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Global Exchange of Military Information (GEMI): Executive Summary
TC Home > Treaties > Global Exchange of Military Information - Table of Contents > Executive Summary

Agreement Name: Global Exchange of Military Information (GEMI)

Signed by the United States: 1994

Background: The Global Exchange of Military Information (GEMI) is a politically binding transparency measure implemented under the auspices of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The agreement to exchange information on military force structure originated from a proposal contained in the 1992 Helsinki Document's Programme for Immediate Action. Participating States of the OSCE agreed to the GEMI at the 1994 OSCE Review Conference in Budapest. The first of the annual data exchanges was held on July 1, 1995.

Agreement Objectives: GEMI is designed to promote openness and confidence-building among participants by providing information on national military forces regardless of location.

Agreement Provisions: GEMI calls for an annual exchange of information between OSCE states on the command structure, peacetime authorized personnel strengths, and global holdings of specified military equipment. GEMI does not contain constraints or verification procedures. Discussions regarding the agreement are held within the OSCE's Forum for Security Cooperation (FSC).

Information Exchange: The data for the annual exchange of information is due each year by April 30 and covers the preceding calendar year. Personnel and equipment holdings are reported both in the aggregate and by geographical region. Ground, air, and naval forces and equipment pieces are reported in five geographical regions: 1) Europe, 2) East Asia and the Pacific, 3) North Africa, the Near East, and South Asia, 4) Sub-Saharan Africa, and 5) the Western Hemisphere. Force totals are reported in nine categories: battle tanks, armored combat vehicles (with the following sub-categories: armored personnel carriers, armored infantry fighting vehicles, and heavy armament combat vehicles), armored vehicle launched bridges, anti-tank guided missile launchers, self-propelled and towed artillery, aircraft (with the following sub-categories: combat aircraft, military transport aircraft, and primary trainer aircraft), helicopters (with the following sub-categories: attack helicopters, combat support helicopters, and military transport helicopters), surface warships, and submarines. Concurrent to the annual exchange of information, Participating States are also required to provide photographs and related technical data for all new equipment systems meeting the definitions of the aforementioned categories for equipment that entered into service during the previous calendar year.


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