

Date of 
Deposit 1 of 
Accession

Afghanistan

01/27/67

03/21/88

 

Antigua and Barbuda

 

 

01/01/81

Argentina

01/27/67

03/26/69

 

Australia

01/27/67

10/10/67

 

Austria

02/20/67

02/26/68

 

Bahamas, The

 

 

08/11/76

Bangladesh

 

 

01/17/86

Barbados

 

 

09/12/68

Belgium

01/27/67

03/30/73

 

Benin

 

 

06/19/86

Bolivia

01/27/67

 

 

Botswana

01/27/67

 

 

Brazil

01/30/67

03/05/69

 

Brunei

 

 

01/18/84

Bulgaria

01/27/67

 

 03/28/67

Burkina Faso

03/03/67

06/18/68

 

Burma

05/22/67

03/18/70

 

Burundi

01/27/67

 

 

Byelorussian S.S.R.2

02/10/67

10/31/67

 

Cameroon

01/27/67

 

 

Canada

01/27/67

10/10/67

 

Central African Republic

01/27/67

 

 

Chile

01/27/67

10/08/81

 

China, People's Republic of

 

 

12/30/83

China (Taiwan)4

01/27/67

07/24/70

 

Colombia

01/27/67

 

 

Cuba

 

 

06/03/77

Cyprus

01/27/67

07/05/72

 

Czechoslovakia

01/27/67

05/11/67

 

Denmark

01/27/67

10/10/67

 

Dominica

 

 

 11/08/78

Dominican Republic

01/27/67

11/21/68

 

Ecuador

01/27/67

03/07/69

 

Egypt

01/27/67

10/10/67

 

El Salvador

01/27/67

01/15/69

 

Ethiopia

01/27/67

 

 

Fiji

 

 

07/14/72 

Finland

01/27/67

07/12/67

 

France

09/25/67

08/05/70

 

Gambia, The

06/02/67

 

 

German Democratic Republic

01/27/67

02/02/67

 

Germany, Federal Republic of

01/27/67

02/10/71

 

Ghana

01/27/67

 

 

Greece

01/27/67

01/19/71

 

Grenada

 

 

 02/07/74

Guinea-Bissau

 

 

 08/20/76

Guyana

02/03/67

 

 

Haiti

01/27/67

 

 

Holy See

04/05/67

 

 

Honduras

01/27/67

 

 

Hungary

01/27/67

06/26/67

 

Iceland

01/27/67

02/05/68

 

India

03/03/67

01/18/82

 

Indonesia

01/27/67

 

 

Iran

01/27/67

 

 

Iraq

02/27/67

12/04/68

 

Ireland

01/27/67

07/17/68

 

Israel

01/27/67

02/18/77

 

Italy

01/27/67

05/04/72

 

Jamaica

06/29/67

08/06/70

 

Japan

01/27/67

10/10/67

 

Jordan

02/02/67

 

 

Kenya

 

 

 01/19/84

Korea, Republic of

01/27/67

10/13/67

 

Kuwait

 

 

 06/07/72

Laos

01/27/67

11/27/72

 

Lebanon

02/23/67

03/31/69

 

Lesotho

01/27/67

 

 

Libya

 

 

 7/03/68

Luxembourg

01/27/67

 

 

Madagascar

 

 

 08/22/68

Malaysia

02/20/67

 

 

Mali

 

 

 06/11/68

Mauritius

 

 

 04/07/69

Mexico

01/27/67

01/31/68

 

Mongolia

01/27/67

10/10/67

 

Morocco

 

 

 12/21/67

Nepal

02/03/67

10/10/67

 

Netherlands

02/10/67

10/10/69

 

New Zealand

01/27/67

05/31/68

 

Nicaragua

01/27/67

 

 

Niger

02/01/67

04/17/67

 

Nigeria

 

 

 11/14/67

Norway

02/03/67

07/01/69

 

Pakistan

09/12/67

04/08/68

 

Panama

01/27/67

 

 

Papua New Guinea

 

 

 10/27/80

Peru

06/30/67

02/28/79

 

Philippines

01/27/67

 

 

Poland

01/27/67

01/30/68

 

Romania

01/27/67

04/09/68

 

Rwanda

01/27/67

 

 

Saint Christopher-Nevis

 

 

 09/19/83

Saint Lucia

 

 

 02/22/79

San Marino

04/21/67

10/29/68

 

Saudi Arabia

 

 

 12/17/76

Seychelles

 

 

 01/05/78

Sierra Leone

01/27/67

07/13/67

 

Singapore

 

 

 09/10/76

Solomon Islands

 

 

 07/07/78

Somalia

02/02/67

 

 

South Africa

03/01/67

09/30/68

 

Spain

 

 

 11/27/68

Sri Lanka

03/10/69

11/18/86

 

Swaziland

 

 

 10/22/68

Sweden

01/27/67

10/11/67

 

Switzerland

01/27/67

12/18/69

 

Syria

 

 

 11/19/68

Thailand

01/27/67

09/05/68

 

Togo

01/27/67

 

 

Tonga

 

 

06/22/71 

Trinidad and Tobago

07/24/67

 

 

Tunisia

01/27/67

03/28/68

 

Turkey

01/27/67

03/27/68

 

Uganda

 

 

 04/24/68

Ukrainian S.S.R.2

02/10/67

10/31/67

 

Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics

01/27/67

10/10/67

 

United Kingdom

01/27/67

10/10/67

 

United States

01/27/67

10/10/67

 

Uruguay

01/27/67

08/31/70

 

Venezuela

01/27/67

03/03/70

 

Vietnam

 

 

 06/20/80

Yemen, People's Democratic 
Republic of (Aden)

 

 

 06/01/79

Yugoslavia

01/27/67

 

 

Zaire

01/27/67

 

 

Zambia

 

 

 08/20/73

Total 3

91

62

36   


1 Dates given are the earliest dates on which countries signed the agreements or deposited their ratifications or accessions -- whether in Washington, London, Moscow, or New York. In the case of a country that was a dependent territory which became a party through succession, the date given is the date on which the country gave notice that it would continue to be bound by the terms of the agreement.

2 The United States regards the signature and ratification by the Byelorussian S.S.R. and the Ukrainian S.S.R. as already included under the signature and ratification of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

3 This total does not include actions by the Byelorussian S.S.R. and the Ukrainian S.S.R. (See footnote 2.)

4 Effective January 1, 1979, the United States recognized the Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole government of China.